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The 



MECHANICS 
I y..^..^. .. A 

IS 



COMPISIB 






Processes for Arti 

In Every Trade .* <t 




K. Wl N i 



GIFT OF 
.V. K. '^interhalter 




UNIVERSITY FARM 



R E V I SEP UP-TO-DATE EDIT I ON 
THE 

Mechanics' 
Complete Library 

OF , 

MODERN RULES, FACTS, PROCESSES, ETC, 

Facts About Electricity How to Make and Run Dynamos 
All About Batteries, Telephones, Electric Railways and 
Lighting Engineering Explained Rules for the In- 
struction of Engineers, Firemen, flachinists 
Mechanics. Artisians and all Craftsmen- 
Tables of Alloy -Useful Recipes In- 
formation Concerning Glass, fletal, 
Wood Working, Leather, Arti- 
ficial Ice-making, Chemical 
Experiments, Glossary 
of Technical Terms, 
Etc., Etc. 



FIVE BOOKS IN ONE 



^w COMPILED BY 

THOMAS F. EDISON A.M., and CHARLES J. WESTINGHOUSE 



COPYRIGHT, 1890, BY LAIRD & LEE 
COPYRIGHT. 1895. BY LAIRD & LEE 



CHICAGO 

LAIRD & LEE, Publishers. 

1897. 



CONTENTS. 

Accidents by Shafting, to prevent 130 

Accidents from Running Machinery, prevention of 127-130 

Accidents, how to prevent 147 

A'r-Brake, Westinghouse Automatic 39- 74 

Alloy, a new 226, 284 

Alloys and Solders i8d 

Alloys, table of principal 424 

Altitude above the sea level of various places in the United States 424 

Aluminum, how to solder 368 

American Steamers, fast 189 

Ampere the (electrical measure) 538 

Ampere' s Rule 487 

Analysis of Boiler Incrustations 155 

" Ancient " Winters 559 

Apprentice^points for 301 

Architects, laws effecting. . . '. 442 

Architects, etc., pointers for 420, 421 

Areas of Circles " 351 

Armor Plates, tests of 215 

Artesian Wells, valuable 344 

Ash Sifter, how made 382 

Atmosphere, effects on bricks 437 

Atmosphere, estimated mean pressure 55 

Automatic Sprinklers, care of 185 

Avoirdupois weight 356 

Babbitt Metal, composition of 369 

Ball, cast iron, weight of 282 

Ball, how to turn a 209 

Bank of England Doors, the 560 

Barrels, how made 234 

Basswood Moldings 445 

Batteries, closed circuit (electrical) 536 

Batteries, electric 536 

Batteries, galvanic 536 

Batteries, open circuit (electrical) 536 



Batteries, primary (electrical) ^ 536 

Batteries, storage or secondary (electrical) 537 

Batteries, voltaic 536 

Bell Time on Shipboard 555 

Belting, camel's hair 289 

Belting, how to calculate'speed 332 

Belting, notes on 80 

Belting Rules , 80-82 

Bessemer Process, real inventor of 220 

Blowing Off Under Pressure 152 

Boilers (see Steam Boilers) 45 

Boiler Circumferences, points on 88 

Boilers, Steam 45 

Boiler Tubes, cleaning .- 155 

Boiling 145 

Bolts, weight per 100 207 

Brass, cleaning 155 

Brass, its treatment - -3 2 3~~3 2 5 

Brass, how to lacquer 219 

Brass Castings, hard and ductile 186 

Brass, weight of sheet 196, 197 

Breaking Strains of Metals 282 

Bricks, effects of atmosphere upon 437 

Bricks, made from refuse of slate quarries 337 

Bricks, number of, to construct building 439 

Hand Saw, how to select a 292 

Bronze, how to make malleable 288 

Building Blocks Made of Corn Cobs 445 

Builders, points for 411-413 

Buying Oil and Coal 317 

Cables, submarine 278-282 

Calcimine, how to prepare 445 

Calking - 3M 

CamePs Hair Belting 285-289 

Cans, flat- top, size and weight 4^ 

Carpenters, number m London, etc 337 

Cast Iron Columns 3^7 

Cast Iron Columns, safe load for. , 349> 35 

Cast Iron Columns, safety load .362-364 

Cast Iron Columns, weight of 353> 354 



Cast Iron Piles, ar^on of sea-water 210 

Cast Iron Pipes, weight of. 410 

Cast Iron, weight of per lineal fov.\v 205 

Cathedrals, dimensions of 44! 

Celluloid Sheathing ^5 

Cement, a new 284 

Cement, a reliable 446 

Cement, as used in Paris 044 

Cement for Granite Monuments 304 

Cements, useful ^4 

Centigrade and Metrical Equivalents 283 

Chicago Auditorium, description 416-418 

Chimneys, how to cure smoky 459-461 

Chimney, one that will draw 369 

Chimneys, sweating of 4-8 

Chimneys, table of go 

Chinese Cash 4r 4 

China, cost of living in 367 

Chisels, Cold 75 - 77 

Circles, area of '."... 35 r 

Circles, circumferences of ^52 

Cisterns, cylindrical, capacity of 292 

Cisterns, cylindrical, capacity per foot 365- 

Cleaning Brass x -$ 

Clock Movement, self-winding 307-310 

Closed Circuit Batteries (electrical) 536 

Coal, a large lump of 2Q7 

Coal, consumption of by railroads 430 

Coal, how combustion is produced 291 

Coaling Ships in West 1 ndies 384 

Coal, steam x^i 

Coins of Different Countries x 72, 1 73 

leather, making japanned 218 

Colors, suggestions for 441 

Cold Chisels 75- 77 

Combustibility of Iron Proved 271 

Combustion, spontaneous 136-139, 297 

Combustion, spontaneous, liable to 291 

Common Names of Chemical Substances 563 

Compass Why it varies 227 

Conductors (electrical) 535 

Copper, deoxidized . . . .^ 217 



Copper, tenacity and loss 336 

Copper, weight of sheet 196, 197 

Corliss Engine Valves, how to adjust 27 

Counter-boring, tool for 311 

Crystallized Tin Plates 373 

Cubic Measure 355 

Cube Roots, tables of 107-110 

Dam, largest in the world 559 

Dampers, Oval 400 

Deafness caused by Electric Lights 297 

Deep Soundings near Friendly Islands 414 

Decimal Equivalents 187 

Decimal Equivalents for inches, feet, etc 442 

Decimal Equivalents for ounces and pounds 442 

Deoxidized Copper 217 

Dies, metal working 326-331 

Definitions and useful terms 91 

Dry Rot in Timber 429 

Dynamo, the, how to make one 478-531 

What a Dynamo is 478 

Faraday's Discovery 478 

The Galvanometer 479 

How to make one *. 479 

Permanent Magnets 481 

Testing the Galvanometer 482 

Experiments with one 483 

Experiments with a Magnet 485 

The Magnetic Poles 486 

Currents produce Magnetism 486 

Ampere's Rule 487 

The first Dynamo 488 

Clarke' s Dynamo 489 

Function of the Commutator 490 

Hjorth's Dynamo 492 

Sieman's Armature 493 

Currents not Continuous 494 

Magnetism produces Heat 495 

Pacinotti's Ring Armature , 496 

Patterns for a Dynamo 497 

Pattern for Armature 498 

Drawings for Armature $09 



Patterns for Field Magnets 501 

Drawings for Field Magnets 500-503 

Patterns for Standard 504 

Drawings for Standard 504 

The Castings 505 

Assembling the Castings 506 

The Bearings 510 

The Commutator 513 

The Driving Gear 516 

Wiring the Dynamo, 518 

Wiring the Armature 518 

Wiring the Field Magnets 520 

Attachment of Wires 525 

The Brushes 526 

Binding Screws and Connections 528 

The Complete Dynamo 531 

Dynamo, the, what it is 478 

Dynamo, Management of the 532 

Eccentric, Locomotive, how to set 89 

Economy in Use of Injectors 131 

Eiffel Tower, the 437 

Elbow, four piece, to describe a pattern for 383 

Elbow Angles, table of height 380 

Electric Batteries (see batteries) 536 

Electric Experiments 536 

Electrical Measurements 538 

Electricity, development of 211 

Electricity Developed by Chemical Action 535 

Electricity Simplified 533 

Electricity, frictional 534 

Electricity, negative 534 

Electricity, positive 534 

Electricity, voltaic and galvanic 535 

Electricity, what is it? 535 

Electric Hand Lantern 242 

Electric Lights in Germany 45b 

Electric Lights, largest in the world 476 

Electric Light, some figures - . 238 

Electric Machine 535 

Electric Railroad 282 

Electric Street Railways, cost of 228 



8 

Electro-Magnetism 486 

Emery Wheels, value of 273 

Engines (see Steam Engines) 23 

Engines, comparative economy of high and low speed 116 

Engines, manipulation of new 167 

Engines, triple expansion 168 

Engine, use of Indicator 30- 42 

Engineers, a warning to 189 

Engineers, pointers for. ." 169 

Engineers, valuable information for 161 

Experiment, an interesting 319 

Experiment, electrical 536 

Explosion of Hot Water Boiler 391-394 

Explosions, boiler in Germany 185 

Expansion of Substances by Heat 206 

Eve Trough, making 379 

Feed Water Heaters 84 

Ferrules, how to draw 305 

Figures, valuable 448 

Filter, a cheap 368 

Fire Grate Surface, rule for finding 47 

Firemen, rules for 140 

Fire Proofing Wood Work 440 

Flange Joint, how to make a strong 122 

Flaring Articles with Round Corners 376-379 

Flaring Oval Articles, patterns for 375, 376 

F! :xible Glass 237 

Floor, how to make a good 425 

Floors, how to wax 338 

Floors, painting 430 

Floors, painting and varnishing 456 

Flower Stand, a wire 385 

Foaming in Boilers 144 

Forests of the United States 423 

Forth Bridge, description of the new 558 

French Cubic Measure 355 

French Long Measure 358 

French Square Measure 357 

French Weights '. 356 

Friction of Water in Pipes 55 

Fuel, heating powers of 211 



Funnel Marks of the Principal Atlantic and Transatlantic Steam- 
ship Lines 554 

Furnaces, facts about 461 

Galvanic Batteries 536 

Galvanic Electricity 536 

Galvanometer, the 479 

Galvanometer, ho\v to make 479-483 

Gamboge, how prepared 562 

Gas for Locomotives 165 

Gas Leakage, how to detect it 555 

Gauges, Railway . 170 

Gauges, Steam 146 

Gear Teeth, how to prevent breaking 269 

Gearing, high speed 290 

Geometry, practical for mechanics 98 

Glass Cutting by Electricity 296 

Glass, flexible 237 

Glass, frosted.. .- 448 

Glass, how to perforate 289 

Glossary of Technical Terms 565 

Glue for Damp Places 426 

Glue, on the use of 436 

Glue Paint for Kitchen Floors 436 

Granite, polishing 342 

Graphite, in steam fitting , 141 

Grindstone, how to make a small .-., 79 

Grindstone Quarries 344 

Grindstones, to find weight of. 423 

Gun Barrels, browning them _ 297 

Guns, large ones made 296 

Hand-hole P lates 145 

Hardware in Havana... 373 

Heat, amount of, required to melt wrought iron 268 

Heat, divisions of degrees 160 

Heat, expansion of substances by 206 

Heat Produced by Rapid Magnetization 495 

Heat-proof Paints 408 

Heat, what is latent heat? , . . . 157 

Heating and Ventilation 386-390 

Heating Power of Fuel 2x1 



Heating, steam 154 

Heating, steam -vs. hot water 462-464 

Heating Surface of Boilers 47 

Heating Surface, steam radiators 369 

High-speed Gearing 290 

Hip Bath in Two Pieces: 406, 407 

Horse-power of Belting 82 

Horse-power, nominal, indicated, effective 142 

Horse-power of Steam Boilers 46, 47 

Horse-power of Steam Engines 23, 1 30 

Horses, Strength of 559 

Hot Water Systems 368 

How to CaSt. a Face 284 

Hudson Bay Company 344 

Ice House, how to build 444 

Incrustations of Steam Boiler 146 

Indicator, Steam Engine 30- 42 

Indicator, description 30 

Indicator, method of indicating 31 

Indicator, driving rigging 32 

Indicator, diagrams 34 

Indicator, uses of 35 

Indicator, tables for 39 

Indicator, taking diagrams 40 

Indicator, special instructions 41 

Indicator, computing horse-power 42 

Injector, economy in the use of. 131 

Injectors, how to set up 53 

Injectors, suggestions regarding 53 

Insulators (electrical) 535 

Iron and Steel, average breaking strain 159 

Iron and Steel Making in India 275 

Iron Brick 428 

Iron Castings, facts about , 23 c 

Iron Castings, how to bronze 336 

Iron, combustibility of, proved 271 

Iron, different colors, caused by heat 305 

Iron, flat-rolled, weight per foot 198-203 

Iron, how it breaks 272 

Iron in the Congo 296 

Iron, Russian sheet 474 



II 

Iron, new method of bronzing 473 

Iron, painting of. 

Iron, removing rust 

Iron, weight and areas of I 9 C 

Iron, weigh t of sheet 196,19? 

Isinglass, facts about * 

Ivory Gloss, how to put on wood 3j 

Japanese Lacquer for Iron Ship* 5 

Japanese Water Pipes 2I 

Lacquer, Japanese, for iron ships 2 - 

Lap on Slide Valves "" 

Latent Heat, what is it? 

Lathe, how to gear for screw-cutting 3 

Lathe Tools for Metals 

Law Affecting Architects 4 J 

Law of Proportion in Steam Boilers ie 

Law, Swiss Patent 277 

Lead, ancient use of. 

Lead on Roofs and in Sinks 35 

Lead Pipes, caliber and weight * 

Leather, new substitute for ^ 

Lightning Rods, uselessness of 5 * 

Lock , largest in the world 5 2 

Telephones ;;_; " *jj* 

Locomotive, an experiment with one. ....:.- 

Locomotive, eccentric, how to set * 

Locomotive, gas for . 

Ice Making, artificial I74 

Locomotives in 1832 and 1888 74 

ocg 

Long Measure 

Lubricating without oil 3 ' 

Lumber Measurement Tables 

Lumber, oak, care of 

Machinery, prevention of accidents by I27 



12 

Machinery, care of 143 

Magnetic Poles, north and south 480 

Magnets , 486 

Magnetism 531 

Magnetism, Electro 531-478 

Magnetism, effect on watches 230-234 

Magnetism, Faraday's discovery 478 

Magnetization, rapid, produces heat 495 

Mahogany, value of 341 

Malleable Iron, to tin 370 

Management of a Dynamo 532 

Manilla Rope Transmission 184 

Mathematics, definitions and useful numbers 91 

Measures of Different Countries 171 

Measurements, electrical 538 

Melting Points of Metals 285 

Mensuration 94 

Metals, meltings points of 285 

Metals, value of. 287 

Metrical and Centrigrade Equivalents 283 

Mica, uses of . .*. 468 

Mineral Wool 225 

Mitering, perfect 449-451 

Miter, to describe a 382 

Molders, a Valuable point for 283 

Monetary Units and Standard Coins of Different Countries... 172, 173 

Mortar Making 427 

Mud Drums, pitting of 159 

Nails, ten-penny, what a pound will do 427 

Nails, number of, in a pound 337 

Natural Gas, use of, in cupolas 284 

Nickel Plating 226 

Nickel Plating Solution 226 

Nickel Plating, to polish 374 

Non-conductors (electrical) 535 

Non-magnetizable Watches 218 

Novel Drawing Instrument 403 

Nuts, square, number in a keg 268 

Nuts, hexagon, number in a keg 269 

Oak Lumber, care of 339 



13 

" Of Course," for engineers 26 

Ohm, the (electrical) 53^ 

Oil and Coal Buying 3 J 7 

Old Tins No Longer Useless v 37* 

Open Circuit Batteries (electrical) 53 6 

Oval Damper, how to make 4 

Oval of Any Length, how to strike 3 8 5 

Q V . ; ,v^, S<2.v,9/:e aa<i Circle 39 

Paint, a durable black - 47 

Paint, a valuable preservative * 

Paint, heat proof 4 8 

Paint Work 4 l8 

Painting Floors 43 

Paper Holder, an ornamental.. 36 

Paper Makers, valuable points for 5.6* 

Patent Office, United States, rules and regulations 545 

PATENTS, a few points for inventors regarding 545 

Correspondence with Patent Office 545 

Applicants 545 

In case of death of inventor 54^ 

In case Patent is assigned 54 

Joint inventors 54$ 

Foreign Patents 54 

The Application - 54 6 

The Petition 547 

The Specification 547 

The Oath 548 

The Drawings 549 

Kind of paper 549 

Size of sheet 549 

Regarding Drawings 55 

The Scale 55<> 

The Model 55* 

Attorneys 55 1 

Patent Office Fees 55* 

Patent Laws, Swiss 2 77 

Patterns for a Dynamo 497~55 

Pattern for a Tapering Square Article 44 

Pattern for a T Joint 4* 

Patterns, how to mend 2 * 

Pattern Making, hints on 2 & 



Pattern Making, notes on 3!g 

Pavements 447 

Pipes, cold water supply 431-434 

Pipes, cast iron, weight of 410 

Pipes, lead, caliber and weight . ' 334 

Pipes, steam, a non-conducting coating for 134 

Pipes, to find amount for heating buildings 434 

Pipes, how to thaw out 126 

Pipes, steel, tests of 310 

Plane Iron, how to sharpen 340 

Planing Machines 22} 

Plaster, a new wall 446 

Plastering, estimating cost of. 413 

Plaster for Moldings 457 

Pointers for Success in Business 556 

Poles, the magnetic 480 

Power, transmitting by vacuum : . 136 

Pressure, atmospheric mean 55 

Primary Batteries (electrical) 536 

Principles of Boiler Construction 148 

Proportions for Steam Boilers 166 

Proof of the Earth's Motion 227 

Proposed Engineering Feat 435 

Pulleys, rule for width and diameter 82 

Pumps (see Steam Pump) 54 

Pumice Stone, how made 266 

Rails, steel 350 

Railroads, consumption of coal 430 

Railroads, electric, in Japan 325 

Railroad, electric, largest in country 282 

Railroad Signals 183 

Railway Gauges of the World 170 

Railway Transit, rapid 134 

Redwood Finish 446 

Reservoir, tapering, round-cornered one . 401 

Rivets, boiler, number per loo-pound keg 336 

Rivets, weight of 204 

Rock, cost of excavating - . . 428 

Roof Framing, hip and valley. 455 

Rope, how to select 293 

Rope, length per coil, and weight 288 



15 

Rope Transmission in England 4 

Rot in Timbers _ 43 

Rule to find area steam piston of pumps 56 

Rules for Belting: 

To find length and width 80 

To calculate horse-power 82 

To find width of pulley 8 

To find diameter of pulley 82 

To find number of revolutions 82 

Rule To find capacity of water cylinder of pumps 56 

Rule To find diameter of cylinder for required horse-power. 24 

Rule To find diameter pump cylinder 55 

Rule General rule for all classes of boilers 49 

Rule To find height for discharging given quantity of water. 51 

Rule To find fire grate surface of boiler 47 

Rule To find fire grate surface of locomotive boiler 47 

Rule To find heating surface boiler 47 

Rule To find heating surface of locomotive boiler 47 

Rule To find horse-power of boiler 46 

Rule To find horse-power locomotive boiler 47 

Rule To find indicated horse-power of engines 24 

Rule To determine lap on steam side slide valve 25 

Rule To find horse-power for elevating water ,56 

Rule To find quantity of water to be discharged 56 

Rule To find quantity water elevated 55 

Rule To find pressure of a column of water 54 

Rule To find size orifice to discharge given quantities water 56 

Rule for Firemen 140 

Rules and Regulations for Properly Wiring and Installing 

Electric Light Plants 539 

Moisture danger 539 

Earth danger 540 

Ignorance, etc 540 

Consulting Engineer 540 

Conductors 540 

Sectional area 540 

Acr ^sibility 540 

Insulate * 540 

Maximum tei. ~^ature . 540 

Distance apart 541 

Inflammable structures 541 



i6 

Metallic armor ... 541 

Joints , . . . . , , 541 

Gas and water pipes 541 

Overhead conductors . 541 

Lightning protectors . 541 

Insulation resistance . . 542 

Switches 542 

Construction and action , . 542 

Insulating handles , 542 

Main switches 542 

Switch boards 542 

Electrical fitting , ..... 54* 

Cut outs , . . 543 

Imperative use of 543 

Situation . . T . . . . - . 543 

Portable fittings . . . 543 

Arc lamps ....<.. 543 

The dynamo. ....... 544 

Batteries , .. .. 544 

Maintenance . . . 544 

General ......... 544 

Rust, how to remove from iron . 222 

Rust-Proof Wrapping Paper. ........=. . . . . , 406 

Rusty Steel, to clean ... ,...<= . , . c . . . < *..<>.....;..,-. 238 

Safety Valves . c ....... . . . . , . . ........ . . .49, 50 

Safety Valve, rule for weights c ... c .......... 119 

Saturated Steam, properties of. , . ...... .0 150 

Screw Auger, inventor of 405 

Screw Cutting, how to gear a lathe for no 

Screw Drivers, an improved ...... 229 

Screw Heads, how to bury out of sight. 455 

Screw Making at Providence , 298-300 

Screw Threads, table of gears for cutting. ...... c 243-264 

Sea Water, action of on, cast iron piles. ... .. O o.. ot .............. 210 

Watch, facts about 325 

Shafting, accidents by 130 

Shafting, an easy way to level 307 

Shafting, belting at right angles ....., . 306 

Shafting, things to remember. ........o..o.. eo.eooec..o. ....320 321 

Sheathing celluloid . o........... 135 

Shingles, to calculate number of.. .... <>. 44- 



Shop Kinks, useful , . .T 395-398 

Signals, railway 183 

Sleepers Used by World's Railroads 409 

Slide Valves, how to set 24 

Slide Valves, setting of 87 

Smoke, how formed 156 

Smokey Chimneys, how to cure 459-461 

Soda Ash in Boilers 150 

Soldering 4jn 

Solder, cold 370 

Solders and Alloys 186 

Soldering, points on ...... 473 

Specific Gravity, table of i-4 

Spindle-milling Machine 390 

Spontaneous Combustion 136-297 

Spontaneous Combustion, liable to 291 

Square Measure 357 

Square Roots, table of 107-1 10 

Steam as a Cleansing Agent 168 

Steam, an invisible gas 126 

STEAM BOILERS, analysis of incrustations 155 

Boiling 145 

Blowing off under pressure 152 

Care of 55 

Calking 124 

Cleaning tubes 155 

Foaming 144 

Hand-hole plates . 145 

Horse power :'. 46 

How plates are proved 179 

How to prevent accidents 147 

How to test 162 

Importaant to those operating 147 

Incrustations of 146 

Kinds of 45 

Largest in America 122 

Law of proportions 160 

Marine 47 

Mistakes in designing 158 

Principles of construction 148 

Proportions for, 166 

Rules for 47, 32 



iS 

Safe working pressure flues 184 

Scale in 163 

Stopping with a heavy fire 154 

Table of safe working pressure 153 

Testing plates 166 

The total pressure . ." 152 

Treatment of. 115 

Tubular 47 

Weight of circular heads 335 

Steam Coal 151 

Steam Engine 23 

Actual horse power 23 

Comparative economy high and low speed 1 16 

Corliss valves, how to adj ust 27 

Expansion by lap 25 

Future of 164 

Horse-powers 23, 142, 143 

Indicated Horse-power 23 

Indicator 30- 42 

Manipulation of new 162 

Mean pressure in cylinder .. 23 

Nominal horse-power 23 

Rules 23 25 

Slide valves, how to set 24 

Slide valves, setting of. 87 

Theory of 112 

The world's 290 

Triple expansion 168 

Steam Fitting, use of graphite 141 

Steam for Heating 58 

Steam Gauges 146 

Steam Heating 154 

Steam Radiators, heating surface of 369 

Steam Pipes, for heating buildings 434 

Steam Pipes, how to thaw out 126 

Steam, properties of saturated 150 

Steam Pumps, suggestions 54 

Steam Pumps, to find diameter cylinder 55 

Steam Pumps, to find quantity Water elevated ... . 55 

Steam, super-heated 146 

Steam vs. Hot Water Heating 462-464 



19 

Steamers, Fast American 189 

Steel, chemical or physical tests for 212 

Steel, how to anneal 223 

Steel, notes on working of 267 

Steel, to clean rusty 238 

Steel Pipe, tests of 310 

Steel Punches, tempering 208 

Steel Rails, used as girders 350 

Steel Sleepers, rivetless 184 

Steel Square, ho\v to use 372 

Steel, suggestions to workers 213 

Steel, the secret of cast steel 274 

Steel, weight of sheet 196, 197 

Steel, when hardened 139 

Steel, why hard to weld 304 

Stone, natural and artificial 365 

Stone, crushing strain 365 

Storage Battery, how to -make one 312 

Storage or Secondary Battery 537 

Strainer, rain water '..... 399 

Street Railways, electric 22? 

Strength of Materials 359-361 

Switching from an Engine Cab 183 

Submarine Cables 278-282 

Superheated Steam 146 

Surveying Measures 358 

Sycamore 439 

Tables, 

Alloys , 424 

Chimneys 90 

Heating surface per horse-power 46 

Cube and square roots 107-116 

Density of water 123 

Diameters, high and low pressure Cylinders 122 

Difference of time from New York 180-182 

Friction of water in pipes 55 

Horse-Power transmitted by belts 120, 121 

Lap according to travel slide valve 25 

Length and number tacks per pound 182 

Proportions cylinder tubular boilers 48 

Properties saturated steam 150 



Safe working pressure iron boilers 153 

Safety-valves, capacity 51 

Chimneys, regard to horse-power 90 

Size, capacity standard puuws ... 57 

Saving by feed water heater . %b 

Specific gravity lOo 

Square and Cube roots 107-1 10 

Strength belting material 83 

Universal taps 265, 266 

Tacks, length and number per pound 182 

Tanks, how to calculate capacity 335 

Taps, universal, table for making 265, 266 

Temperature, indicated by color of flame 49 

Tempering Steel Punches 208 

Testing Armor Plates 215 

Testing Boiler Plates 166 

Te^eing Exterior Stains 444 

Tests for steel, chemical or physical 212 

Thermometers, how made 300 

Thermometer Scales 302, 304 

Thermal Unit/^jxplanation of . . 155 

Theory of Steam Engine 112 

Things That Will Never Be Settled 293 

Things Worth Knowing 294 

Timber, a colossal stick of 457 

Timber, dry rot in 429 

Timber, in favor of small 343 

Timber, properties of 366 

Timber, rot in 438 

Timber, seasoning 435 

Time, difference from New York 180-182 

Tin, modern uses of. 466-468 

Tin Plates, crystallized 373 

Tin Plates, endless 373 

Tin, sizes and weights of 333 

Tinning by simple immersion. . . 434 

Tinning, improved process of 469 

Tool for counter-boring 311 

Tools, how to anneal small 187 

Tools, how to detect iron and steel 173 

Tools, how to keep 229 

Tools, lathe for metals 77 



21 

Tracing Paper, how to make 208 

Trees, the annual ring in 419 

Tubes, solid drawn 224 

Turning or Lathe Tools for .Metal 77 

Universal Taps 265-266 

Useful Cements 134 

Useful Numbers 3*5-317 

Useful Numbers and Definitions 91 

Useful Receipts 374 

Useful Shop Kinks 395-398 

Vacuum, transmitting power by 136 

Valuable Figures 448 

Various Locations of the Capital of the United States 557 

Varnish, to make it adhere to metals 282 

Varnish, removal of old 441 

Varnishing and Painting Floors 456 

Ventilation and Heating 386-390 

Ventilation of Buildings 451-454 

Ventilation, hints on , . 422 

Vibration, how to overcome 185 

Volt, the (electrical) 538 

Voltaic Electricity 536 

Voltaic Batteries (electrical) 536 

Common Woods, tensile strength of. 208 

Watch and Learn . 216 

Watches, effect of magnetism upon 230 

Leather, making japanned 218 

Watch Wheels, number of revolutions 283 

Water, density of 123 

Water, friction of in pipes 55 

Water, simple tests for 294 

Water, useful information about 54 

Water Pipes, Japanese 210 

Weight, avoirdupois 356 

Weight of Bolts per ico. 207 

Weight of Copper 196, 197 

Weight 'Cast Iron per Lineal Feet ^205 

Weight, cubic foot substances 346-348 



Weights, French -. 356 

Weight of Iron 190-195-196-197-108-203 

Weight of Rivets and round-headed Bolts 204 

Weight and Specific Gravity Metals 286 

Weight of Sheet Brass 196, 197 

Weight oi Sheet Steel 196, 197 

Welding, a Russian process 370 

Welland Canal, the 561 

Wells, artesian 344 

Leather, making japanned 218 

Westinghouse Automatic Brake 59 

Description 59 

Air pump 6 X 

Triple valve 63 

Engineer' s brake-valve 65 

Pump governor 67 

Equalizing valve 68 

Instructions 69 

How to apply 71 

How to release 71 

Brake power 73 

Car levers 74 

When a day's work begins : 289 

Hydraulic Rams 564 

Window Glass, how large cylinders are cut 344 

Window Glass, number lights in a box of 50 feet 270 

Wire Manufacture, new process ., ., 409 

Wood, a polish for 447 

Wood, a very durable 443 

Wood, preservation by lime 443 

Woods, weight of 333 

Wooden Beams, safe load for : 345 

Workshop Jottings 322 

Wrapping Paper, rust-proof 406 

Zinc, as a fire extinguisher 381 

Zinc, how to polish 4*4 



2 3 
THE STEAM-ENGINE. 

The term " Horse-power " is the standard measure of 
power as applied to steam-engines. This unit of power has 
been adopted by all manufacturers of steam-engines in all 
parts o r the world. 

The term originated with Watts, the so-called inventor of 
the steam-engine. He demonstrated that a horse could work 
8 hours a day continuously, traveling at the rate of 2^ miles 
an hour, raising a weight of 150 pounds ipo feet high by 
means of a block and tackle. Reducing this to equivalent 
terms, a horse could raise 150 pounds at the rate of 220 feet 
per minute, or 2j^ miles an hour, or 33,000 pounds one foot 
per minute. Thus, a horse-power is the power required to 
raise 33,000 pounds one foot a minute. There are three 
kinds of horse-power referred to in connection with engines, 
* nominal" "indicated" and "actual" 

The nominal horse-power is found by multiplying the area 
of the piston in inches by the average pressure, and multiply- 
ing this product by the number of feet the piston travels in 
feet per minute, then dividing this last product by 33,000. 
The quotient will be the nominal horse-power of the engine. 

The indicated horse- power is found by multiplying together 
trie mean effective pressure in the cylinder in pounds per 
square inch, the area of the piston in square inches and the 
speed of the piston in feet per minute, and dividing the prod- 
uct by 33,000. 

The actual horse-power i the indicated horse-power 
minus the amount expended in overc< ming the friction. The 
following is a general rule for calcula ing the horse-power of 
an engine: 

RULE. Multiply the area of the pi ton in square inches , 
the mean pressure of the steam on the nston per square inch, 
and the velocity of the piston in ft^.t per minute, together^ 
and divide this product by 33,000. 7 \: quotient will be the 
horse-power. 

The mean pressure in the cylinder, when cutting off at 

stroke, equals boiler pressure x .597 
x .670 
x .743 

K ' x - 8 47 

# . x .919 

x %& 

x .992 



24 

TO FIND THE DIAMETER OF A CYLINDER OF AN ENGINE 
OF A REQUIRED NOMINAL HORSE-POWER. 

Divide 5, 500 by the velocity of the piston in feet per minute, 
and multiply the quotient by the required horse-power. The 
product will be the area of piston in square inches. From 
this the diameter can be obtained by referring to table of areas 
of circles. 

TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVE POWER OF AN ENGINE BY 
AN INDICATOR. 

Multiply the area ot the piston in square inches by the 
average force of the steam in pounds; multiply this product by 
the velocity of the piston in feet per minute ; divide this last 
product by 33,000, and j 7 of the quotient will be the 
effective power. 

The travel in feet of a piston is found by multiplying the 
distance it travels in inches for one stroke by the whole 
number of strokes per minute. Dividing this product by 12 
gives the number of feet the piston travels per minute. 

THE SLIDE VALVE. 

How to set a slide valve. Place the crank at the center, 
and the eccentric at right angles with the crank; then put 
the valve in the center of its travel, and the rocker plumb at 
^ght angles with both cylinder and crank-pin ; when this is 
fone, adjust the valve-gear to its proper length, then move 
the eccentric forward until the valve has the desired amount 
of lead; make the eccentric fast in this position, and turn the 
crank around to the other center, and see if the lead is equal; 
if so, the engine will run all right. In case the lead is not 
equal, equalize it by moving the eccentric slightly back and 
forth. 

Where the lead is unequal on account of wear, the travel 
of the valve may be equalized by placing lines of brass or tin 
behind or in front of the box which connects the valve-rod 
with the rocker. The " outside lap " means steam lap ; the 
" inside lap " means exhaust lap. 

To compute the stroke of a slide valve. To twice the lap 
add twice the width of a steam port in inches, and the sum 
will give the stroke required. 

Half the throw of the valve should be at least equal to the 
lap on the steam side, added to the breadth of the port. If 
this breadth does not give the required area of port, the 
throw of the valve must be increased until the required area 
is attained. 



25 

By referring to the following table, the desired lap may be 
found if the travel of the valve is known: 



Travel of 
the valve 
in inches. 


The travel of the piston where the steam 


is cut off. 


1 i A 4 


\-'l 3 


I 1? 


The required I.AI-. 



22 

3 

31 

4 



I 

if 

2 



2 i 



2ft 



44 



f 



1! 



1 4 



To find how muck lap must be gii-en on (lie steam side of 
a slide valve to cut off the steam at any given part of f/ie 
stroke of the piston. From the length of stroke of the piston 
subtract the length of the stroke that is to be made before 
the steam is cut off; divide the remainder by the stroke of the 
piston, and extract the square root of the quotient; multiply 
this root by half the throw of the valve; from the product 
subtract half the lead and the remainder will give the lap 
required. 

Expansion by lap, with a slide valve operated by an eccen- 
tric alone, cannot be extended beyond one-third of the stroke 
of a piston without interfering with the efficient operation of 
a valve; when the lap is increased, the throw of the eccentric 
should also be increased. 

The lap on the steam side must always be greater than 
that on the exhaust side, and this difference ruust be in- 
creased the higher the velocity of the piston, for, in fast-run- 
ning engines, also in locomotives, it is necessary that the ex- 
haust valve should open before the end of the stroke of the 
piston, so that more time can be allowed fur the escape of 
steam. 



26 

"OF COURSE" FOR ENGINEERS. 

Of course you will always start your engine slowly, so that 
the air and water condensation can be expelled from your 
cold cylinder; then you will gradually bring it to its regular 
speed. 

Of course you will be sure to keep open the drip cock, 
both in the front and back heads of the cylinder, when the 
engine is standing still, and never close them until all the 
winter has dripped out. 

Of course you will never let in any oil or tallow to your 
cylinder until it is made hot by the steam. 

Of course you will be careful not to put in too much oil at 
any time, knowing, as you do, that it will be sent to the feed- 
water and cause your boiler to prime and foam. 

Of course you will always oil up before starting your 
engine. 

Of course you will always keep your piston and valve-pack- 
ing in a bag or clean drawer, so as to keep sand, dirt or other 
grit from becoming attached to it, and so cut or flute the rods. 

Of course you will not use new waste to wipe up the dirty 
oil from the stub-ends, crank-pins or cross-head guides, and 
then use the same waste to polish --up the bright and finished 
work. 

Of course you will exercise great care in adjusting the 
packing in steam-cylinders. 

Of course you know that when you generally pack the 
piston packing, both cylinder and packing are cold, and if they 
are screwed or wedged in very tight while in this condition 
that the expansion, when exposed to the heat of the steam, 
will induce great rigidity. 

Of course you understand, if this is so, the oil or lubricat- 
ing substance cannot enter between the surfaces in contact, 
and that great friction, heating and cutting will be the result. 

Of course you are aware that when packing loses its elas- 
ticity it is no good, and should be removed. 

Of course you know that piston or valve-rod packing should 
never be screwed up more than sufficient to prevent it from 
leaking, and that the softer the packing the longer it will last 
and the better your engine will run. 

Of course yo'u have tried that little trick of screwing the 
packing up tight when it is first inserted in the boxes, and 
then slacking the nut off to allow the packing to swell when 
exposed to the heat of the stc m 

Of course you will read pages 53, 88, 90, 95, 97 and 103 in 
this book. 



27 

HOW TO ADJUST AND SET CORLISS ENGP'S 
VALVES. 

The original crab-claw valve-gear, as used by the inventor, 
Geo. H. Corliss, has been gradually superseded by the im- 
proved half-moon valve-gear, used on the Reynold's engine 
and other prominent Corliss engine builders. 

This difference between the old and new style of valve 
applies only to the steam-valves, as, in both cases, the ex- 
haust-valves open toward the center of the cylinder. 

In the Corliss valve-gear (sometimes called "detachable 
valve-gear") the action of the- steam-valves is positive, the 
direct action of the working parts of the engine opening 
them at the proper time, and keeping them open until the 
connection with the engine is detached or broken, and the 
hook tripped by the working of the cut-off cams. The steam- 
valves are closed by vacuum dash-pots (sometimes by springs 
or weights). The cut-off is automatic and is determined by 
the lequirements of the load on the engine, so that the cut- 
off cams do not always trip the hook at the same point, as 
they are moved by the governor. 

To those unfamiliar with the Corliss valve-gear, it ap- 
pears a very complicated affair, yet, in reality it is very simple, 
and is more easily adjusted than the ordinary slide-valve. 

To understand the simplicity of the Corliss valve-gear, the 
four valves (two steam, two exhaust), must be considered as 
the four parts or edges of the common slide-valve, that 
is, the working edges of the two steam- valves are equivalent 
to the two steam edges of the slide-valve, and the working 
edges of the two exhaust-valves as equivalent to the exhaust 
edges of the slide-valve. 

The principle is the same in the two styles of valves 
Corliss and slide but the difference comes in the adjustment, 
for the slide-valve is a solid valve, and any adjustment of one 
part affects the whole, while with the Corliss valve each 
part is susceptible of an individual and separate adjustment, 
which can be made, if necessary, while the engine is work- 
ing, without shutting down. The eccentric works the valves, 
and are connected with them on the Corliss gear, by means 
of the wrist plate, cnrrier-arm, rocker-arm and reach-rodj 

Besides imparting motion to. he valves, the wrist-plate 
modifies the speed of travel at different parts of the stroke, 
giving a quick and accelerating speed when opening the 
steam-valve, and a quick opening and closing of the exhaust- 



28 

valve, botli steam and exhaust-valves being at their slowest 
speed when closed. 

First, remove the back-leads or back-caps of the four valve- 
chambers; when this is done the engineer will find guide lines 
on the ends of the valves, and also on the ends of the valve- 
chambers. The lines on the steam-valve will coincide with 
the working edges of the valve, and those on the steam- valve 
chamber with the working edges of the steam-ports. Guide 
lines will also be found on the exhaust- valves and ports. 

The wrist-plate is located on the valve-gear side of the cylin- 
der, in a central position, between the four valve-chambers. 

On the stand, which is bolted to the cylinder, will be found 
a deeply scribed line, and on the hub of the wrist-plate, three 
other lines, which show the center of the wrist plates, and 
the limits of its travel or throw. 

To adjust the valves, the reach-rod which connects the 
wrist-plates with the rocker-arm, must first be unhooked; next 
place the wrist-plate in its central position and hold it there. 

All the connecting-rods between the steam and exhaust 
valve-arms and the wrist-plate, are made with right and left 
hand threads on their opposite ends, and furnished with jamb- 
nuts, so that the rods can be easily lengthened or shortened 
by merely slacking the jamb-nuts and turning the rods. 

In this manner, set the steam- valves so that for every 10 
inch diameter there will be ^ inch lap, and for every 32 
inch diameter ]/ 2 inch lap, other intermediate diameters in pro- 
portion to these distances. 

Set the exhaust-valves for every 10 inch diameter of cylin- 
der with ~fa inch lap, and for 32 inch diameter J/ inch lap. 
Double these distances for condensing engines. 

The lines on the valves which are nearer the center of the 
cylinder than the lines on the valve-chambers show the lap 
on both steam and exhaust valves. 

After the valves have thus been adjusted, turn the wrist- 
plate to the extreme limits of its throw, and adjust the rods 
connecting the steam-valve arms with the dash-pots, so that, 
when the rod is down as far as it will go, the square steel 
block on the valve-arms will just clear the shoulder of the 
hook. The adjustments of these connecting rods must be 
properly made, for if too long the steam-valve arm will be 
bent or broken, and if too short the valve will not open, be- 
cause the hook will not engage. 

Now hook the engine in, loosen the eccentric on the shaft, 
and turn it over, adjusting (he eccentric-rod so that the lines 



2 9 

on the hub of the wrist-plate, which show the limits of its 
travel and throw, will coincide with the line scribed on the stand. 
Place the crank on its dead-center, and turn the eccentric 
in the direction which the engine is to run, so that the steam- 
valve will show an opening of ^ to l /% of an inch (depending 
on the speed at which the engine is to run the faster the 
speed the more lead it requires). The line on the valve, 
which is nearer the end of the cylinder than the line on the 
valve- chamber, shows the opening required, which is the 
" lead " or port opening when the engine is on its dead-center. 
Now secure the eccentric, or the shaft, by tightening the set- 
screw, and throw the engine over to its other dead-center, 
carefully noting if the other steam- valve shows the same 
opening or lead. If it does not, adjust it properly by length- 
ening or shortening the connecting-rod from the valve-arm to 
the wrist-plate. 

The exhaust-valves are adjusted in the same manner. 
The directions just given are for the half-moon style of valve- 
gears, which open from the center of the cylinder. In cases 
of the crab-claw, or any other style which open toward the 
center of the cylinder, the method of adjustment is the same 
as given above; but, with the difference that the lap on the 
steam-valves will be shown when the line on the steam-valve 
is nearer the end of the cylinder, and the lead when the line 
is nearer the center of the cylinder than the line on the valve- 
chamber. 

In adjusting the rod connecting the cut-off or tripping 
cam with the governor, the governor must be at rest, and 
the wrist-plate at one extreme of its throw or travel. 

First adjust the rod connecting with the cut-off cam on 
the opposite steam-valve so that there will be j$ inch clear- 
ance between the cam and the steel on the tail of the hook. 
Throw the wrist-plate to the other extreme of its travel and 
adjust the cam for the other steam-valve in the same manner. 
Now block the governor up i^ inch, which will be its 
average distance when running. Hook the engine in and 
turn it slowly in its running direction, and mark the distance 
the cross-head travels from its extreme position of dead- 
center when the cut-off cam trips the steam-valve. Continue 
to turn the engine slowly past the ou,cr dead-center, and 
mark the distance of the cross-head from its extreme of travel 
when the steam-valve drops. If the distance is the same in 
both cases, the cut-off is equal and the adjustment is correct. 
If not, adjust one or the other of the . ods until this is so. 



3 
THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR. 




The steam-engine indicator is now recognized as a highly 
essential device, with which every engineer should be familiar. 

The three main objects for which the indicator can be em- 
ployed are: 

1. To serve as a guide for setting the valves of an engine. 

2. To determine the indicated power developed by an 
engine. 

3. To determine, in connection with a feed- water test, 
showing the actual amount of steam consumed, the economy 
with which an engine works. 

Among the various indicators now on the market, the Ta- 
bor Indicator is recognized as the standard, and has been se- 
lected to illustrate this article. 

All indicators h?.ve one essential plan of construction: 
There is a steam-cylinder and a paper drum. 

The steam-cylinder is designed to connect with the inte- 
rior of the engine-cylinder and receive steam whenever the 
engine receives it. A piston, which is inclosed, communi- 
cates motion to a pencil arranged to move in a straight line; 
the amount of movement being limited by the tensio" of a 
spiral spring against which the piston acts. 



1\& paper drum is a cylindrical shell mounted on its axis, 
and is made to turn forward and backward by a motion de- 
rived from the cross-head of the engine. A sheet of paper, 
wc\card y as it is named, is stretched upon the drum, and a 
pencil is brought to bear upon it. In this manner, the 
instrument traces upon the paper a line termed the indicator 
diagram, which is the object sought. 

Since the motion of the card is made to coincide with 
that of the piston of the engine, and the height to which the 
pencil rises varies according to variations in the force of the 
steam, the indicator diagram presents a record of the 
pressure of the steam in the engine cylinder at every point of 
the stroke. 

Sectional View of Standard Instrument 




THE METHOD OF INDICATING A STEAM-ENGINE. 

There are two things to be done in making arrangements for 
indicating a steam-engine. First, the indicator must be at- 
tached to the cylinder; and second^ means must be provided for 
giving motion to the paper drum. To attach the indicator, a 
hole is drilled at each end of the cylinder, and tapped for the 
reception of a half-inch stenm-pipe(for the Tabor indicator) to 
which to connect the indicator cock. In horizontal engines, 



32 

the barrel of the cylinder should be selected in preference to 
the heads, as in the position thus secured the indicator can be 
themost easily operated. Wherever attached, it is important 
that the pipe should communicate freely with the steam in 
the cylinder. The hole should not be located, for example, 
in such a position that it is covered by the piston rings at 
the end of the stroke. The pipes should be short and free 
from unnecessary bends. 

If a valve is used beneath the cock, it should be of the 
straght-way type. It is not best to connect the two ends and 
use a single indicator applied at the center. . Errors are pro- 
duced by the long connections and increased number of bends 
that this requires, especially at high speeds. 

If but one indicator is available, it maybe used alternately, 
first on one end and then on the other; should it be necessary 
to place the indicator at the center, as convenience in operat- 
ing generally requires in locomotive work, the errors due to 
long connections may be reduced by the employment of large 
pipes and easy bends. For these positions, a three-way cock, 
to which the indicator cock is attached, is a useful appliance. 

In drilling and tapping new holes in a cylinder, care should 
be taken that the chips do not enter it, unless they can after- 
ward be removed. If no better means can be employed, 
steam may be admitted while the work is going on, and the 
chips blown out as fast as formed. 

Before attaching the indicator, the cock should be opened 
to the atmosphere, and the pipes cleared of any loose material 
that may have lodged in them. 

INDICATOR DRIVING RIGGING. 

The motion to be given the paper drum is one that coin- 
cides, on a reduced scale, with the motion of the piston of the 
engine. It may be obtained in a variety of ways. 

The active instrument here shown, is the reducing lever, 
A C, which is a strip of pine board 3 or 4 inches wide, and 
about I % times as long as the stroke of the engine. 

It is hung by a screw or small bolt to a wooden frame at- 
tached overhead. At the lower end a connecting rod, C 
D, about one-third as long as the stroke, is at one end at- 
tached to the lever, and at the other end to a stud screwed 
into the cross-head, or to an iron clamped to the cross-head 
by one of the nuts that adjusts the gibs, or to any part of 
the cross-head that may be conveniently used. The lever A 
C should stand in a vertical position when the piston is in 
the middle of the stroke. The connecting rod, C D, when 



33 

at that point, should be about as far below a horizontal posi* 
tion as it is above it at either end of the stroke. The cords 
which drive the paper drums may be attached to a screw in- 
serted in the lever near the point of suspension; but a better 
plan is to provide a segment, A B, the center of which coin- 
cides with the point of suspension, and allow the cords t* 
pass around the circular edge. The distance from edge to 
center should bear the same proportion to the length of the 




reducing lever as the desired length of diagram bears to the 
length of the stroke. On an engine having a length of 48 
inches the lever should be 72 inches, and the connecting rod 
16 inches in length, in which case, to obtain a diagram 4 
inches long, the radius of the segment should be 6 inches. 
It is immaterial what the actual length of the diagram is, but 
4 indies is a length that is usually satisfactory. It maybe 
reduced to advantage to 3 inches at very high speeds. 



34 

The cords should leave segment in a line parallel with, 
the axis of the cylinder. The pulleys over which they pass 
should incline from a vertical plane and point to the incU 
cators wherever they may be placed. 

If the indicators and reducing lever can be placed so as to 
be in line with each other, the pulleys may be dispensed 
with, and the cords carried directly from the segment to the 
instrument, a longer arc being provided for this purpose. 
The carrier pulley on each indicator should be adjusted so as 
to point in the direction ir. which the cord is received. 

THE ESSENTIAL 'MATURES OF THE INDICATOR DIAGRAM. 

The shar^ fj( the figure traced upon the indicator card 
depends altogether upon the manner in which the steam 

f T, 



_AJ 



F. ? *?l 

pressure acts in the cylinder. If the steam be admitted af the 
beginning, and exhausted at the end, of the stroke, and ad- 
mission continue from one end to the other, the shape of the 
diagram is nearly rectangular. If the admission continue 
through only a part of the stroke, the diagram assumes a shape 
similar to that of Fig. No. I. These two representative 
forms have, in matters of detail, numberless modifications. 

Fig. No. I has been taken to illustrate the essential features 
of the indicator diagram, because it exhibits clearly all the 
operations affected by pressure that commonly take place in 
the steam engine jylinder. 

This diagram shows that the admission of steam commences 
at A and ends at D; the cut-oif commences at C and becomes 
complete at D; expansion occurs from D to E; the release or 



35 

exhaust begins at E and continues to the point H ; the com- 
pression of the exhaust steam commences at G and ends at the 
admission point, A. 

The line A B is called the admission line ; B C, the steam 
lint; D E, the expansion line; F G, the exhaust or back 
pressure line (or, in the case of condensing engines, the 
vacuum line); H A, the compression line; and J, I, the 
atmospheric line. The curve which joins two adjacent lines, 
represents the action of the steam when one operation 
changes to another and cannot properly be classed with either 
line. 

The point of cut-off, D, lies at the end of admission; the 
point of release, E, at the beginning of the exhaust, the point 
of compression, H, at the end of the exhaust. The propor- 
tion of the whole length of the diagram borne by the distance 
of the point D from the admission end, represents the pro* 
portion of the stroke completed at the point of cut-off; so 
also in the case of the point of release, and in that of com- 
pression for the uncompleted portion of the stroke. The 
pressures at the points of cut-off, release and compression are 
the heights of these various points above the atmospheric line 
measured on the scale of the spring. 

THE USES TO WHICH THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR MAY 
BE APPLIED. 

There are three main objects for the determination of 
which the indicator diagram may be employed : 

First. To serve as a guide in setting the valves of an 
engine. 

Second. To determine the indicated power developed by 
an engine. 

Third. To determine, in connection with a feed-water 
test showing the actual amount of steam consumed, the econ- 
omy with which an engine works. 

First. Figure No. I,, shows the general features of a 
well-formed indicator diagram, the attainment of which 
should be the aim in setting the valves of an engine. The 
admission of steam is prompt, making the admission line per- 
pendicular to the atmospheric Hne; the initial pressure is 
fully maintained up to the po ; :<t where the steam begins to be 
cut off; the somewhat early release secures a free exhaust 
and a uniformly low back pressure, and the exhaust valve 
closes before the return stroke is completed, providing for 
compression. These are the first requirements to be met in 
producing an economical engine. 



36 

Derangement of the valve-gearing is revealed in the dia- 
gram By tardy admission or release, by low initial pressure or 
high back pressure, or by absence of compression, either one 
of which causes an increased consumption of steam for per- 
forming the same amount of work. 

The angular position of the eccentric controls all the 
movements of the valves, but improper lengths of the con- 
necting rods which operate them, or improper proportions of 
lap and lead, are liable to produce some of the faults we 
mention, as w-ill also a wrong position of the eccentric. 

In regulating the exhaust of an engine, the desirability of 
employing compression should not be overlooked. In the 
first place, it serves to overcome the momentum of the recip- 
rocating parts and to reduce the strain upon the connections 
caused by the sudden application of the pressure at admis- 
sion. In the second place, compression is desirable on the 
ground of economy in the consumption of steam. It fills the 
wasteful clearance spaces of the cylinder with exhaust steam, 
otherwise requiring the expenditure of live steam from the 
boiler. Compression produces a loss by the increased back 
pressure which it occasions, but the loss is more than cov- 
ered by the gain resulting from the reduction of clearance 
waste. iHypothetically, the greater the amount of exhaust 
that is utilized by compression the less the consumption of 
steam. Practically, it is not advisable to compress above the 
boiler pressure. In a non-condensing automatic cut-off engine 
with 3 per cent, clearance working at 75 Ibs. boiler pressure, 
cut off at one-fifth of the stroke, and exhausting under a min- 
imum back pressure, the gain produced by compressing up to 
boiler pressure over working under the same conditions with- 
out compression, should be not less than 6 per cent. T n a 
condensing engine, working under similar condition >, the 
gain should be larger. It should be larger, also, with an 
earlier cut-off. 

The valves being in proper adjustment, the indicator dia- 
gram shows whether the pipe and passages for the admission 
and exhaust of the steam are of sufficient size. In automatic 
cut-off engines the admission line should be parallel with the 
atmospheric line, and the initial pressure should not be more 
than 3 Ibs. less than the boiler pressure. The back 
pressure should not in any engine exceed i Ib. when the ex- 
haust proceeds directly to the atmosphere. Much can often 
be learned by applying the indicator to the steam and exhaust 
pipes, using the same mechanism for driving the paper drum 
as that used when the indicator is operated at the cylinder. 



37 

Before making adjustments it pan engines that have been, 
long in use y the operator should ascertain whether a valve 
which should travel in a different place has worn to a shoul- 
der upon its seat. If changed under such circumstances^ 
loss from leakage may follow ', sufficient in amount to neutral- 
ize the saving that might otherwise result. This is a matter 
of much importance. 

Second. "The indicator is useful in determining the amount 
of power developed by an engine. The diagram reveals the 
force of the steam at every point of the stroke. The power 
is computed from the average amount of this force, which is 
independent either of the adjustment of the valves, the 
form of the diagram or of any condition upon which economy 
depends. The diagram gives what is termed the indicate? 
power of an engine, which is the power exerted by the steam. 
The indicated power consists of the net power delivered and, 
in addition, that consumed in propelling the engine itself, 
[jln this connection the indicator proves invaluable for 
measuring the amount of power transmitted to a machine or 
set of machines, which the engine is employed to drive. 
The process of measuring power thus used consists in 
indicating the engine, first with the machinery in operation, 
and then v \ tJbe driving- belt ow shaft thrown off. The 
difference in the amount 01 power developed in the two 
cases is the desired result. Tenants, and those who let 
power, frequently employ the indicator for this purpose. 

Third A. third use for the indicator is in connection with 
a feed-ivatei \*5t, in determining the number of pounds of 
steam consumed by ?.n engine per indicated horse-power per 
hou/. 

This quantity forms a treasure of the performance of an 
engine, and when compared with the performance of the best 
of its class, shows the economy with which the engine works. 
The amount of steam consumed is usually found by weigh- 
ing the feed-water before it is supplied to the boiler, the 
steam being employed during the tost for no other purpose 
than driving the engine. This requires the erection of a 
weighing apparatus, the most satisfactory form of which con- 
sists of two tanks and platform scales. One tank is placed 
on the scales, and -these are elevated above the second tank, 
which is of comparatively large size. The water is first 
drawn into and weighed in the first tank. It is then emptied 
into the second tank, which serves as a reservoir, and from 
this it is pumped into the boiler. 

A simpler plan may be resorted to, w'hich gives approxi- 



mate results. The feed-water is brought to a high point on 
the glass water-gauge and then shut off, and a test made by 
observing the rate at which the water boils away. A fall of 
six inches may be allowed in nearly every case without again 
feeding. The heights at the beginning and the end of the 
test being carefully observed, the amount of water evapo- 
rated and supplied to the engine is computed from the cubical 
contents that it occupied in the boilers. A test made in this 
manner can be repeated a number of times, and the results 
averaged to insure greater accuracy. 

Feed-water tests, made by measuring the water fed to the 
boiler, are of no value unless leakage of water from the boiler, 
if any exist, is allowed for. Attention should always be 
given to this point and the rate of leakage determined by 
observing the fall of water in the gauge, when no steam is 
being drawn from the boiler, a constant pressure being main- 
tained. 

A portion of the feed-water consumption of an engine may 
be found without the aid of a feed-water test, by computation 
from the diagram. Were it not for the losses produced by 
leakage and cylinder condensation, to which engines are sub- 
ject the whole amount of feed- water consumed i merit be de- 
termined in this manner. Leakage of steam often occurs 
and cylinder condensation is inevitable, while the extent 
to which these losses act is not revealed by any marked effect 
produced upon the lines of the diagram. The measurement 
of the consumption of steam by diagram, therefore, cannot 
be taken to show actual performance without allowing a 
margin for these losses. Much value, however, often at- 
taches to these computations. 

Besides showing the economy of an engine compared with 
the best of its class, the indicator, by means of the feed -water 
test, reveals the extent of the losses produced by leakage and 
cylinder condensation. These losses are represented by that 
part of the feed-water consumption which remains after de- 
ducting the steam computed from the diagram, or steam ac- 
counted for by the indicator, as it is termed. One of these 
losses, condensation, is nearly constant for different engines 
working under similar conditions, and an allowance may be 
made for its amount. The other, leakage, is variable in dif- 
ferent cases, depending upon the condition of the wearing 
surfaces of valves, piston and cylinder. The fact of the pres- 
ence of the latter may be detected by a trial under boiler 
pressure with engine at rest, the leakage being revealed by 
escape at the indicator cock or exhaust pipe. The amount of 



39 

this leakage may be found by computing that part of the loss 
not covered by condensation. In other words, in the case of 
leaking engines, when the indicator and feed-water test show 
.that there is more loss than is produced in good practice by 
condensation, the excess represents the probable amount of 
loss by leakage. A valuable use for the indicator is thus 
found in connection with the feed-water test. To make it 
available in practice, Tables Nos. I, 2. and 3 are appended, 
showing the percentages of loss that, occui from cylinder 
condensation. The quantities in Table No. I apply to that 
type of simple engine commonly used, that is, to unjacketed 
engines having cylinders exceeding twenty inches in diameter; 
the quantities in Table No. 2 apply to compound engines of 
the best class having steam jacketed cylinders; and the quan- 
tities in Table No. 3 apply to triple expansion engines of the 
best class, also having steam jacketed cylinders, all supplied 
with dry but not superheated steam. 

TABLE NO. I. 

Percentage of loss by cylinder condensation taken at cut-off 
in simple engines. 





Percentage of Feed- 


Percentage of Feed- 


Percentage of stroke 
completed at cut-off. 


water consumption 
accounted for by the 


water consumption 
due to cylinder con- 




indicator diagram. 


densation. 


5 


P 


42 


IO 


66 


34 


15 


7i 


29 


20 


74 


26 


3 


78 


22 


40 


82 


18 


50 


86 


14 



TABLE NO. 2. 

Percentage of loss by cylinder condensation taken at cut-off 
in the H. P. cylinder in compound engines. 





Percentage of Feed- 


Percentage of Feed- 


Percentage of stroke 
completed at cut-oft". 


water consumption 
accounted for hy the 


water consumption 
due to cylinder con- 




indicator diagram. 


densation. 


10 


74 


26 


'5 


76 


24 


20 


78 


22 


3 


82 


18 


40 


85 


15 


50 


88 


12 



40 

MANNER OF TAKING DIAGRAMS 

To take a diagram, a blank card is stretched smoothly upon 
the paper drum, the ends being held by the spring clips. 
The driving cord is attached and so adjusted that the motion 
of the drum' is central. The cock is opened to admit steam 
to the indicator till the parts have become heated, which 
will be after a half-dozen revolutions. On being shut off, 
the pencil or marking point is brought into contact with the 
paper, the stop screw is adjusted, and a fine clear line traced 
upon the card. This is the atmospheric line. The cock is 
then opened, and after two or three revolutions the pencil is 
again applied and the diagram taken. If it is desired to as- 
certain the condition of the valve adjustment, the pencil 
needs to be applied only while the engine is making one rev- 
olution. But to determine power, it should be applied a 
longer time, so as to obtain a number of diagrams superposed 
on the same card. The fluctuations in the admission of 
steam, produced by governors which do not regulate closely, 
are so common, that this course should always be followed to 
obtain average results. The diagram having been traced, 
and the cock shut, the pencil should be applied lightly to the 
paper to see that the position of the atmospheric line re- 
mains the same. If a new line is traced, it is evidence of 
error or derangement, and the operations should be re- 
peated on a new card. 

It is well to mark upon every card the date, time of day, 
and end of the cylinder from which it was taken. In ad- 
justing the valves, the boiler pressure should be observed, 
and the changes that are made before taking a diagram .noted 
on the card for reference. If a series of diagrams is being 
obtained for power, they should be numbered in order, and 
the number of revolutions per minute noted, either upon 
every card, or, if the speed is nearly constant, upon every 
other one. 

If tests are to be made for power used by machines or 
tenants, a number of diagrams should be obtained under each 
condition and the results averaged. It is well, in these cases, 
to mark each card of a set by some letter of the alphabet, 
and on the first of the set specify the machines in operation 
at the time. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

When accurate work is desired, too much care cannot be 
exercised in indicating an engine, and a further consideration 



41 

of some of the points to be observed will aid the engineer 
in realizing their importance. 

Short steam connections from the cylinder to the indicator 
are desirable in all cases, and absolutely necessary with high 
speed engines. Avoid all turns, if possible. 

Lubrication of the indicator piston. The best cylinder 
oil only should be used for this purpose. The piston should 
be removed, and the cylinder and piston cleaned and oiled 
every half-dozen diagrams. The oil contained in the steam 
is not sufficient in any case to lubricate this piston. Alack 
of lubrication will make a jumping acti on in the movement 
of the pencil, showing a series of steps, not waves, on the 
diagram. 

Spring to be used. On slow speed engines the lightest 
spring that will accommodate the pressure is best, but in 
high speed engines a heavier spring is necessary for the same 
pressure, in order to restrict the movement of the pencil bar 
and connections, and prevent their inertia from distorting the 
diagram. A waving line is the result of too great a move- 
ment of these parts. 

The tension of the spring in paper drum should in all 
cases be just sufficient to keep the cord tight; but this means 
that a greater tension must be used with high than with low 
speeds, to prevent the inertia of the drum over-winding itself 
and distorting the diagram; breakage of the cord also fre- 
quently results from this cause. 

Keeping the cord leading from engine under tension. , 
This is of no importance with slow running engines, 
but when indicating high speed engines it is desirable 
that this cord should always be kept taut, whether the 
paper drum is running or not. A good plan is to fasten 
one end of a rubber band to the driving cord four or five 
inches from the end and attach the other end of the band to 
the indicator just below the carrier pulley, so that it always 
keeps a tension on the driving cord; then make a loop in the 
end of this cord for hooking on the indicator, and the loose 
end admits of readily connecting and disconnecting without 
allowing the driving cord to become slack for an instant. 

Length of the diagrams. With slow speeds a length of 4 
in. to 4^ in. will show well proportioned diagrams, but as 
the speeds increase the diagrams must be shortened to avoid 
the effects of the inertia of the paper drum; and at very high 
speeds an instrument with the small paper drum should be 
used. Diagrams at very high speeds should not exceed 2 hif 
in length, and frequently i^ in. will give better results. 



42 

The pressure of the p'eri'cil on the paper should be just 
sufficient to make a legible mark, and no more; a greater 
pressure only creates friction, and consequent^ inaccuracy in 
the diagram. 

Water in the indicator will make a curious but not a use- 
ful diagram, and therefore care should be exercised that the 
indicator is thoroughly heated up before a diagram is taken. 
Also, if much water is entrained in the steam, it will be nec- 
essary to leave the cylinder cocks slightly open while taking 
diagrams, as otherwise a distorted diagram is almost a cer- 
tainty. 

When taking diagrams from steam-engines, the height of 
the barometer or pressure of the atmosphere should always 
be carefully noted. This is necessary when the economy of 
the engines are to be considered, and it is desirable in all 
cases to know how much the exhaust pressure is above zero. 
Even at the sea level the pressure is constantly changing, 
and there are many engines working at places far above the 
sea level where the atmospheric pressure is always less, and 
in some cases very much less, than 14.7 Ibs. per square inch, 
or 29.9 in. of murcury. Care should therefore be exercised 
in this respect, as there is a tendency among engineers to 
ignore this fact. 

All gauges in ordinary use indicate pressures above the 
atmosphere; if pressure gauges, or if vacuum gauges the 
amount below atmospheric pressure; but neither kind show 
the pressure above zero, or total pressure, and to arrive at 
this, the pressure of the atmosphere must be added to the gauge 
pressure in the first case, or the amount of vacuum sub- 
tracted from the atmospheric pressure in the second. 

THE METHOD OF COMPUTING THE HORSE-POWER OF AN 
ENGINE FROM THE INDICTOR DIAGRAM. 

The work done by the steam in the cylinder of an engine 
is measured by the product of the force exerted on the 
piston, into the distance through which the piston moves, 
and is usually expressed by the term foot-pounds. If, for 
example, a force of 33 Ibs. per square inch on a piston having 
an area of 100 square inches is employed to drive the piston 
100 times over a stroke of 4 feet, the work done by the steam 
amounts to 1,320,000 ft. Ibs. The amount of horse-power 
which the steam develops is the foot-pounds of work done in 
a minute divided by 33,000. In the example given, the 
horse-power developed when 100 strokes are made per 
minute i.s 1,320,000 divided by 33,000 or 40 H. P. 






The force exerted upon the piston is given by tlieindicaic- 
diagram, but as it varies in amount at different points of the 
stroke, it is necessary to determine the equivalent force 
which, acting constantly, would produce the same result. 
This is done by computing from the diagram what is termed 
the mean effective pressure. The product of the mean 
effective pressure, expressed in pounds per square inch; the 
area of the cylinder, expressed in square inches; the length of 
the stroke, expressed in feet; and the number of strokes per 
minute, which is twice the number of revolutions per minute, 
gives the number of foot-pounds of work performed per 



-rrrf 




H 



X. 

m 

minute. This result, divided by 33,000 gives the amount of 
horse-power developed. 

To compute from the diagram the mean effective pressure, 
two lines are drawn perpendicular to the atmospheric line, 
one at each end of the diagram, and the intermediate 
space divided into 10 equal parts, with a perpen- 
dicular at each point of division. A ready method 
of performing the division is to lay upon the diagram 
a scale of 10 equal parts, the total length of which 
is a small amount in excess of the length of the 
diagram. It is so placed in a diagonal position that the 
extreme points on the scale lie upon the two outside perpen- 
diculars. The desired points may then be dotted with a 
sharp pencil opposite the intermediate divisions on the 
Scale. The points where the lines of division cross the 



44 

diagram should be dotted; and in locating these points they 
should be so placed that the area of the figure inclosed by 
straight lines joining them is exactly equal to the area in- 
closed by the curved line of the diagram. The proper loca- 
tions can be readily determined by the eye. 

Figure No. 2 shows the extreme perpendiculars A B and 
C D, the intermediate lines of cliv sion, the points of inter- 
section, and those points which require special location, as, 
for_example, the one at E, which is so placed that the area 
inclosed by the straight lines, E E and E G, is equal to that 
inclosed by the diagram from F to G. 

The determination of the mean effective pressure consists 
now of finding the average length of the various perpendicu- 
lar lines included between the points of intersection, meas- 
ured on the scale of the spring. This may be done by meas- 
uring each line with the scale and averaging the results. 'A 
better and quicker method is to employ a strip of paper, one 
of the cards upon which the diagram is traced, if desired, and 
mark one after another the various distances on its edge, 
making thereby a mechanical addition, and requiring only a 
final measurement.^ The proper course to pursue is to lay the 
edge of the paper on the first line and mark off the distance, 
A H, starting from the end of the paper. Transfer the edge of 
the paper to the last line, and add to the first measurement the 
distance, I D. Mark off from the end of the paper one-half 
of the sum of these two distances, and from the middle point 
continue the addition for the intermediate nine divisions. 
When all have been marked measure with the scale of the 
spring, from the end of the paper to the end of the last 
addition, and divide the result by ten. This gives the mean 
effective pressure. It is essential that one-half the sum of 
the first and last distances be taken, and the sum of this 
together with the intermediate nine be divided by ten. An 
erroneous result is obtained by taking the sum of the whole 
and dividing by eleven. 

The engineer who is so fortunate as to possess the knowl- 
edge necessary to operate an Indicator will find that his posi- 
tion is not only more secure to him, but his employers will 
be very apt to show their appreciation in a pecuniary manner. 

The use of the Indicator as a detective, detecting errors, 
misadjustments, waste and lost motion in an engine makes it 
a most necessary adjunct to the engine-room. 'This fact is 
becoming "^ore patent every day. 



45 
STEAM-BOILERS. 

All boilers are divided into three different parts, viz., fire- 
surface, water-space and steam-room. Each part or division 
has a distinct and separate duty to perform. The fire-surface 
includes the furnace and combustion chamber, flues and 
tubes; the water-space is that part occupied by the water; and 
the steam-room is the reservoir which holds and supplies the 
steam necessary to run the engine. 

All steam-boilers are either internally or externally tired. 
Locomotive, marine and portable boilers are internally fired 
because the fuel is burned in an iron furnace surrounded with 
a water-jacket or water-leg. Cylinder-flue, double-deck, tub- 
ulous and sectional boilers are externally fired, because the 
fuel is burned in a brick furnace lined with fire-brick. 

A perfect steam-boiler should be made of the best material 
sanctioned by use, and should be simple in construction. 
It should have a constant and thorough circulation of water 
throughout the boiler, so as to maintain all parts at one tem- 
perature. 

It should be provided with a mud-drum to receive all im- 
purities deposited from the water, and the mud-drum should 
be in a place removed from the action of the fire. 

It should have a combustion chamber so arranged that the 
combustion of the gases commenced in the furnace may be 
completed before the escape to the chimney. 

All parts should be readily accessible for cleaning and 
repairs. 

The boiler should have ample water surface for the dis- 
engagement of the steam from the water in order to prevent 
foaming. It should have a large excess of strength over 
any legitimate strain. It should be proportioned for the 
work to be done. 

It should have the very best gauges, safety-valves, fusible 
plugs, and other fixtures. 

A water-tube boiler should have from 10 to 12 square feet of 
heating surface for one horse-power; a ttibular boiler 14 to 
1 8 square feet of heating surface for one horse-power; a 
flue-boiler 8 to 12 square feet of heating surface for one horse- 
power ; a plain cylinder boiler should have from 6 to 10 
square feet of heating surface for one horse-power; ^.locomotive 
boiler should have from 12 to 16 square feet of heating surface 
for one horse-power; a vertical boiler should have from 15 to 
20 square feet of heating surface for one horse-power. 

The following table gives an approximate list of square feet 
of heating surface per H. P. in different styles of boilers; the 



46 

rate of combustion of coal per hour, per square foot of grate 
surface, required for that rating; the relative economy, and 
the rapidity of steaming: 



TVI-E OF BOILER. 


Sq. ft. for 
one H. P. 


Coal for 
each sq. ft. 


Relative 
Economy. 


Relative 
rapidity of 
Steaming. 


Water tube ". 


IO to 12 


.3 


I .OO 


1. 00 


Tubular 


14 to 18 


.25 


.91 


-5 


Flue 


8 to 12 


4 


79 


2 5 


Plain cylinder 


6 to 10 


.5 


.69 


.20 


Locomotive 


12 to 16 


- 2 75 


.85 


.55 


Vertical tubular. 


15 to 20 


25 


.80 


.60 













to 



HORSE-POWER. 

Strictly speaking there is no such thing as " horse-power " 

a steam boiler; it is a measure applicable only to dynamic 
effect. But, as boilers are necessary to drive steam-engines, 
the same measure applied to steam-engines has come to be 
universally applied to the boiler. The standard, as fixed by 
Watt, was one cubic foot of water evaporated per hour from 
212 for each horse-power. This was, at that time, 
the requirement of the best engine in use. Since Watt's 
time, however, this requirement has been reduced until 
engines requiring but one-half or one-quarter a cuWc foot of 
water per hour, are in daily use. However, even though 
the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia adopted as a 
standard for tests of boilers 30 founds water per hour, eva- 
porated at 70 pounds pressure, from 100 for each horse- 
power, the general rule, in estimating horse-power of boilers 
is based on its evaporating one cubic foot of water per horse- 
power per hour. A cubic foot of water weighs 62^ pounds. 

Estimating horse-power of boilers. One cubic foot, or 
62^ pounds, or 6.23 gallons of water evaporated per hour, 
is equivalent to one horse-power. That is, a boiler that will 
evaporate ten cubic feet of water, or 625 pounds of water, or 
62 1/3 gallons of water per hour, is a boiler of lo horse-power. 

An easy approximate rule for estimating the horse-power of 
a boiler off-hand (if the boiler is a cylinder or flue boiler) is 
to multiply the length of the boiler by the diameter, in feet, 
and divide by 6; the quotient will be the nominal horse- 
power. Another rule, Multiply the heating surface in 
square yards by the fire grate surface in square feet; the 
square root of the product will be the nominal horse-power. 



47 

In estimating the heating surface of a boiler, a vertical or 
upright surface has only one-half the evaporative value of a 
horizontal surface above the flame. That is, the sides of a 
locomotive fire-box are only half as effective per square foot 
as the flat top of the box. In flues and tubes, the effective 
surface, measured on the circumference, is i% times the 
diameter. 

To find the fire-grate surface of fine boilers. Square the 
nominal horse-power, and divide it by the heating surface in 
square yards ; the quotient will be the fire-grate surface in 
square feet or, one square foot of fire-grate surface per 
nominal horse-power. 

To find the hea'ing surface of a flue-boiler. Square the 
nominal horse-power and divide that by the fire-grate surface 
in square feet; the quotient will be the heating surface in 
square yards. 

Capacity of Boiler Jlue. One cubic yard of boiler capa- 
city for each nominal horse-power. Steam room should be 
about eight times the contents of the cylinder of the engine 
supplied with steam by the boiler. 

To find the nominal horse-power of a locomotive boiler.-* - 
Square ihe area of the heating surface in square feet, and 
divide by the area of the fire grate in square feet; multiply 
the quotient by .0022; the product will be the nominal horse- 
power. 

To find the area of the heating surface of a locomotive 
boiler. Multiply the nominal horse-power by the area of 
the grate in sqtiare feet; extract the cube root of the product, 
and multiply the root by 21.2, the product is the area of the 
heating surface in square feet. 

To find the area of the fire-grate surface of a locomotive 
boiler. Square the area of the heating surface in square 
feet, divide it by the number of nominal horse-power, or the 
cubic feet of water evaporated per hour. The quotient 
multiplied by .0022 will be the area of the fire-grate surface in 
square feet. 

Or, divide the area of the heating surface in square feet by 
65, the quotient will be the area of the fire-grate in square 
feet, nearly. 

Tubular or marine boilers. Each nominal horse-power 
requires the evaporation of one cubic foot of water per hour; 
12 square feet of heating surface, only three-fourths of the 
whole tube-surface being taken as effective; and 30 square 
inches of fire-grate per nominal horse-power. The sectional 
area of the tubes to be about one-sixth of the fire-grate. 



49 

General rule for all classes of boilers. Twelve square reet 
of heating surface and three-fourths square foot of fire-grate 
per nominal horse-power, are very good proportions. 

TEMPERATURE INDICATED BY THE COLOR OF THE FIRE. 

To determine the temperature of a furnace fire from the 
color of the flame: 

Faint red 960 F. 

Bright red 1,300 F. 

Cherry red 1, 600 F. 

Dull orange 2,000 F. 

Bright orange 2, 100 F. 

White heat.. 2,400 F. 

Brilliant white heat 2,700 F. 

RULES FOR SAFETY-VALVES. 

(See also f age 82.} 

I. To find the distance from the fulcrum at which a given 
weight is to be placed on the lever, in order to balance a given 
pressure in the boiler. Multiply the steam presstire on the 
whole area of the safety-valve by the distance of the center of 
the valve from the center of the fulcrum. Multiply the dead 
weight of the lever and the valve by half the length of the 
lever, subtract this product from the first product, and divide 
the remainder by the given weight, supposed to be a cast-iron 
ball. ^The quotient is the required distance of the weight 
from the fulcrum in inches. It is necessary, in order to find 
the steam pressure on the valve, to multiply the area of the 
valve-seat in inches by the pounds pressure per square inch. 

Suppose that the entire pressure of steam on the valve is 24 
pounds, that the center of the valve is 2 inches from the cen- 
ter of the fulcrum, and that the weight of the ball is 3 pounds 
the first product is 24 X 2 = 48 ; the length of the lever is 
16 inches, and the united weight of the lever and valve is 
4 pounds; then the second product is (162) 8 X 4 = 32. 
Then 48 32 = 16, and 1 6 ~- 3 =5^ inches, the required 
distance of the center of the ball from the center of the 
fulcrum. 

2. To find the weight of the ball to hang onto a given 
length of lever, in order that the steam may blow off at a, 
g&ven pressure. Multiply the whole pressure on the valve 
by its distance from the fulcrum (center to center) ; from this 
product subtract the product of the weight of the lever and 
valve, multiplied by one-half of the length of the lever; 
then divide the remainder by the whole length of the lever. 
The quotient is the weight of the ball in pounds. 



For example The pressure in the boiler is 60 pounds per 
square inch on the valve, the center of the valve is 2 inches 
from the fulcrum, the weight of the valve and lever is lo 
pounds, and the length of the lever is 14 inches. 

Suppose the opening in the boiler to be 2 inches in diame- 
ter, then 2 squared = 4 : and 4 multiplied by .7854 = 3. 1416 
square inches, the area of the valve. The whole pressure on 
the valve is 60 pounds 3.1416 = 188.496 pounds. The 
distance of the center of the valve from the fulcrum is 2 
inches, and 188.496 multiplied by 2= 376.992. From this 
product, subtract the product of the weight of the valve and 
lever (10 pounds) by the half-length of lever, 7 inches (total 
length of lever 14 inches) or lo 7 = 70. Then 376.992 
70 = 306. 992; and 306. 922 divided by the length of the lever, 
or 14 inches, equals 21. 928 pounds, the required length of ball. 

To find the pressure on the valve. Multiply the weight of 
*ke ball by the length of the lever; to this product add the 
/tf-ocruct of trie weight of the lever and valve by the half- 
length of lever, and divide the sum by the distance of the 
valve from the fulcrum. The quotient is the pressure on the 
valve in pounds. Divide this quotient by the area of the 
valve in square inches, and the quotient will give the blow-off 
pressure. 

Suppose the ball weighs 21.928 pounds, the length of the 
lever 14 inches, the weight of the lever and valve 10 pounds, 
the distance of the valve from the fulcrum 2 inches, then 
(21.928 X 14 = 306.992) + 10 X 7 = 70 = 376.992; and 
376.992 -:- 2 = 188.496 pounds, the whole pressure on the 
valve. This pressure divided by 3. 141 6 square inches, the 
area of the 2" valve =60 pounds, the pressure per square 
inch on the boiler. 

SAFETY VALVE CAPACITY. 

A safety valve should be capable of discharging all the 
steam that the boiler can make with all other outlets shut. 
The United States regulations call for one-half square inch 
valve area for each square foot of grates; but where the lift 
will give an effective area of one-half that due to the diameter 
of the valve, one-fourth square inch valve area per square 
foot of grate will answer. They give the following diame- 
ters: 



Area of Grate, Square Feet. 


Diameter of Valve, Inches. 


Common Valve. 


Improved Valve. 




1# 

2 

2/8 
2X 
2/8 
2'X 

2, 

I 

I 

3 3 X 
3# 
4 

4X 

4/8 

4^ 
4^ 
4^ 


n 

i 
i 
ift 

1/8 
j# 
1/8 
I# 
1/8 
I* 

:*i# 

i/s 

2 
2 
2> 
2X 
2X 
2/8 
2/8 


^ 


,_ 


8 


o. . 


10 


12 . . 


14. . . ... 


16 , 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


2 8 


3O 


^2 


34 


36 





CARE OF BOILERS. 

1. Safety Valves. Great care should be exercised to see 
that these valves are ample in size and in working order. 
(See rules for Safety Valves, page 82.} Overloading or neg- 
lect frequently lead to the most disastrous results. Safety- 
valves should be tried at least once a day to see if they 
will act properly. 

2. Pressure Gauge. The steam-gauge should stand at 
zero when the pressure is off, and it should show same press- 
ure as the safety valve when the latter is blowing off. If 
not, then one is wrong, and the gauge should be tested by 
one known to be correct. 

3. Water Level. The first duty of an engineer before 
starting is to see that the water is at the proper height. Do 
not rely on glass gauges, floats or water alarms, but try the 
gauge-cocks. 

4. Gauge-Cocks and Water-Ganges. Both must be kept 
clean. Water-gauges should be blown out frequently, and 
the glasses and passages to gauge kept clean. 

5. Feed-Pumpor Injector. ^hese should be kept in per- 



52 

feet order, and of ample size. No make of pump can be 
expected to be continuously reliable without regular and care- 
ful attention. It is always safe to have two means of feeding 
the boiler. Check-valves and self-acting feed-valves should 
be frequently examined and cleaned. Satisfy yourself that the 
valve is acting when the feed-pump is at work. 

6. Low Water. In case of low water immediately cover 
the fire with ashes (wet if possible) or any earth that may 
be at hand. If nothing else is handy use fresh coal. Draw- 
fires as soon as it can be done without increasing the heat. 
Neither turn on the feed^ start or stop engine^ or lift safety- 
valve iintil fires are out and the boiler cooled down. 

7. Blister and Cracks. These are liable to occur in the 
best plate iron or steel. When first indications appears, 
there must be no delay in having it examined and carefully 
cared for. 

8. Fusible Plugs. When used, must be examined when 
the boiler is cleaned, and carefully scraped clean on both 
water and fire sides, or they are liable not to act. 

9. Firing. Charge evenly and regularly, a little at a 
time Moderately thick fires are most economical, but thin 
firing must be used when draught is poor. Take care to 
keep the grates evenly covered, and allow no air-holes in the 
fire. Be especially careful to lay the coal along the sides 
and in the corners. All lumps should be broken into the 
size of a man's fist. With bituminous coal, a " coking fire" 
(that is, firing in front, and then shoving the coal back when 
it is coked), gives the best result. Do not " clean " fires 
oftener than necessary. The cleaning of the fire is best done, 
in ordinary working, by a " rake," or other tool, working on 
the under side of the grate, and not by a " slice-bar," driven 
into the mass of fuel above the grates. 

10. Cleaning. All heating surfaces must oe kept clean, 
outside and in, or there will be serious waste of fuel. The 
frequency of cleaning will depend on the nature of the fuel 
and water. As a rule never allow over one-sixteenth inch 
scales or soot to collect on surfaces between cleanings. Hand 
holes should be frequently removed and surfaces examined, 
particularly in case of a new boiler, until proper intervals 
between cleanings have been established by experience. 
Examine mud-drums and remove sediment therefrom. 

1 1. Hot Water Feed. Cold water should never be fed into 
a boiler if it can be avoided, but when necessary, it should 
be caused to mix with the heated water before coding in con- 
tact with any portion of the boiler. 



53 

12. Foaming. When foaming occurs in a boiler, check- 
ing the outflow of the steam will usually stop it. If caused 
by dirty water, blowing down and pumping up will generally 
cure it. In cases of violent foaming, check the draught and 
cover the fires. 

13. Air Leaks. Be sure that all openings for admission 
of air to boiler or flue, except through the fire, be carefully 
stopped. This is often an unsuspected cause of serious waste. 

14. Blowing Off. If feed-water is muddy or salt, blow off 
a portion often, according to the condition of the water. 
Empty the boiler every week or two, and fill up fresh. 
When surface blow-cocks are used, they should be often 
opened for a few minutes at a time. Make sure no water is 
escaping from the blow-off cock when it is supposed to be 
closed. Blow-off cocks and check-valves should be examined 
every time the boiler is cleaned. 

15. Leaks. Repair leaks as soon as possible after dis- 
covered. 

1 6. Emptying Boiler. Never empty the boiler while the 
brick- work is hot. 

17. Rapid Firing. Don't indulge in rapid firing. Steam 
should be raised slowly from a cold boiler. 

18. Standing Unused. If a boiler is not required for 
some time, empty and dry it thoroughly. If this is imprac- 
tical, fill it quite full of water, and put in a quantity of 
common washing soda. 

19. General Cleanliness. All things about the boiler- 
room should be kept clean and in good order. Negligence 
tends to waste and decay. 

INJECTORS. 

In setting up injectors, be careful that all the supply-pipes, 
steam, water or delivery, have the same diameter (internal 
diameter) as the hole, nipple, branch, plug, tee, or reducer 
to which they are attached, and that they are as smooth, 
direct and straight as possible. 

Place a strainer over the end of the supply pipe to keep 
out chips, dirt, etc., but be careful that the meshes or holes 
of the strainer will equal in area the area of the supply-pipe. 

In piping for steam for the injector, take steam from the 
highest part of the boiler so as to get dry steam. All pipes 
should be air and water tight, otherwise the injector will 
kick back, take air and sputter. (? 

In case the water is not to be lifted, but is fed with a head 



54 

from a tank or hydrant, place a stop-cock on the pipe to 
keep the boiler from being flooded. 

A stop-valve should also be placed in the steam-pi'oe, be- 
tween the steam-room and the boiler and injector, anj a 
check-valve between the \\arer-space and injector. 

PUMPS FOR SUPPLYING BOILERS. 

N"ver use smaller diameters of pipes than are called for in 
tne ta-oles furnished by the manufacturers of the pump, as all 
makers ot pumi s kn >w the capacity and work to be done by 
their pumps and their calculations are correct; however, 
when long pipes are used it is necessary to increase the diam- 
eter to allow for increased friction. Observe this suggestion 
especially in regard to suction-pipes. Use as few elbows, 
T's, and valves as possible, and run every pipe in as direct a 
line as practicable; use full, round bends when convenient; 
use Y's instead of T's when possible. Bends, returns, T's 
and elbows increase friction more rapidly than length of pipe. 
"are should be taken, against leaks in the suction-pipe, as 

very small leak destroys the effectiveness of the suction of a 
, \mp. 

See to it that a full head of water is constantly furnished 
i pump. To prevent the pump from freezing in cold 
M ither, care should be taken to open the drip-plugs and 
C( ks which are provided for the purpose of draining the 
p\ ip. 

vl r ater at a high temperature cannot be raised any consid- 
erable distance by suction. For pumping very hot water, 
place the supply high enough so that the water will gravitate 
to the pump. 

A large suction-chamber placed on the suction-pipe im- 
mediately by the pump is very advantageous, and for pumps 
running at high speed it is a necessity. Keep the -stuffing- 
boxes nicely packed. Ordinary speed to run a pump is not 
over loo feet piston travel per minute. For continuous 
boiler-feeding service about half that speed is recommended. 
Take as good care of your pump as you do of your engine. 

SOME USEFUL INFORMATION ABOUT WATER. 

Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity/02^ 
times. Friction of liquids increases as the square of velocity. 

To find the pressure in square inches of a column of water. 
Multiply the height of the column in feet by .434, approxi- 
mately, every foot elevation is equal to % pound pressure 
per square inch ; this allows for ordinary friction. 



55 

FRICTION OF WATER IN PIPES. 

tfr 

Friction-loss in Pounds Pressure per square inch, for each 100 feet 
of length in different size clean Iron Pipes discharging given quanti- 
ties of water per minute. 



N 

P 

5 

10 

15 
ao 

25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
5 
75 
xoo 

"5 

150 
175 

200 
250 
3 00 
350 
400 
45 
500 
750 
1OOO 

1250 
1500 


SIZES OF PIPES INSIDE DIAMETER. 


K In- 


i In. 


xtfhi. 


*ln. 


2 In 


afcln. 


3 In. 


4 In. 


6 In. 


8 In. 


3-3 
13.0 
28.7 
50 4 
78.0 


o 84 
3 -16 
6.98 
12 3 
19.0 


o 31 
1.05 

2 3 8 
4.07 
6.40 


12 
0.47 

o-97 
1.66 
2.62 












0.12 






















0.42 
























































48 o 


16 i 


6 ?2 


I 60 


















8.15 
























0.81 




























































4.89 






















-> H? 
















28.1 


9.46 


3-85 
































19.66 
28 06 


II. 2 
15-2 

25.0 
30.8 


1.89 

2.66 
3-65 
4-73 
6.01 

7 43 


0.26 
o-37 
0.50 
0.65 
0.81 
0.96 

2.21 

3-88 


0.07 

0.12 

0.16 

0.20 

0.25 

0-53 
0.94 
1.46 
2.09 

























































































































The mean pressure of the atmosphere is usually estimated 
at 14.7 pounds per square inch, so that with a perfect vacu- 
um, it will sustain a column of mercury 29. 9 inches, or a col- 
umn of water 33.9 feet high. 

To find the diameter of a pump cylinder to move a given 
quantity of water per minute (100 feet of piston travel being 
the standard of speed), divide the number of gallons by 4, 
then extract the square root, and the product will be the 
diameter in inches of the pump cylinder 

To find the quantity of water elevated in one minute, run- 
ning at 100 feet of piston speed per minute, square the diam- 
eter of the water-cylinder in inches and multiply by 4. Ex* 
ample: Capacity of a 5 -inch cylinder is desired. The square 
of the diameter (5 inches) is 25, which, multiplied by 4, 
gives 100, the number of gallons per minute, nearly. 



56 

To find the horse-power necessary to elevate water to a 
given height : multiply the total weight of the water in 
pounds, by the height in feet, and divide the product by 33,. 
ooo. (An allowance of 25 per cent, should be added for 
water friction, and a further allowance of 25 per cent, for 
loss in steam-cylinder. ) 

The area of the steam piston in square inches, multiplied by 
the steam pressure, gives the total amount of pressure that 
can be exerted. The area of the water piston, multiplied by 
the pressure of water per square inch, gives the resistance. 
A margin must be made between the power and resistance to 
move the pistons at the required speed say from 20 to 40 per 
cent. , according to speed and other conditions. 

To find the capacity of a cylinder in gallons. Multiplying 
the area in inches by the length of stroke in inches, will give the 
total number of cubic inches; divide this amount by 231 
(which is the cubical contents of a United States gallon in 
inches), and the quotient is the capacity in gallons. 

To find the quantity of water that will be discharged 
through an opening or pipe in the sides or bottom of 'a pipe, 
tank, barrel or vessel. Multiply the area of orifice or 
hole in square inches by the number corresponding to height 
f surface above orifice, as per table. The product will be 
the cubic feet discharged per minute. 



Height of 
surface above 


Multi- 


Height of 
surface above 


Multi- 


Height of 
surface abve 


Multi- 


Orifice. 


plier. 


Orifice. 


plier. 


Orifice. 


plier. 


Feet. 




Feet. 




Feet. 




I 


2-25 


18 


9-5 


40 


14.2 


Z 

I 

8 


3-2 

4-5 
5-44 
6.4 


20 

22 

9 


10. 

10.5 
n. 

"5 


45 

g 

70 


'I'* 
1 6. 

17.4 

18.8 


10 


7-i 


28 


12. 


80 


20. i 


12 


7-8 


30 


12.3 


90 


21.3 


14 


8.4 


3 2 


12.7 


100 


2*.$ 


16 


9- 


35 


13-3 







To find the size of hole necessary to discharge a given quan* 
tity of water under a given head. Divide the cubic feet of 
water discharged by the number corresponding to height, as 
per table. The quotient will be the area of orifice required 
in square inches. 



57 



i'a&ifsB'ig^ii^J 


Hi 


4* tO O 00*^ C^t-n Ui 4^ 4*. OJ C> j tO tO to H M 


s-fft'g 




5 


4> 4^ ON to to to to O O *^J **>J **-! ^s\ 4> 4^ OJ Oj 


rr ?r 
n 


ON >^ <~r\ to to N< HH 


v 


O*-J4^ CNO4^ O OO CsOJ OJ to >-i O O O O 


H 






SP 


c| 


iH|i|^^p^| 


C/O t* 

If 


r 


% 




^^^ 


^^ ^ ^^^xx 






, w 

3 HgX 


MS w\ M\-^X4^S^\^X ^\'^\^\ O^s. O^\. 




O OO s . '--ri Or 4^ 4^ ^J OJ to tO tO "~< *^ "^ 


wf 




a 


** ^X ^ 


III 


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 


:r c "* 
rs -, V) 


v^^tooovovooas^^^oo^ ^^^ 


r 



To find the height necessary to discharge a given quantity 
through a given orifice. Divide the cubic feet of water dis- 
charged by the area of orifice in square inches. The quotient 
will be the number corresponding to height, as per table. 

The above rules represent the actual quantities that will be 
delivered through a hole cut in the plate; if a short pipe be 
attached the quantity will be increased, the greatest delivery 
with a straight pipe being attained with a length equal to four 
times the diameter of the hole. If a taper pipe be attached 
the delivery will be still greater, being 1*4, times the delivery 
through the plain orifice. 

STEAM FOR HEATING. 

In estimating for steam-heating, allow one square foot of 
boiler surface for each ten square feet of radiating surface. 
Small boilers should be larger proportionately than large 
boilers. 

Each horse-power of boiler will supply from 250 to 350 feet 
of I inch pipe, or 80 to 120 square feet of radiating surface. 

Under ordinary circumstances, one horse-power will heat 
about as follows: 

Brick buildings in blocks i5>ooo to 20,000 cubic feet. 

Brick stores in blocks 10,000 to 1 5,000 * * " 

Brick dwellings, exposed all sides 10,000 to 15,000 " * { 

Brick mills, shops, etc 7,000 to 10,000 " " 

Wooden buildings, exposed 7,000 to 10,000 '* ** 

Foundries and wooden shops. .. .6,000 to 10,000 " " 

It is, of course, but good workmanship to make all the 
joints steam and water tight, as the slightest leak in a steam- 
heating system is apt to do considerable damage to furniture, 
curtains, carpets, etc., if the steam is intended to heat a dwell- 
ing. Red or white lead is all right as material to make up 
joints, but graphite is much better (see page 141). For gas- 
kets there is nothing better than asbestos, and this material 
is now manufactured into gasket rings cut true to size, mak- 
ing asbestos gaskets not only the best, but furnished in a 
convenient form which will be highly appreciated by the 
steam-fitter. 

The quality of rubber sheets sold by dealers for gaskets, is 
sometimes of the poorest order, and rubber in any form, vul- 
canized or otherwise, is poor stuff to put in contact with 
steam. Gaskets made of thin lead are good, and first class 
packing can be made of candle wicking and ordinary resin 
soap, but asbestos is the best. 



59 
THE WESTINGHOUSE AUTOMATIC BRAKE. 

The Westlhghouse Automatic Brake consists of the follow- 
ing essential parts : 

I st. The steam engine and pump, which produce the com- 
pressed air, the supply of steam being regulated by the pump- 
governor. 

2d. The main reservoir, in which the compressed air is 
stored. 

3d. The engineer* s brake-valve, which regulates the flow 
of air from the main reservoir into the brake-pipe for releas- 
ing the brakes, and from the brake-pipe to the atmosphere for 
applying the brakes. 

4th. The equalizing-valve ', which is connected to a small 
reservoir, and permits the escape of air from the main brake- 
pipe, until the pressure in that pipe throughout the entire 
train is reduced to the same pressure as that in the small 
reservoir, thus preventing the release of the forward brakes 
by the engineer closing the brake-valve too quickly, before 
the pressure in the rear part of the pipe has had time to be- 
come reduced. 

5th. The main brake-pipe, which leads from the main 
reservoir to the engineer's brake-valve, and thence along the 
train, supplying the apparatus on each vehicle with air. 

6th. The auxiliary reservoir, which takes a supply of air 
from the main reservoir through the brake-pipe, and stores it 
for use on its own vehicle. 

7th. The brake-cylinder, .which has its piston-rod attached 
to the brake-levers in such a manner that, when the piston is 
forced out by air pressure, the brakes are applied. 

8th. The triple valve, which connects the brake-pipe to 
the auxiliary reservoir, and connects the latter to the brake- 
cylinder, and is operated by a sudden variation of pressure in 
the brake-pipe (i) so as to admit air from the auxiliary reser- 
voir to the brake-cylinder, which applies the brakes, at the 
same time cutting off the communication from the brake-pipe 
to the auxiliary reservoir, or (2) to restore the supply from 
the brake-pipe to the auxiliary reservoir, at the same time 
letting the air in the brake-cylinder escape, which releases the 
brake. 

9th. The couplings, which are attached to flexible hose 
and connect the brake-pipe from one vehicle to another. 

The automatic action of the brake is due to the construc- 
tion of the triple valve, the primary parts of which are a 
piston and a slide-valve. A reduction of pressure in the brake- 
pipe causes the excess of pressure in the auxiliary reservoir to 



force the piston of the- triple valve down, moving the slide* 
valve clown so as to allow the air in the auxiliary reservoir to 
pass directly into the brake-cyl nder and apply the brakes. 
When the pressure in the brake-pipe is again increased above 
that in the auxiliary reservoir the piston is forced up, moving 
the slide-valve to its former position, opening communication 
from the brake-pipe to the auxiliary reservoir and permitting 
the air in the brake-cylinder to escape, thus releasing ihe 
brakes. 

Thus it will be seen that any reduction of pressure in the 
brake-pipe applies the brakes, which is the essential feature 
of the automatic brake. If the engineer wishes to apply 
the brakes he moves the handle of the engineer's brake- 
valve to the right, which first closes a valve retaining the 
pressure in the main reservoir and then permits a portion 
of the air in the brake-pipe to escape. To release the 
brakes he turns the handle to its former position, which 
allows the air in the main reservoir to flow into the brake- 
pipe, restoring the pressure and releasing the brakes. A 
valve called the conductor's valve is placed in each car, 
with a cord running the length of the car, and any of the 
trainmen, by pulling this cord can open the valve, which 
allows the air to escape from the brake-pipe. In applying 
the brake in this manner the valve must be held open until 
the train comes to a stop. Should the train break in two 
the air in the brake-pipe escapes and the brakes are ap- 
plied to both sections of the train, and should a hose or 
pipe burst the brakes are also automatically applied. 

The gauge shows the pressure in the main reservoir and 
brake-pipe when they are connected, and the pressure in the 
brake-pipe alone when the main reservoir is shut off by the 
movement of the engineer's brake-valve. 

A stop cock is placed in each end of the brake-pipe, and is 
closed before separating the couplings, thus preventing an 
jpplication of the brakes when cars are uncoupled. 

The diagram above the engineer's brake-valve shows the 
various positions of the handle for applying the brakes with 
any desired degree of force, for releasing the brakes, and the 
position in which the handle is to be kept after the brakes 
have been released. 

Following will be found detailed views and descriptions of 
detached portions of the apparatus; also a full series of in- 
structions for its proper use and maintenance. Too much 
importance cannot be attached to that portion of the instruc- 
tions stating that engineers should use care and moderation 



6i 

in applying the brakes for ordina 'y stops. By applying 
them at a fair distance from the station, with moderate force, 
the train is stopped gently and without inconvenience to the 
passengers, while if they are thrown on with the utmost force 
possible, the train is jerked in a manner that is extremely 
disagreeable to the passengers. 

AIR PUMP- 

Referring to cut, it will be seen that the steam from the 
boiler enters the top cylinder between two pistons forming 
the main valve. The upper piston being of greater diameter 
than the lower, the tendency of the pressure is to raise the 
valve, unless it is held down by the pressure of a third piston 
of still greater diameter, working in a cylinder directly above 
the main valve. 

The pressure on this third piston is regulated by the small 
slide-valve, working in the central chamber on the top head. 
This valve receives its motion from a rod extending into the 
hollow piston which, as shown in the drawing, has a knob at 
its lower end and a shoulder just below the top head. This 
valve chamber in the top head, by a suitable steam-port, is 
constantly in communication with the steam space between 
the two pistons of the main valve. The steam acting on the 
third piston and holding the main valve down, admits steam 
below the main piston; as the main piston approaches the 
upper head, the reversing-valve rod and its valve are raised 
until the slide-valve exhausts the steam from the space above 
the third, or reversing-piston, when the main valve is raised 
by the steam pressure on the greater area of its upper piston, 
which movement of the main valve admits steam to the upper 
end of the main cylinder. 

When the main valve * .aoved up to admit steam to the 
upper end of the cylinder, it opens an exhaust port at the 
lower end just below the lower steam-port, which latter is 
closed by the lower piston of the main valve; and when the 
main piston is on its upward stroke the upper exhaust-port is 
similarly opened. 

The air valves of the pump are similar to those used in all 
pumps. The lift of a discharge valve should not exceed one- 
sixteenth of an inch, and the lift of receiving valves should 
not exceed one-eighth of an inch. Care should be taken to 
have the lift of the discharge valves exactly the same, other- 
wise the stroke of the pump will be quicker in one direction 
than in the other. 



must 




TRIPLE VALVE. 

The arrangement of the auxiliary reservoir, cylinder and 
triple-valve, with the latter in section, are shown in cut 

^-gg&s.. - .. - 







The triple valve has a piston 5, working in the chamber B, 
and carrying with it the slide-valve 6. Air entering from 
the main pipe passes through the four-way cock 13 by ports 
a, r, and the drain-cup A, and chamber B, forcing the piston 
5 into its normal position as shown, thence through a small 
groove past the piston into the valve-chamber above, and into 
the auxiliary reservoir, while at the same time there is an open 



6 4 

communication from the brake-cylinder to the atmosphere, 
through the passage d, e,f ana g. Air will continue to flow 
into the auxiliary reservoir until it contains the same pressure 
as the main brake-pipe. 

To apply the brakes with their full force, the pressure in 
the main brake-pipe is allowed to escape, whereupon the 
greater pressure in the auxiliary reservoir forces the piston 
down on the graduating-stem 8, and in so doing closes the 
feed opening past the piston. As the piston descends, it 
moves with it the slide-valve so as to permit the air to flow 
directly from the auxiliary revcrvoir into the brake-cylinder, 
which applies the brakes. The brakes are released by re- 
admitting pressure into the main brake-pipe from the main 
reservoir, which pressure, being greater than that in the 
auxiliary reservoir, forces the piston back to the position 
shown in the drawing, when the air in the brake-cylinder 
escapes.^ To apply the brakes gently, a slight reduction is 
made in the pressure in the main brake- ^pc, which moves 
the piston down slowly until it is sroppecTi-y ihe graduating 
stem 8 and spring 9, at this point the opening /, in the slide- 
valve is opposite the port/", and allows air from the auxiliary 
reservoir to feed through a hole in the side of the slide-valve 
and through the opening /, into the brake-cylinder ^ When 
the pressure in the auxiliary reservoir has been reduced by 
expanding into the brake-cylinder, until it is the same as the 
pressure in the main brake-pipe, the graduating spring pushes 
the piston up far enough to close a small valve 7, which is 
placed in the feed opening /, of the slide-valve. This causes 
whatever pressure is in^ the brake-cylinder to be retained, 
thus applying the brake with a force proportionate to 
the reduction of pressure in the brake-pipe. To prevent 
the application of the. brakes, from a slight reduction of 
pressure caused by leakage in the brake-pipe, a semi- 
circular groove is cut in the body of the car-cylinder, ^ of 
an inch in width, <, of an inch in depth, and extending so 
that the piston must travel three inches before the groove is 
covered by the packing leather. A small quantity of air, 
such as results from a leak, passing from the triple-valve into 
the car cylinder, has the effect of moving the piston slightly 
forward, but not sufficiently to close the groove, which per- 
mjts the air to flow out past the piston. If, however, the 
brakes are applied in the usual manner, the piston will be 
moved forward, notwithstanding the slight leak, and will 
cover the groove. It is very important that the groove shall 
be three inches long, and shall not exceed in area the dimen- 
sions given above. 



65 

When the handle of the four- way cock 13, is turned down, 
there is a direct communication from the main brake-pipe to 
the brake-cylinder, the triple-valve and auxiliary reservoir 
being cut out, and the apparatus can be worked as a noa- 
automatic brake by admitting air into the main brake-pipe 
and brake-cylinder, to apply the brakes. When from any 
cause it is desirable to have the brake inoperative on anjr 
particular car, the four-way cock is turned to an intermediate 
position, which shuts off the brake-cylinder and reservoir, 
leaving the main brake-pipe unobstructed to supply air to 
the remaining vehicles. 

The drain cup A collects any moisture that may a<?cumtt- 
late, and is drained by unscrewing the bottom nut. 

ENGINEER'S BRAKB-VALVE. 



PLATE! vh 




The handle I of the engineer's brake-valve terminates in a 
screw with a coarse thread, which compresses a spring 4 upon 
the top valve 3; this top valve fits into a slot in the handle I 



66 

and into a slot in the main valve 6, so that the handle and the 
two valves must turn simultaneously. In the position shown 
in the drawing, which is for releasing the brakes, the top valve 

3 leading to the atmosphere is kept closed by the compression 
of the spring 4, and the air passes freely from the main reser- 
voir to the brake-pipe through the openings of the main valve 
and the body of the brake-valve. After the brakes are off, 
the handle is moved against the second stop, a short distance 
to the right, which turns the main valve so that the main 
passages to the break-pipe are closed. Air can, however, 
pass through the small valve 7, and thence to the brake-pipe 
through a small opening not shown in the drawing. This 
small valve 7 is held down by a spring whose resistance is 
equal to 20 Ibs. per square inch, hence the pressure in the 
main reservoir will be 20 Ibs. greater than that in the brake- 
pipe, which surplus pressure insures the certain release of the 
brakes when desired. To apply the brakes the handle is 
moved still further to the right, when the opening from the 
small valve 7 is also closed, cutting off all communication 
from the main reservoir to the brake-pipe, at the same time 
the action of the screw lifts the handle and relieves the spring 

4 from pressure, when the air in the brake-pipe lifts the valve 
3, and escapes, until an equilibrium is established between 
the air pressure and the pressure of the spring on the valve 3, 
thus reducing the pressure in the brake-pipe to an extent cor- 
responding to the distance which this handle is moved. 

To apply the brakes suddently the handle is turned the entire 
distance to the right, which relieves the spring ot all compres- 
sion, allowing the valve 3 to rise, and all of the air in the 
brake-pipe to escape. 

After the train is stopped, the brakes are released by turn- 
ing the handle to the position shown in the drawing. 

The pump-governor is shown in the cut, the object of 
which is to automatically cut off the supply of steam to the 
pump when the air pressure in the train-pipe exceeds a cer- 
tain limit, say 70 Ibs. 

The operation of this governor is as follows: The wheel 8 
is screwed down so as to permit the valve 10 to be unseated 
by the excess of pressure on the upper side of the valve per- 
mitting steam to pass through the openings A and B to the 
pump. A connection is made from the train -pipe to the up- 
per end of the governor, and the compressed air passes 
around the stem 14 to the upper side of the diaphragm plate 
18, which is held to its position by the spring 1 6, which latter 
is of sufficient strength to resist a pressure of say, 70 lbs 



TO TRAM PIPS PUMP-GOVERNOR. 




68 

per square inch on diaphragm. As soon as the air pressure 
on the diaphragm 18 exceeds this amount, it forces the dia- 
phragm down, unseating the valve 13, and allowing the 
steam on the upper side of the valve 10 to escape through 
the exhaust 6, which causes an excess of steam pressure on 
the lower side of the valve 10, forcing *.he valve against its 
seat, and cutting off the supply of steam to the pump. 

When the pressure in the train-pipe is diminished by ap- 
plying the brakes, the diaphragm is restored to the position 
shown by the action of the spring 16. The valve 13 is 
seated by the spring 12, and the steam pressure passing 
through the port C, accumulates on the upper side of the valve 
jo, forcing it down, and opening the passage for steam to the 
pump until the air pressure is again restored to the required 
limit of 70 Ibs. 

The use of the governor not only prevents the carrying of 
an excessive air pressure by the engineers, which may result 
in the sliding of the wheels, but it also causes the accumulation 
of a surplus of air pressure in the main reservoir while the 
brakes are applied, which insures the release of the brakes 
without delay. It also limits the speed of the pump and con- 
sequently the wear. 

EQUALIZING VALVE. 

The proper application of the brakes depends upon the 
amount of air discharged from the train pipe, and the manner 
in which it is discharged. The amount of air to be dis- 
charged also depends upon the length of train. 

As stated in the general description of the brake apparatus, ' 
the brakes are applied by reducing the pressure in the train 
pipe, and are released by increasing the pressure. On long 
trains engineers have found it very difficult to discharge the 
air in such a way that they will not first cause a large reduc- 
tion in the front portion of the pipe, and then an increase 
tending to release the brakes on the tender and two or three 
cars next ; the increase of pressure being clue to the expan- 
sion of the air in the pipes of the rear portion of the train. 
The equalizing valve which is shown in Plate 6 (which serves 
also as a large drain cup), is a device which automatically 
provides for the proper discharge of the air on all of the 
vehicles, back of the tender, the engineer having to discharge 
only the required amount from his brake- valve, and always a 
given amount for a certain degree of application, whether the 
train consists of one or fifty cars. 

In the position shown, the air from the equalizing reservoir 
rasses through the r>orts of the enualizint? valve as shown by 



6 9 

the arrows and into the train pipe. When the pressure in 
the equalizing reservoir is reduced slightly to apply the 
brakes, the piston 15 moves down carrying the valve II from 
its seat and permitting the air in the train pipe to escape 
through the ports d, e and g, until the pressure in the train 
pipe equals that in the equalizing reservoir, when the piston 
and valve 1 1 return gradually to the position shown. When 
it is desired to apply the brakes quickly with full force a con- 
siderable reduction is made in the pressure in the equalizing 
reservoir and the piston moves down its entire distance car- 
rying with it the slide valve 4 and uncovering the upper port 
, while air is also allowed to escape through the port/" and 
the lower port g, thus permitting a rapid escape of the press- 
ure in the train pipe until it equals that in the reservoir, 
when the valve returns to the position shown. 

INSTRUCTIONS. 

General. In making up trains all couplings must be united 
so that the brakes will apply throughout the entire train. 
The cocks in the brake-pipe must all be opened (handles point- 
ing down), except that on the rear of the last car, which must 
be closed. 

In detaching engines or cars the couplings must invariably 
be parted by hand; the cocks in the main brake-pipes must 
always be closed before separating the couplings, to prevent 
application of the brakes. 

If the brakes are applied when the engine is not attached 
to the train or car, they can be released by opening the re- 
lease cock usually put in the end of the brake-cylinder. 

The adjustment of the break-gear should be such, that 
when the brakes are full on, the pistons in the brake-cylinders 
will not have traveled to exceed eight or nine inches. This 
will allow for wear of shoes, stretching of rods, springing of 
brake-beams, etc. In narrow gauge freight apparatus the 
adjustment must be such that the piston will not travel more 
than five or six inches. 

Great care must be exercised when taking up the slack in 
the brake connections to have the levers and pistons pushed 
back to their proper places and the slack taken up by the 
under connection, or dead levers. 

The brake-cylinders must always be kept clean so that 
they will readily release when the air has been discharged, 
and should b6 oiled once in three months. The last date of 
oiling should be marked on the cylinder with chalk. 

For the automatic break the handle of the four-way cock 
must be turned horizontally. If turned down it will be 



70 

changed to the simple air-brake; if turned midway between 
these two positions, it will close communication with the 
brake-cylinder and reservoir, and should be so turned when 
desirable to have the brakes out of use on any particular car 
on account of the breaking of rods, etc. It is very important, 
in order to avoid detentions, to keep the handles of these 
four- way cocks in their proper positions. 

In cold weather the triple valve should be drained fre- 
quently, to let out any water that may have collected. Slack 
the bottom nut of the triple valve about half a turn, let the 
water escape and screw it up again. The valve for the ap- 
plication of the brakes from the inside of the car should be 
kept tight, and must be examined by the inspectors. 

Engineers must see that the steam-cylinder is kept well 
lubricated; that the air-cylinder is sparingly lubricated with a 
small quantity of 28 gravity West Virginia well oil; (tallow 
or lard oil must not be used in the air-cylinder); that the 
pump is constantly run, but never faster than is necessary 
to maintain the required air pressure; and that air from 50 
to 60 pounds pressure for low speed or way trains, and from 
70 to 80 pounds pressure for express trains is carried. 

For ordinary stops the brakes should be applied lightly by 
opening the valve or cock and closing it gently when the 
pressure has been reduced from 4 to 8 pounds on the gauge. 

The brakes are fully applied when the pressure shown on 
the gauge is reduced 20 pounds. Any further reduction is a 
waste of air. 

In releasing the brakes, the handle of the brake-valve 
must be moved quite against the stop and be kept there for 
about ten seconds, and then moved back against the inter- 
mediate stop, which is the feed position, and where it must 
remain while the train is running. 

Engineers, upon finding that the brakes have been ap- 
plied by the train men or automatically, must at .once aid in 
stopping the train by turning the handle of the brake- valve 
toward the right, thus preventing escape of air from the main 
reservoir. 

The shoes of the driving-wheel brakes should be so ad- 
justed by turning the screws that the piston moves up from 
3 to 4 inches when the brakes are applied. 

It is important to drain the water out of the main reservoir 
once a week, especially in winter time, and oftener if the 
pump-rod is not kept well packed. 

If cars having different air pressures be coupled together, 
the brakes will apply themselves on those which have the 



highest pressure. To insure the certain release of ail the 
brakes in the train, and also that trains may be charged 
quickly, the engineer must carry the maximum pressure in 
the main reservoir before connecting to a train, and then put 
the handle of his brake-valve in the release position until the 
train is charged with air. If the brakes on the engine and 
tender thus apply themselves by being coupled to a train not 
charged, they should at once be taken off by opening the re- 
lease cock from the brake-cylinders, which ought to be so 
arranged as to be worked from the foot-plate. 

Train- Men. After making up or adding to a train, or 
after a change of engines, the rear brakeman shall ascertain 
whether the brake is connected throughout the train. 

When the hose couplings are not used for connecting the 
brakes between two vehicles, they must be attached to their 
dummy couplings. 

When there is occasion to apply the brakes from the cars, 
the valve must be held open to allow the air to escape until 
the train is brought to a stand-still, but this method of ap- 
plication should only be used in cases of emergency. 

Train-men must in all cases see that the hand-brakes are 
off before starting. 

Before detaching the engine or any carriages, the brakes 
must be fully released on the whole train. Neglecting this 
precaution, or setting the brakes by opening a valve or cock 
when the engine is detached, may cause serious incon- 
venience in switching. 

The pipes and joints must be kept tight, and when leaks 
are discovered they should be corrected, if .serious, before the 
car is again used. 

HOW TO APPLY AND RELEASE THE WESTING- 
HOUSE AUTOMATIC BRAKE. 

The brakes, as has been explained, are applied when the 
pressure in the brake pipe is suddenly reduced, and released 
when the pressure is restored. ^ 

It is of very great importance that every engineer should 
bear in mind that the air pressure may sometimes reduce 
slowly, owing to the steam pressure getting low, or from 
the stopping of the pump, or from a leakage in some of the 
pipes when one or more cars are detached for switching pur- 
poses, and that in consequence it has been found absolutely 
necessary to provide each cylinder with what is called a leak- 
age groove, which permits a slight pressure to escape with- 
out moving the piston, thus preventing the application of the 



72 

brakes when the pressure is slowly reduced, as would result 
from any of the above causes. 

This provision against the accidental application of the 
brakes must be taken into consideration, or else it will some- 
times happen that all of the brakes will not be applied when 
such is the intention, simply because the air has been dis- 
charged so slowly from the Drake-pipe that it only represents 
a considerable leakage, and thus allows the air under some 
cars to be wasted. 

It is thus very essential to discharge enough air in the first 
instance, and with sufficient rapidity, to cause all of the leak- 
age grooves to be closed, which will remain closed until the 
brakes have been released. In no case should the reduction 
in the brake-pipe for closing the leakage grooves be less than 
four or five pounds, which will move all pistons out so that 
the brake-shoes will be only slightly bearing against the 
wheels. After this first reduction the pressure can be re- 
duced to suit the circumstances. 

On a long train, if the engineer's brake-valve be opened 
suddenly, and then quickly closed, the pressure in the brake- 
pipe, as indicated by the gauge, will be suddenly and consid- 
erably reduced on the engine, and will then be increased by 
the air pressure coming from the rear of the train ; hence it 
is important to always close the engineer's brake-valve slowly, 
and in such a manner that the pressure as indicated by the 
gauge will not be increased, or else the brakes on the engine 
and tender, and sometimes on the first one or two cars will 
come off when they should remain on. It is likewise very 
important, while the brakes are on, to keep the engineer's 
brake-valve in such a position that the brake-pipe pressure 
cannot be increased by leakage from the main reservoir, for 
any increase of pressure in the brake, pipe causes the brakes 
to come off. 

On long down grades it is important to be able to control 
the speed of the train, and at the same time to maintain a good 
working pressure. This is easily accomplished where the 
pressure-retaining valve is not in use, by running the pump 
at a good speed, so that the main reservoir will accumulate a 
high pressure while the brakes are on. When, after using 
the brakes some time, the pressure has been reduced to sixty 
pounds, the train pipes and reservoirs should be recharged as 
much as possible before the speed has increased to the maxi- 
mum allowed. A greater time for recharging is obtained by 
considerably reducing the speed of the train just before re- 
charging and by taking advantage of variation in the grades. 



73 

There should not be any safety-valves or leaks in the main 
reservoir, otherwise the necessary surplus pressure for 
quickly recharging cannot be obtained. 

To release the brakes with certainty it is important to have 
a higher pressure in the main reservoir than in the main 
pipe. 'If an engineer feels that some of his brakes are not 
off, it is best to turn the handle of the engineer's brake-valve 
just far enough to shut off the main reservoir, and then pump 
up fifteen or twenty pounds extra, which will insure the re- 
lease of all of the brakes; all of which can be done while the 
train is in motion. 

For ordinary stops great economy in the use of air is 
effected by, in the first instance, letting out from eight to 
twelve pounds pressure, while the train is at speed, taking 
care to begin a sufficient distance from the station. 

BRAKE POWER. 

To obtain the best results, it is important to have the brak- 
ing force proportioned to the weight of the car, or more par- 
ticularly speaking, to the load carried by those wheels upon 
which brakes act. After long experience it has been decided 
to recommend such a proportion of brake levers that a press- 
ure of fifty pounds per square inch on the brake piston will 
bring a force against the brake-blocks on each pair of wheels 
equal to the load carried by them; thus, owing to a great 
variation of cars, it is impossible to have uniform brake 
levers. 

For convenience it has been found best to cut the brake 
connection which joins the brakes of both trucks and to inter- 
pose at this point the brake-cylinder, having with it two levers 
and a tie-rod. With this arrangement it is only necessary to 
get the proper portion of these cylinder levers. 

The following rules will enable those whose duty it is to 
attach brakes to proportion the levers, so as to carry out the 
foregoing recommendation. 

RULE FOR CALCULATING CAR LEVERS. 

The air pressure is rated at fifty (50) pounds per square 
inch on piston, when the brakes are fully applied. (50 Ibs, 
per square inch gives about 4,000 Ibs. for lo-inch cylinder, 
and 2,500 Ibs. for 8-inch cylinder.) 

To find the leverage required. Divide the weight of the car 
resting upon the brake-wheels by the whole pressure on 
piston. 

To find proportipn of brake beam levers. Divide the whole 
length of lever by short end. 



To find the total brake beam leverage. Multiply propor- 
tion of lever by two (2) for the Hodge system, and by four (4) 
for the Stevens'. 

To find proportion of cylinder lever. Multiply the whole 
length of lever by either the required leverage, or the total 
brake beam leverage, and divide by the sum of both, the result 
will give the length of one end of the lever. 

If the required leverage is greater than the A?fo/brake beam 
leverage, the long end of the lever must go next to the cylin- 
der; if less, the short end must go next to the cylinder. 

Dead levers must be made in the same proportion as the 
other truck levers. 

Example Hodge System. 

Weight of car 36,000 Ibs. 

Total pressure on lo-inch piston 4,000 " 

Total length brake beam lever 28 inches. 

Length of short end of brake beam lever 7 " 

Total length of cylinder lever 24 " 

36,000-7-4,000 = 9, leverage required. 

28-7- 7 = 4 X 2= 8, total brake beam leverage. 

24 X 8 = 192 -7- (84-9) = 11.3, short end cylinder lever. 

24 11.3 = 12.7, long end cylinder lever. 

Example Stevens 1 System. 
Total length of cylinder lever 36 inches. 
36,000-7-4,000=9, leverage required. 
28-7-7 = 4*4 i6 total brake beam leverage. 
36 X 9 =324 -7- (9+ 16) = 12.96, short end cylinder lever. 
36 12.96 = 23.04, long end cylinder lever. 

LOCOMOTIVES IN 1832 AND 1888. 

The Baldwin Iron Works, of Philadelphia, in 1832 con- 
sidered it a great feat that they had constructed an engine 
which could draw thirty tons on a level, and the papers of 
the day contained the following announcement: 

NOTICE. The locomotive engine built by M. W. Bald- 
win, of this city, will depart daily, when the weather is fair, 
with a tram of passenger cars. 

tyOn rainy days horses will be attached. 

Now the same works are constructing ten-wheeled con- 
solidated locomotives for the Dom Pedro Railway, in Brazil, 
guaranteed to draw 3,600 tons, with no reservation as to 
"weather." 




. 

ill 

| 

{___} \J 




75 
COLD CHISELS. 

Figures i and 2 are drawings of flat 
chisels. The difference between the two is 
that, as the cutting edge should be parallel 
with the flats on the chisel, and as Fig. I 
has the widest flat, it is easier to tell with it 
when the cutting edge and the flats are parallel; therefore the 
broad flat is the best guide in holding the chisel level to the 
surface to be chipped. Either of these chisels is of a proper 
width for wrought iron or steel, because chisels used on 
these metals take all the power to drive that can be given 
with a hammer of the usual proportions for heavy clipping, 
which is: Weight of hammer, i# Ibs.; length of hammer- 
handle, 13 in. ; the handle to be held at its end, and swinging 
back about vertically over the shoulder. 

If so narrow a chisel be used on cast iron or 
brass with full force hammer blows, it will 
break out the metal instead of cutting it, and 
the break may come below the depth wanted to 
chip, and leave ugly cavities. 

So for these metals the chisel must be broader, 
as in Fig. 3, so that the force of the blow will be spread over 
a greater length of chisel edge, and the edge will not move 
forward so much at each blow, therefore it will not break the 

metal out. 

Another advantage is that the 
/ oroader the chisel the easier it is to 
/ / hold its edge fair with the work 
^XV surface, and make smooth chipping. 
I The chisel-point must be made as 

L 1 thin as possible, the thickness shown 

in sketches being suitable for new 

chisels. In grinding the two faces to form the chisel, be care- 
ful to avoid grinding them round \ as shown in a in the mag- 
nified chisel ends in Fig. 4; the proper way is to grind them 
flat, as in b in the same sketch. Make the angle or edge of 
these two faces as sharp or acute as you can because the 
chisel will then cut easier. 

For cutting brass, hold the chisel about 
the angle shown in c, Fig. 5; for steel, 
that at d same figure. The difference is, 
that with hard metal the more acute 
angle dulls too quickly. 

For heavy chipping, the point may be 
made flat as in Fig. I., or curved as in 





7 6 

Fig. 3,, which is the best, because the corners are relieved 
from duty, and are therefore less liable 
to break. The advantage of the curve 
is greatest in fine chipping, because, as 
seen in Fig. 6, a liner chip can be 
taken without cutting with the corner, 
and these corners are exposed to the 
eye in keeping the chisel edge level with 
the work surface. 

In any case do not grind the chisel 
hollow in its length, as in Fig. 7, or as shown 
exaggerated in Fig. 9, because, in that case, 
the corners will dig in and cause the chisel 
to be beyond control; besides that, there will be 
a force, that, acting on the wedge principle, will 
operate to spread the corners and break them off. 

Do not grind the faces wider on one side than on the other 
of the chisel, as in Fig. 8, because, in that case, the flat of the 
chisel will form no guide to let you know when the cutting 
edge is level with the work surface. Nor must 
y ou grind it out of square with the chisel body, as 
in Fig. 10, because, in that case, the chisel will 
be apt to jump sideways at each hammer-blow. 
* A quantity of metal can be removed quicker by 

using the cape chisel in Fig. n, to first cut out 
grooves, spacing these grooves a little narrower 
apart than the width of the flat chisel, and thus 
relieving its corners. The chisel end must be shaped 
as at a and ^, and not as at c in Fig. 
n, so as to be able to move it side- 
ways, to guide it in a straight line, 
and the parallel part at c will inter- 
fere with this, so that if the chisel is 
started a very little out of line, it will go still 
further out of line, and cannot be moved 
sideways to correct the fault. 
The round-nosed chisel, Fig. 12, must not be made 
straight on its convex edge; it may be straight 
from h to g but from g to the point, it must 
be beveled, so that by altering the height of 
the chisel head it is possible to alter the depth 
of the cut. 

The diamond point chisel in Fig. 14 and 15, 
must be shaped to suit the work, because if it is not to be 
used to cut out the corners of very deep holes, you can bevel 





it at m, and these bring its point x, central to the body of 
the steel, as shown by the dotted line q, rendering the 
corner x less liable to break, which is the great trouble with 





this chisel; but in cutting deep holes the bevel at m must 
be omitted, and you must make the edge straight, as at r in 
Fig. 15. 

The side chisel obeys the same rule, so you may make it 
bevel at w 9 as in Fig. 16, for shallow holes, and 
lean it well over in using, and make the side v w 
straight along its whole length for deep holes; but 
in all chisels for slots or mortises it is desirable to 
have if circumstances will permit, some bevel on the 
side that meets the work, so that the depth of the 
cut can be regulated by moving the chisel head. 

In all these chisels, the chip on the work steadies 
the cutting end, and it is clear, th?t the nearer 
you hold the chisel at its head the steadier yoi can hold it 
and the less the liability to hit your fingers, while the chipped 
surface will be smoother. 

To take a chip off wrought iron, if it is a heavy chip, 
stand well away from the vice, as an old. hand would do, in- 
stead of close to it; if, instead, you wish to take a light chip, 
you must stand nearer to the work, so that you can watch 
the chisel's action and keep its depth of cut level. In both 
cases you must push the chisel forward to its cut, and hold it 
as steadily as possible. 

It is a mistake to move it at each blow, as many do, be- 
cause it cannot be so accurately maintained at the proper 
height. Light and quick blows are always necessary for the 
finishing cuts, whatever the kind of metal may be. 

TURNING OR LATHE TOOLS FOR METALS. 

Few lathe tools, except scrapers, can be used indiscrimi- 
nately for cast iron, wrought iron or brass; each metal needs 
its particular set of tools, differing not so much in the shape 
of their cutting edges, as in the angles which they make with 
the surface of the work to be turned. Thus, Figs. 17, 18, 



19 are each intended to represent in profile the ordinary 
roughing-down tool, but their angles are very different, the 
one from the other. Fig. 17 being only suitable for wrought 
iron, Fig. 18 for cast iron and Fig. 19 for brass. In all 




these, everything (temper of course excepted) depend upon 
the angle at which the tools are ground. The brass tool with 
the flat face would not cut the iron, but would simply scratch 
it; while the iron tools would hitch in the brass and tend to 
" chatter," or " draw-in. " Neither would the tool ground at 
an acute angle for wrought iron, cut cast metal, but would 
itself become broken off at the tip, while the thicker cast iron 
tool would not take clean shavings offwrought iron. Fig. 20 
is a common roughing tool for cast 
iron. The side view gives a proper 
.angle to insure a clean cut without 
breaking the top across ; in the di- 
rection of the dotted line. The 
angle is drawn on the supposition 

that the tool is held horizontally, as indeed it should be, but 
a tool that will not cut nicely in a horizontal direction will 
often work by inclining it at a slight angle. Neither is the 
angle at which a tool should be ground, in order to cut well 
horizontally, necessarily the same. It should be about 65 
with the verical for cast iron, but may vary slightly either 
way. 

In fact, not one workman in ten could say what angle he 
grinds his tools to ; he simply judges the proper angle by his 
eye. The angle which the front of the tool makes with the 
work may vary somewhat more than the upper face, depend- 
ing upon the diameter of the work to be turned, but should 
Dot slope more than 4 or 5 from the vertical for cast iron 
(Fig. 1 8). If it becomes excessive the tool is weak and soon 
breaks off. 



i These details may seem trivial, but they are really of the 
utmost importance. These sketches are taken from tools in. 



79 

actual use and doing their work well. Fig 21 shows a round 
nose, Fig. 22 a parting tool, Fig. 23 a knife-tool for finishing 
edges and faces of flanges, and ends and sides of work, either 
right or left-handed (Fig. 24). The end views of these tools 
show the upper and clearance angles, which are about the 
same as in Fig. 1 8, but may vary somewhat according to the 
work required. 

Figs. 25 are boring- tools for hollow cylinders, tools capa- 



CD 



ble of much modification, their cutting edges not only taking 
the forms of all other tools, but each form also being often 
right and left-handed. In reference to the more usual shape, 
that of the round nose for boring, when used simply as a 
roughing tool, the shape b showing it 
in place, with the axis of the cutting 
angle in the direction of the dotted 
line, is better than that of a, because 
in b the true cutting edge is carried 
*** forward. Hence, in work-shops the 

cutting tools generally take the form b, and the scrapers form^. 
Fig. 26 is a square nose for taking finishing cuts, and Fig. 




t-, 

27 is a tool for scraping; Fig. 28 is a spring tool, also used 
for finishing a turned surface; Figs. 29 and 30 are for finish- 
ing hollows and rounded parts of work, and are either kept 
in different sweeps or ground to circles as wanted. These 



Jtn, 

latter forms are only used for smoothing and polishing, and, 
as they act simply as scrapers, are flat on their upper surfaces. 

For grinding tools, a very handy little grind- 
stone may be made in this fashion (Fig. 31). A 
piece of broken grindstone, 2 inches thick, is 
rudely clipped round to 7 inches in diameter, and 
a y z inch hole bored through the center with a 
common stone-bit; two wooden washers, a' 9 }4 
inch thick by 4 inches in diameter, also have l / 2 



So 

inch holes bored in their centers. A ^ inch bolt, b, thrust 
through the whole keeps them firmly together with the stone 
in the center. 

As the stone is intended to work chucked between cen- 
ters, a small drilled hole is run both into the bolt head and 
into the screwed end, and a V shaped slit, c 9 is filed in the 
head to hold the fork. 

^ Turned up in place, it makes an efficient little grindstone, 
in readiness for use the moment it is supped into the lathe. 
A shallow tin pan slipped between the stone and bed will 
catch any mess that may be made. 

The grindstone or emery wheel alone is used to sharpen 
roughing-down tools; but those used for smoothing and pol- 
ishing should have the edge finished with an oil-stone. 

NOTES ON BELTING. 

Having your machinery, shafting and pulleys properly 
arranged, preparatory to belting, the next thing to be deter- 
mined is the length and width of the belts. When it is not 
convenient to measure with the tape-line the length required, 
the following rule will be found of service: 

Add the diameter of the two pulleys together; divide the 
result by 2> and multiply the quotient by j%> then add this 
product to twice the distance between the centers of the shafts^ 
nd you have the length required. The width of the belt 
depends on three conditions: I, The tension of the belt; 2, 
the size of the smaller pulley and the proportion of the sur- 
face touched by the belt; 3, the speed of the belt. 

The working adhesion of a belt to the pulley will be in 
proportion both to the number of square inches of belt con- 
tact with the surface of the pulley, and also to the arc of the 
circumference of the pulley touched by the belt. This ad- 
hesion forms the basis of all right calculations in ascertaining 
the width of belt necessary to transmit a given horse-power. 

In locating shafts to be connected by belts, care should be 
taken to secure a proper distance one from the other. This 
distance should be such as to allow a gentle sag to the belt 
when in motion. A general rule may be stated as thus: 
When narrow belts are to be run over small pulleys, 15 feet 
is a good average, the belt showing a sag of 1% to 2 inches. 

For larger belts, working on larger pulleys, a distance of 
20 to 25 feet does well, with a sag of 2% to 4 inches. 

For main belts, working on very large pulleys, the dis- 
tances should be from 25 to 30 feet, the belts working well, 
with a sag of 4 to 5 inches. 



8i 

If the distance be too great the weight of the belt wifl 
produce a very heavy sag, which is a decided objection, pro- 
ducing great friction on the bearings, while at the same time 
the belt will have an unsteady flopping motion which will 
destroy both the belt and machinery. Connected shafts 
should never be placed one directly over the other, as in that 
case the belt must be kept very tight to do the work. 

It is best that the angle of the belt with the floor should 
not exceed 45 degrees. It is also best in locating the ma- 
chinery and shafting so that the belts will run off on opposite 
sides, thus relieving the bearings from the friction incident to 
having the tension all on one side. 

The pulleys should be of as large a diameter as can be 
admitted, provided they will not produce a speed of more 
than 3,750 feet a minute. 

Pulleys should be a little wider than the belts required for 
the work. 

The motion of driving should run with, and not against ^ 
the laps of the belts. 

In using tightening or guide pulleys, apply them to the slack 
side of the belt and near the smallest pulley. Belts to run at 
high speed should be made as straight and uniform in section 
and density as possible; if practicable, make them endless; 
that is, with permanent joints, A loose running belt will last 
and wear longer than a tightly-drawn belt. Tightness is evi- 
dence of overwork and disproportion. Never add to the ^vork 
of a belt so much as to overload it. 

The strongest part of a belt leather is near the flesh side, 
about one-eighth of the way through from that side. 

It is best to run the grain (or hair) side of the belt next to 
the pulley. 

The flesh side is not liable to .crack, as the grain side will 
do when the belt is old ; hence, it is ' better to crimp the 
grain instead of stretch ing it. 

The grain side next to the pulley will give the belt thirty 
per cent, more power than if the flesh side was on the pulley. 

The belt, as well as the pulley adheres best when smooth, 
and the grain side is the smoother. 

A belt adheres much better and is less liable to slip when at 
a high speed than at a low speed. Therefore it is best to gear 
a mill with small pulleys and run them at high velocity, than 
with large pulleys and to run them slower. Besides, the cost 
is less, and appearance much neater. 

Keep belts clear of grease and accumulation ^ 
especially from contact with lubricating oi^ 



82 

Protect leather belts from water and moisture. 
Belts should be kept soft and pliable. 

RULES FOR CALCULATING THE HORSE-POWER. WHICH CAN 
BE TRANSMITTED BY BELTING. 

To find the horse-power a single b<>lt can transmit > the size 
of the pulley and the width of the belt being given. Multiply 
the diameter of the pulley in inches by the number of revolu- 
tions per minute; multiply this product by the width of the 
belt in inches, and divide by 2,750; the quotient will be the 
horse-power. 

For' a double belt divide the last product by 1,925 instead 
of 2,750. 

The horse-poiver to be transmitted \ and the size of the pulley 
being known^to find the width of the belt required. Multiply 
the horse-power by 2.750 if the belt is single (by 1,925 if the 
belt is double); also multiply the diameter of the pulley in 
inches by the revolutions per minute. Divide the first prod- 
uct by the last, and the quotient will be the width of belt 
required. 

The horse-pcnver and width of belt being knoivn, to find the 
'diameter of the pulley. Multiply the horse-power by 2,750 
for a single belt (or 1,925 if double); also multiply the revolu- 
tions per minute by the width in inches; divide the first prod- 
uct by the last, and the quotient will be the diameter of the 
pulley in Inches. 

7*he horse -power ) diameter of pulley and width of belt being 
known j to find the number of revolutions necessary. Multiply 
the horse-power by the 2,750 if a single belt (1,925 if double); 
also multiply the diameter of the pulley in inches by the width 
ei the belt in inches; divide the first product by the last, and 
the quotient will be the number of revolutions per minute 
required. 

It is assumed in these rules that the belts are open, and 
that the pulleys both driver and driven are of same 
diameter. If, however, the pulleys are of different diameters 
the smaller pulley will have less surface in contact with the 
belt than on the larger pulley. If this surface called the 
arc of contact, is less than one-half the circumference, the 
above rules must be modified. In that case, instead ot using 
the numbers 2,750 for single belts, and 1,925 for double belts, 
use the following: When the arc of contact of the smaller 
pulley is 



I 



Single 

Belt. 

the circumference ..... . ............. 6,080 

................... 4,730 

.................. 4,400 

................ 3,850 



? 

16 

/*' 

K 



.3.220 

2,750 



Double 
Belt. 
4?25o 

3>3 10 
3,080 
2,700 
2,390 

2,250 

1,925 



TABLE SHOWING STRENGTH OF HELTIXG MATERIALS. 



MATERIALS. 


Breaking 

Strain for i in. 
Wide. 


Thickness. 


*K)ak- tanned leather 


1,250 


1-4 in. 


*t"Oak- tanned leather 


1,166 


1-4 in. 


fOak-tanned leather. ... 


7^o 


14 in. 


TSucrar-tanned leather 


721; 


14. in. 


Ordinary tanned leather 


">So 


316 in. 


^3 -ply rubber . . 


1,000 


7-12 in. 


TCotton-duck. . ... 


2OO 




"fRaw-hide 


958 


5-32 in. 


Flax 


1,489 











fTests at Centennial Exposition, 1876. 

An examination of this table will show that it will be safe 
to estimate the breaking strain of leather and rubber belting 
at 4,000 pounds to the square inch of section, or 1,000 
pounds to each inch of width. Cotton belting is usually laid 
4-ply for the narrower widths, making, according to tables, a 
breaking strain of 800 pounds to the inch of width. This 
brings the three principal materials very near together. 

It is usual in allowing for the working strength of belts, to 
make the safe working strain i to 16 of the actual breaking 
strain, so that we have in this practice, 166 pounds as the 
working strain for leather and rubber to each one inch of 
width, and 133 pounds for that of 4-ply cotton belting. 



8 4 

FEED-WATER HEATERS. 

All water used in the generation of steam for mechanical pur. 
Doses is more or less heavily impregnated with foreign matter 
held in solution; lime, magnesia, sulphur, iron, silica, etc., or 
mud, sand and vegetable impurities held in suspension. 

Where feed-water is pumped directly into boilers without 
first being purified, the heat used for generating steam sets 
free all impurities, and they are precipitated upon the inner 
surfaces of the boiler in the form of scales or incrustation. 




This scale is a non-conductor of heat, and as it is inter- 
posed between the water and iron of the boiler, causes a 
7 /eat deterioration of the boiler and corroding the iron. Be- 
sides, the impurities in the water will cause priming and foam- 
ing, which injures the engine by allowing grit to work into 
the cylinder, causing explosions, stoppages, delays and ex- 
pensive repairs. -> 

To eradicate these evils various solutions and patented 
nostrums are introduced into the boiler; but this is a danger- 



ous and bad practice, as the majority of them are not only 
valueless, but injurious. Sal-soda, however, makes a good 
purge ) as it is called, and may be used with good effect where 
the water causes the boiler to prime or foam. 

It is more economical, however, to purify the water before 
it is fed into the boiler, and to this end, a good feed-water 
heater and filterer is necessary. 

The subject of feed-water heaters has not received much 
attention until within the last few years, but no plant is now 
considered complete without one. Besides purifying the 
water, the heater will increase the temperature of the water 
from its initial temperature to 200 (in some heaters). This 
it does by means of the exhaust steam from the engine pass- 
ing through it, and every degree of temperature raised in the 
feed -water, is so much clear gain in economy of fuel, as the 
table on page 86 will show. 

For instance, if the feed- water enters the heater at 60 and 
is delivered to the boiler at 1 80, there is a saving in fuel of 
10.46 per cent. If the feed-water enters the heater at 40 
and is delivered to the boiler at 200, the saving in fuel 
would be 13.71 per cent. 

The cut of the feed-water heater and purifier represents a, 
standard heater called the Excelsior, made in Chicago, and 
heats the water up to 212, or boiling point. 

It is thus readily seen that a saving of 13 per cent, in fuel 
by the use of a good feed-water heater is a matter of some con* 
siderable importance. A further saving, which cannot be so 
accurately calculated, is the save in the wear and tear of the 
boiler. The forcible injection of a stream of cold water into 
a highly heated vessel is bound to make a sudden variation 
in the degree of temperature, and any such variation is bound 
to affect the boiler to a greater or less extent. Where the 
water for steam purposes is drawn from the city pipes, the 
consumer is charged for the amount of water he uses, as 
measured by the water meter. This expense can be lowered 
fully 30 per cent, by using a feed-water heater, into which 
the exhaust of the engine passes. The steam is condensed 
and is fed back into the boiler again, so that the water, in- 
stead of passing into the open air from the exhaust pipe, is 
collected and again made to do duty as steam. 
&* The feed-water heater should be placed in such a position 
as to be easily accessible on all sides, so that it can be readily 
and easily cleansed, and the sediment removed without dirty- 
ing up the engine or boiler room. 



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Terminal 
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8? 
SETTING SLIDE-VALVES. 

We will suppose the engine to be new, and of the rocker 
type, and horizontal. 

First find in which direction the engine is to run. Set 
the crank on the forward dead-center by means of a square, 
or by a line. Be sure that it is on the center. Set the eccen- 
tric at right angles to the crank, high side turned up. If the 
engine was to run the other way the eccentric would have to 
be turned down, or the engine turned on the other center. 

To get the eccentric accurately at right angles I us 2 the 
following method: I get a planed board and fasten it wher- 
ever I can, at the eccentric side of the engine, in such ? posi- 
tion that it will come under the eccentric rod. I put en ths 
straps and rods loosely. I then hold, or fasten a pencil to "h 
rod, and have an assistant turn the eccentric once arour/f, 
holding the pencil so it will mark the exact travel of the rocf 
on the board. I find the center of this line with a pair of 
dividers or a rule. I turn the eccentric up until the pencil 
comes to the center of line. Fasten the eccentric loosely 
so it won't slip. It is now at right angles to the crank, and 
in the neutral position. If the valve had no lap nor lead the 
eccentric would now be properly set. Next I find the exact 
center of the valve and mark it with a fine line in such a 
manner that the line will show on top of the valve. I also 
find the center of all the parts. I mark a fine line running 
up the side of steam-chest so it can be seen above the 
valve. I then place the valve over the parts, and bring 
line on valve and line on steam-chest, so they are together 
This puts the valve in its central or neutral position. I 
put in the rod and connect it to rocker-arm. I plumb 
the rocker with a plumb-line and bob so that the center of 
eccentric rod-pin will be cut by the line, and screw jamb-nuts 
up to the valve with my fingers. I now fasten the valve so 
it can't move. That is, if I can, without too much trouble. 
Valve, rocker and eccentric are now in the neutral position, 
and temporarily fastened. The eccentric- rod must now be 
brought into such a position that it will hook onto the 
rocker-arm without moving it a hair's breadth. I now turn 
the eccentric the way the engine is to run until I have the 
proper lead or opening. If I have been accurate in my work 
the valve is properly set. To prove it I put the engine on 
the other center, and if the lead is the same I fasten every- 
thing. The valve is set. The distance I turned the eccentric 



88 

from a right angle with the crank is known as the angle of 
advance. 

POINTS ON BOILER'S CIRCUMFERENCE. 
In text-books we have the areas and circumferences of 
circles, but if we don't know how to use them, they are of no 
use to us. They are- all right for tin or any thin stuff, but 
not for boiler-makers. As an instance, supposing we have a 
boiler to make 36" diameter. If we look at the table of cir- 
cumference we will find that it takes 113.098" one hundred 
and thirteen inches and about one-sixteenth. This would not 
give either side or outside diameter, but would be the thick- 
ness of iron, less, if we were wanting inside measurement, or 
more, if for outside diameter. If the shell is of ^"material we 
must add the %" to the diameter for inside diameter, making 
it 36^". For this we will find that it takes 113.883" or a 
little over g of an inch more, and for outside diameter we 
must take off the thickness of material, making the diameter 
35^' For this it would take 112.312", or about 113^5 as 
near as can be got by the common rule. There are several 
ways for figuring this. My plan is to multiply the diameter 
by three, and divide the same by seven, and add the product 
together. But it must be understood that neither this or the 
taking from tables in text-books gives laps. In working this 
rule, three times 36^ is 108^, and 7 into 36 will go 5 times 
and \ over, but instead of calling it \ call it ^, and we have it 
on the rule. For the small course there is a difference of six 
and one-half times the thickness of material. This will hold 
good in all cases, so that if we get one course out by figuring, 
the other maybe got by adding or subtracting this difference. 
As in the majority of men, they have a holy horror of figures, 
especially boiler-makers, in " manufactories. " Another thing 
that is not generally understood among them is the properties 
of a circle. A circular vessel will contain a greater quantity 
than a vessel of any other shape, made of the same amount 
of material. That is to say, if an iron plate, six feet long, 
was rolled to a circle and a bottom put in it, it would hold 
more water than if it was bent square or any other shape. 
The areas of circles are to each other as the squares of their 
diameters. Any circle twice the diameter of another, is 
also four times its area and twice its circumference. The 
diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through its 
center, touching both sides. The radius of a circle is half the 
diameter, or the distance fro* ^foe renter to the circumference. 



8 9 
HOW TO SET A LOCOMOTIVE ECCENTRIC. 

I am familiar with the rule for setting a slipped eccentric 
by placing engine on center and marking the stem 
by using the eccentric that is not slipped, for a guide, but 
what I want is a rule to set a slipped eccentric without 
another to go by; suppose I slip both eccentrics on the right 
side, what am I to do, and why should I do it? A. If both 
eccentrics on a side slip stop at once, protect your train, and 
be sure the eccentrics are slipped, before you go to work on 
them; if they are "off" beyond a doubt, take off the chest 
cover and pinch the engine onto the center (no matter which 
center), take the eccentric next the box first, as you can get the 
other out of the way to work at it; if this is the go-ahead ec- 
centric, place the reverse lever in forward notch and turn 
the eccentric around on the shaft ahead until the port 
opens rV' or ", the amount of lead you want, and fasten it 
there; put the reverse lever in the back notch and turn the 
back-up eccentric back until the port is open, the same as it 
was with the go-ahead, and fasten eccentric Where only one 
eccentric it slipped, it is best to set it by marking the stem; 
that plan is the quickest, as you do not have to take off the 
cover. You will readily see that when one side is on the 
center, the engine will go either way, as steam is admitted to 
one side or the other of the piston on the other side of loco- 
motive, as it is in the center of cylinder, and by setting the 
eccentrics to give lead on the center, and by turning them 
the right way, you can't get them wrong. A good engineer 
will always save himself all this trouble and delay on the road 
by marking the eccentrics in their proper position, if he is 
running a locomotive without eccentric keys. 

CHIMNEYS. 

The following table shows the proportion of sizes of chim- 
neys to the horse-power of the boiler using the chimney. 
The measurements given for the diameter is for internal diam- 
eter. By referring back to the article on " Steam Boilers" 
commencing at page 45, the rules given for fire grate surface 
can be utilized in connection with this table in planning for 
the steam power of a plant. This table has been carefully 
compiled and arranged, and the proportions given may be 
accepted as correct. Too little attention is paid to chimneys, 
and the furnace is often blamed for poor results when the 
ckimney is the part in wrong. Proper draught is all-import- 
ant, and one chimney should never be made to do the work 
of two. 



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External diameter at the base should be one-tenth of the height, unless supported by some other 
structure. The" batter" or taper should be from 3-16 to % inch to the foot of each side. 
Thickness of brick work, one brick (8 or 9 inches) for 25 feet, from top downward. 
If the inside diameter exceed 5 feet, the top length should be i% brick, and if under 3 feet it may 
be $ brick for ten feet. 


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HEIGHT OF CHIMNEYS AND COMMERCIAL 
HORSE-POWER. 


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DEFINITIONS AND USEFUL NUMBERS. 

ARITHMETICAL SIGNS USED IN THIS T.OOK. 

+ Plus, or more, the sign of addition, as 2 + 2 = 4. 
Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as 4 2 =2. 

X signifies multiplied into or by, as 3 X 3 9. 

4- signifies divided by, as lo -4- 5 = 2. 

= signifies equality, or equal to, as 4 + 4 = 8. 
: :: :, the sign of proportion, as 2 : 4 :: 3 : 6; which reads 

thus: as 2 is to 4 so is 3 to 6. 

V , the sign of the square root, as A 7 49 = 7 ; that is. 7 is 
the square root of 49, or 7 is the number which, if multi- 
plied by itself, produces 49. 

7 2 means the square of 7, or that 7 is to be squared or multi- 
plied by itself. The square of any number is the product 
of the number multiplied by itself. 

7 s means the cube of 7, or that 7 is to be multiplied by 7, 
and again by 7. The cube of any number is the product 
of that number multiplied by itself, and again by itself. 

SQUARE MEASURE AND CUBIC MEASURE. 

144 square inches = I square foot. 
9 square feet = I square yard. 
1,728 cubic inches = I cubic foot. 
27 cubic feet = I cubic yard. 

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED IN THE 
FOLLOWING RULES. 

A & A Point has a position without mag- 

nitude, as at c, Fig. i. 

S E F A Line has length without breadth, 

Figa. 1 and 2. as D E, Pig. 2. 



A Right Line is the shortest distance 
between any two points, P P, Fig. 3. 



fig 3. 



A Superficies has length and breadth only. 
Fig. 4. 
Fig. 4. 




9 2 




A Solid has length, breadth and thickness. 
Fi g- 5- 

An Angle is the opening of two lines hav- 
ing different directions, and is either Right, 
Acute, or Obtuse. 



A Right Angle is made by a line being drawn 
perpendicular to another, as in Fig. 6. 

Fig. 6* 

^S An Acute Angle is less than a Right Angle. 

Fig. 7. 



An Obtuse Angle is greater than a Right 
Angle. Fig. 8. 



A Triangle is a figure bounded by three straight lines. 
Figs. 9, 10, ii. 

A An Equilateral Triangle is a Triangle of which the 
three sides are equal to each other. Fig. 9. 
Fig- 9- 



An Isosceles Triangle has two of its sides equal. 
Fig. 10. 




Fig. 10. 




A Scalene Triangle has all its sides unequal. 
Fig. ii. 



Fig. 11. 



93 




A Right-angled Triangle has one Right Angle. 
Fig. 12. 

Fig. 12- 

A Square is a 4-sided figure having all its sides 
equal, and all its angles Right Angles. Fig. 13. 

p Fig. 13. 

A Rectangle is a 4-sided figure, having its 
angles Right Angles, and of which the length 

4 exceeds its breadth. Fig. 14. 

ig. 14. 

An Arc is any part of the circum- 
ference of a circle, as A c B, Fig. 




Fig. 15. 



A Chord is a right line joining 
the extremities of an Arc, as A B, 
Fig. 15. 

A Segment of a Circle is any part 
bounded by an Arc and its Chord, 
as the Segment A C B, Fig. 15. 

A Diameter is a straight line 
passing through the center of a 
Circle, and bounded by the circum- 
ference at both ends, asG H, Fig. 15. 

A Semicircle is half a Circle, as G c II, Fig. 15. 

The Circumference of a Circle is the outside boundary line 
described on the center with a length equal to the radius. 

A Quadrant is a Quarter Circle, as G o I, Fig. 15. 

A Tangent is a Right Line that touches a Circle without 
C cutting it, as E v, Fig. 15. 



3 Concentric Circles are Circles hav- 
ing the same center, and the space 
included between their circumfer- 
ences is called a Ring. Fig. 16. 




Fig. 16. 



94 



USEFUL NUMBERS IN CALCULATION. 



Lbs. Pounds x 

X 

Diameter of Circle X 
Circumference X 
Cubic inches X 

Cubic feet X 

Cylindrical in. X 

Cylindrical feet X 
Diameter of circle X 
Side of a square X 



.009 

.00045 = 

3.1416 = 

.3183 = 

.003607 : 
6.232 

.002832 = 



Square of the ) 
diameter ) 
Radius of circle 
Cubic inches 
Cylindrical inches 
Cubic ft. of water 
Gallons of water 



.88622 

1. 128 

.7854 

6.2831 



X 

f- 277.274 
+ 353-03 

X 35-9 
X 10 



Hundredweights. 

Tons. 

Circumference. 
: Diameter. 

Gallons. 

Gallons. 

Gallons. 

Gallons. 

= Side of equal sq. 
= Diam. of circle of 
equal area. 

= Area of circle. 

= Circumference. 

= Gallons. 

= Gallons. 

= Tons. 

= Pounds weight. 



MENSURATION. 



To find the circumference of a circle when the diameter is 
given. Multiply the diameter by 3.1416; the product is the 
circumference. 

A common method of calculating the circumference is to 
multiply the diameter by 3, and add \ of the diameter to the 
product. The sum is the circumference, very nearly. Or, 
what amounts to the same thing, multiply the diameter by 
22, and divide the product by 7. 

Another method of finding the circumference is to multi- 
ply the diameter by 3, and add -fg inch to the product for 
every foot-length in the product. ' The reason for adding -fy 
inch for each foot of the product, is, that it is the same in 
effect as the addition of } of the diameter. As the product 
is equal to three times the diameter, the addition to be made 
per foot of product should be only a third of the addition 
per foot of diameter; that is, instead of } of the diameter, 
the addition is ^ of }, or -/,- of the product, which is at the 
rate of ^ inch per foot of the product. 

To find the diameter of a circle when the circumfer- 
ence is given Multiply the length of the circumference by 
the decimal .3183; the product is the diameter. 




95 

Or, divide the circumference by 3.1416; th quotient 
is the diameter. 

Or, multiply the circumference by 7, and divide the 
product by 22; the quotient is the diameter, very nearly. 

To find the area of a circle. Square the diameter that 
is to say, multiply the diameter by itself, cay, in inches 
and multiply the product by the decimal .7854. The 
product is the area of the circle in 
square inches. 

To find the length of an arc of a- 
circle. From 8 times the chord, A 
D, Fig. 17, of half the arc A D E, 
subtract the chord of the whole arc, 
A E, and divide the remainder by 3. 
The quotient is the eighth of the 
arc, nearly. 

Kg. 17. 

To find the diameter when the chord of an 
arc and the versed sine are given. Divide 
the square of half the chord by the versed 
sine, and to the product add the versed 
sine. The sum \. s the diameter. 
Note. The versed sine is the height of the 
arc. 

fo find the area of a segment of a ring. x^^^X 

- ^Multiply half the sum of the bounding f ** *O\ 
/res by their distance apart; the product *( J* A. X> 
is the area. Thus, let the arc A x D be 90 l" T " J "j 
inches long, and the arc B c 40 inches long, V ^ / / 
and the distance A B or C D 18 inches long; ^**&~S 
then 90" + 40" == 130; and 130 -r- 2 = pjg. ^ 

65; and 65 X 18" = 1 1 70 square inches, 
the area. 

To find the area of a segment of a circle. To z /z f tne 
product of the chord A B and versed ine 
n c D of the segment, add the cube of 

the versed sine divided by twice the 
chord; and the sum is the area, nearly. 

Thus 

C Given the chord A B as 20 inches, and 

Fig. 20. the versed sine 3 inches; required the 

area. 20 X 3 = 60; and 60 X 2 -f- 3 
: 40. Then 3 inches cubed =3 X3 X 3 = 9 X 3 = 27; 




9 6 



and 27 -f- (20 X 2) = .675; and .675 + 40 = 40.675 = area 
nearly. 

When the segment is greater than a semicircle, find the 
area of the remaining segment and deduct it from the area 
of the whole circle, the remainder is the area of the seg- 
ment. 

To find the area of a sector of a circle. Multiply half the 
length of the arc by the radius of the circle. The product is 
the area of the sector. See Fig. 17. 

To find the circumference of an ellipse. Add the two dia- 
meters together; divide the sum by 2, 
and multiply the quotient by 3.1416. 
Or, multiply the sum of the two dia- 

-\ HO meters by 1.5708. The product in 

^/ either process, is the circumference, 
-5 nearly. Thus what is the circumfer- 

Fi 2i. ence f an e llip se of which the diameters 

are 10 and 14? 14 + 10 = 24; and 24 
X 1.5708 = 37.6992; or, 10 + 14 = 24; and 24 -f- 2 = 12; 
and 12 X 3.1416= 37.6992 = the circumference of the 
ellipse. 

Fofind the area of an ellipse. Multiply the two diameters 
together, and multiply the product by .7854. The final 
product is the area. 

To find the area of a square. Multiply the length of one 
side by itself, or square the side. The product is the area. 
For example, a square has each side 12 inches long; what is 
the area? 12 X 12= 144 square inches is the area of the 
square. 

To find the area of a rectangle. Multiply the length by 
the breadth; the product is the area. For example, a rect- 
angular plate is 24 inches long and 12 inches wide; what is 
the area? 24 X 12 = 288 square inches. 

To find the cubic content of a rectangular or cubical body . 
Multiply the length by the breadth, $ 

and multiply the product by the depth. *~ 
The last product is the cubic content. . 
For example, a box or cistern is 5 feet 
long, 2^2 feet wide, and 3 feet deep; 
what is the cubic content? 5 feet mul- 
tiplied by 2.y 2 feet makes an area of 22. 
12^ square feet; and \2 l / 2 feet multiplied by three is equal 
to 37^ cubic feet. 



97 



To find J he cubic content of a square-ended cylinder. 
Find the area of one end by the rule for the area of a circle, 
and multiply the area by the length. The product is the 
cubic content cf the cylinder. 





Fig. 23. 

Note. The dimensions are to be taken all in inches or all 
in feet. The square measure and the cubic measure, corres- 
pondingly, will be in inches or in feet. 

Example. A cylinder is 22 inches in diameter and 36 
inches in length, what is the cubic content? 
22 inches. .7854 
22 484 



44 

44 

484 



31416 
62832 
31416 



380. 1336 square inches, area of the end. 
36 

22808016 
11404008 



13684.8096 cubic inches, solid content. 

To find the area of a tn- 
angle. Multiply the length 
of the base A B by the perpen- 
dicular height c D, and divide 
the product by 2. The quo- 
tient is the area of the tri- 
angle. 

When the triangle is equi- 
lateral, or equal sided, the area 




B 



A D 

Fig. 24 

may be calculated by squaring the side, dividing the square 
by 4, and multiplying by 1.732. 



To find the cubic content of a sphere. Multiply the cube 
of the diameter by the decimal .5236; the product is the 
cubic content. For example, let the diameter be 12 inches. 
The cube of 12, or 12 X 12 X 12 = 1728, and 1728 X .5236 
= 904. 78 cubic inches. 

To find the content of a segment of a sphere. Square the 
radius, or half diameter, of the base, and multiply the square 
by 3. To the product add the square of the height of the 
segment, and multiply the sum by the height and by the 
decimal .5236. The product is the content of the segment. 

To find the content of a frustum of a cone. Square the 
diameter of each end, and multiply one diameter by the 
other ; add together the two squares and the product, and 
multiply the sum by the height of the frustum and by 
.2618. The final product is the content. 

To find the content of a frustum of a square pyramid. 
Add together the areas of the two ends and the product of 
the lengths of side of the ends; multiply the sum of the 
height, and divide the product by 3. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY FOR MECHANICS, EN- 
GINEERS, BOILER-MAKERS, ETC. 
To bisect a given right line. That is, to divide it, or 
fquare it across in two 

^ 

/ 



equal parts. Let A B, Fig. 
25, be the given right line. 



\ 



/AX 



Fig 26. 



\ 



HB 






Fig. 25. 



Then, with any radius greater than A E that is greater than 
half the length of the line and on A and B, as centers, de- 
scribe two arcs cutting each other at C and D; draw the line 
C E D through the intersections. Then c E D will be at right 
angles to A E, and the line A B is divided into two equal 
parts at E. 



99 

To draw a perpendicular to a straight line from one of 
its extremities. Let A B, Fig. 26, be the given line, and B the 
extremity from which the perpendicular is to be drawn. Take 
any point, c, and with the radius c B describe an arc of a 
circle, A B D; draw a line from A, through c, cutting the arc 
at D; then, a line drawn through the intersection at D 
from B will be perpendicular to A B. ( 

To draw a perpendicular to a right line from a point with- 
out the line; that is, 
when the point is not 

on the line. Let A B, 
Fig. 27, be the given 
line, and c the point 
through which the per- 
pendicular is to be 
j drawn. Then, on C as 
~' * a center, with any radi- 

us greater than the dis- 
tance to the line A B, 
describe an arc cutting 

\, /* A B at E and D; and on 

E and D as centers, with 
^ yf any radius greater than 

ED, describe two arcs 
cutting each other at F 

E; a line drawn through F and c will be perpendicular to A B. 

To draw a line parallel to 

B if y a given straight line. FIR ST, 

" / ..-*"*-.^ to draw the parallel at a giv- 

en distance. Let A B, Fig. 

28, be the given line. Open 

-- i the compasses to the distance 

1> required, and from any two 

Fig- 28. points, c and D, describe arcs 

E and F. Draw the line G H, 
touching the arcs. It is the required parallel. 

C . 5_B SECOND, to draw a parallel 

/ ^v* * ' through a given point. Let c, 

/ "\ x / Fig. 29, be the point. From 

j NX -,^ / C draw any line C D to A B. 

^*""J = ' J * On C D, as centers, describe 

Fig> o arcs D E and c F. Cut off D E 

equal to c F, and through the 
points C and E draw the parallel G H. 



A 



To draw a rectangle from the center lines. Draw the line 
A B, Fig. 30, equal to one of the center lines, bisect it 

at C, draw the other 

center line, D E, 
through c, at right 
angles to A l>; then 
with c D as a radius, 
and on B and A as 

.centers, describe 
arcs at H, j, F, and 
G; again \\ith C A 
as radius, on E and 
D as centers, de- 
scribe arcs cutting 

. the arcs at H, J, F, 

: and G. Join the 
in t er sect ions by 



D 

Fig. 30. 

straight lines, these will be at right angles and will form a 
rectangle. 

To draw a square on a given 
line. Let A B, Pig. 31, be the 
given line. Erect a perpendicu- 
lar at B, and on B as a center, 
with B A as a radius, describe an 
arc at D, and on D as a center 
describe another arc at C. On A 
as a center, with the same radius 
describe an arc cutting the other 
arc at C. Join the intersections FIR. 31. 

by straight lines, and the square 

is formed. If truly square, it should measure the same length 
in the two diagonal directions; that is, the distance A n should 
be equal to the distance B c. A 



To bisect an angle. That is, to divide 
it in two equal angles. On the point of 
the angle, A, Fig. 32, as a center, with 
any radius, describe an arc cutting the 
sides of the angle at D and E, and on D and 
E as centers, describe two arcs cutting each 
other at F. The line drawn through A and 
E will bisect the angle. 




101 




Fig. 33. 




6Jto;z a given right line to construct 
an equilateral triangle. Let A. B, Fig. 
33, be the given right line; then on A 
and B, with A B as radius, describe two 
arcs cutting each other at c, join A c 
and B C, and the triangle ABC, thits 
formed, is an equilateral triangle. 

In a given circle to inscribe a 
square. Draw any two diameters at 
right angles to each other, and join 
the extremities, as in Fig. 34. 

To inscribe an octagon. First in- 
scribe the square, then bisect the 
quarter circles and join the extremi- 
ties. Or, bisect the angle A o D, Fig. 
34, by the line o F. Then D F is the 
length of the side of the octagon. 
Fig. 34. 

To draw a circle through thrte given points, no matter how 
they may are placed. 
This is a very useful 
problem, as it enables 
any one to determine 
the diameter of the circle 
of which an arc is a part. 
Place the three points, f , 
I, 2, 3, any where. With 
any radius greater than 
half the distance be- 
tween two of the points, 
I and 2, and on these 
points as centers, de- 
scribe two arcs cutting 
each other at A and B. 
Similarly, describe in- 
tersecting arcs on the 
points 2 and 3 as cen- 




Fig. 35. 



ters. Draw straight lines through the intersections respect- 
ively, meeting at o. Then o is the center from which the 
arc is to be described, with the radius o I, which will pass 
through all the three points. 



To draw a straight line equal in length to a given arc of 
a circle. Divide the chord A B into 
four equal parts; set off one of these 
parts from B to c, and join c D. The 
line c D is equal to the length of half o 

the given arc nearly. Fig. 36. 

To describe a rectangle when the length of the diagonal 
and that of one of the ends is given. Draw the diagonal 
A B. Bisect it at the center o, and with O A as radius, 
describe a circle. Set off the length of the end from A, cut- 
ting the circle at D, and from B cutting the circle at c, and 
join A c, C B, B D, and D A, to form the rectangle required. 




Biff. 87. F ig 3 g. 

To construct a square whose diagonal only is given. 
Divide the diagonal into seventeen equal parts. Twelve of 
these parts are the measure of the side of the square. From 
A take up twelve parts in the compasses, and draw arcs of a 
circle at B and at c; and on D as a center, with the same 
radius, draw arcs, cutting those at 
c and D, and join the intersec- 
tions to form the square A B D c. 

Another method. Bisect the 
diagonal at o, by the perpendicular 
line c D; and on the center o and 
with the radius o B, describe arcs 
at c and D. Join the intersections 
to form the square A C B D. 

To draiu a square equal in area 
to a given circle. Divide the diame - 
ter A B into fourteen equal parts: 
set off eleven of these from A to o, 




Fifr.39. 



io 3 

and from o draw the perpendicular o c, cutting the circle at 
c; and draw A c. Then A c is the side of a square of which 
the area is equal to that of the circle. To complete the square, 

from c draw a line 
through the center 
of the circle, cutting 
the circumference 
at E; and from A 
draw the straight line 
A E F, through the 
point E. This line is 
at right angles to A C. 
With the radius A c, 
and on A as a center, 
describe an arc at F ; 




Fig. 40. 



on F, with the 
same radius, draw an 
arc at G. From c, 
again, draw an arc 
cutting the former at 
G with the same ra- 
dius. Join the in- 
tersections, and the 
square is completed. 

Or, multiply the diameter of the circle by .886226: the 
product is the side of a square of equal area. 

To draw a square equal in area to a given triangle. Let 
B P A be the given triangle. Draw the perpendicular p c 
from the summit P, and bisect it. Produce the side of the 

triangle B A, and 
set off A E equal to 
the half of p c. 
Divide E B into 
two equal parts at 
D; and on D as 
center, with D B as 
radius, describe 

w the semicircle E B. 

DC B Draw the perpen- 

Fig. 41. dicular A F, cutting 

the circle at F ; then A F is the side of a square equal in area 
to that of the given triangle. 




104 

Another method. A right-angled triangle being given, 
to construct a square of the same area. Divide the diagonal 
into thirty-four equal parts ; set off ten of these parts from 

B 




Fig. 42. 

A, and ten from B, leaving fourteen in the middle. Draw G C 
and G E through the ten divisions, parallel to F E and c F 
respectively. The square c F E G has an area equal to that 
of the triangle A B F. 

To produce a circle equal in area to a given square. 
Given the square A B c D; draw the diagonals and divide 




A ^ ^ B 

Fig. 43. 

half a diagonal, o c, into fifteen equal parts. On o as 
center, and with a radius of twelve of these parts, describe 
a circle. This circle is of the same area as the square. 

Or, multiply the side of the square by 1. 12837. The prod- 
uct is the diameter of a circle equal in area to the square of 
which the side is given. 



IDS 




The square is divided 
into four triangles, each of 
which is one-fourth of the 
square in area. The quar- 
ter circles, whose figures 
differ of course materially 
from those of the triangles, 
have each the same area as 
one of the triangles. 

To find the side of a 
square which shall con* 
tain the area of a given 
square any EVEN number 

of times. Draw the given 
square A E. The diagonal 

F G is the side of a square 




I 1 H F 

Fig. 44. 

of double the area of the given square. Set-off E H, equal to 

the diagonal F G; then 
the square E B has four 
times the area of the 
given square. C^ Set-off 
again E I, equal to the 
diagonal H J of the 
square EB, and draw the 
square E C on that base; 
the square E c has twice 
the area of E B, or four 
times that of the square 

Fig. 45. E A. Set off E L equal to 

the diagonal I K; the square E D, erected on that base, has 

twice the area of E C. 
And so on. 

To draw an ellipse 
approximately, of a 
given length without 
regard to breadth. 
\0 Divide the given 
length into three equal 
parts at o and V; and 
on o and v as centers, 
with A O as radius, 
describe two circles 
cutting each other at 
I and Kon I and K as 




io6 

with the diameter of the circle A o v as radius, describe 
centers arcs D E F G, to complete the form of an ellipse. 

If the radius of the ends is too larg and flat, divide the 
given length into four equal parts, Fig. 4$A, and describe 
three circles as shown; and on H and F as centers, describe 
the lateral arcs to touch the first and third circles, and so 
complete the figure. 

To draw an ellipse when the length and breadth are given 
Draw the diametrical lines at right angles to each other, 
intersecting at o. Set out the length and breadth of the 
figure on these lines, equally from the center o. Set off the 
length o D with the compasses on the longer diameter from 
B to E, and on o as a center, with the radius o E, describe the 




quadrant E F. Draw the line or chord E F, and set off the 
half of it from E to G. On o as a center, with o G as radius, 
describe the circle G H j I; then I and G are the centers for 
the segmental arcs at A and B, and H and J are the centers for 
the lateral arcs at c and D. 



TABLE OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS. 



No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 

"""" 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


z 


i . 




6 


2-449 


1.817 




6.481 


3-476 


1-16 


.031 


.020 


1-4 


2-5 


1.832 


43 


6-557 


3.503 


1-8 


.060 


.040 


1-2 


2.550 


1.866 


44 






3-16 


.089 


.059 


3-4 


2-599 


1.890 


45 


6. 708 


3-557 




.118 


.077 


7 


2.646 


1 9 I 3 


46 


6.782 


3-583 


5-16 


.146 


095 




2.602 


i .935 


47 


6.856 


3-609 


3-8 


J 73 


.112 


1-2 


2-739 


I -957 


48 


6.928 


3-634 


7-16 


.199 


.129 


3-4 


2. 784 


1.979 


49 


7- 


3-659 


1-2 


.225 


145 


8 


2.828 


2. 


So 


7.071 


3.684 


Qr-l6 


.250 




1-4 


2.872 


2.021 




7.141 


3.708 


5-8 
11-16 


275 
-299 


!i 7 6 

.191 


1-2 

3-4 


2.915 
2.958 


2.041 
2.o6l 


52 
53 


7.211 
7.280 


r$ 


3-4 


-323 


.205 


9 


3- 


2.080 


54 


7-348 


3.780 


13-16 


.346 


.219 




3.041 


2.098 


55 


7.416 


3-803 


7-8 


369 


233 


1-2 


3.082 


2.II8 


56 


7-483 


3.826 


15-16 


.392 


247 


3~4 


3. 122 


2.136 


57 


7-550 


3-849 


2 


.414 


.260 


IO 


3.162 


2.154 


58 


7.616 


3-871 


x-i6 


-436 


273 


II 


3-3I7 


2.224 


59 


7.681 




1-8 


.458 


.286 


12 


3-464 


2.289 


60 


7.746 


3.9*5 


3-16 


-479 


.298 


13 


3.606 


2.351 


61 


7.810 


3-937 




5 


.310 


14 


3-742 


2.410 


62 


7.874 


3.958 


5-i6 


.521 


322 


15 




2.466 


63 


7.937 


3-979 


3-8 


541 


334 


16 


4- 


2.52O 


64 


8. 


4- 


7-16 


.561 


346 


J 7 


4.123 


2-571 


65 


8.062 


4.021 


1-2 


.581 


-358 


18 


4-243 


2.621 


66 


8.124 


4.041 


9-16 


.600 


-369 


IQ 


4-359 


2.668 


67 


8.185 


4-o6z 


5-8 


.620 


.380 


2O 


4.472 


2.714 


68 


8.246 


4.082 


11-16 


-639 


391 


21 


4-583 


2-759 


69 


8.307 


4.102 


3-4 


658 


-402 


22 


4 -690 


2.802 


70 


8.367 


4.12* 


13-16 


-677 


412 


2 3 


4.796 


2.844 




8.426 


4.141 


7-8 


-695 


422 


24 


4.899 


2.885 


72 


8.485 


4.160 


15-16 


.714 


432 


25 


5- 


2.924 


73 


8-544 


4.179 


3 


732 


442 


26 


5.099 


2.963 


74 


8.602 


4-108 


x-8 


.768 


.462 


27 


5-196 


3- 


75 


8.660 


4.217 


1-4 


.803 


.482 


28 


5.292 


3-037 


76 


8.718 


4-236 


3-8 


837 


5 


29 


5.385 


3-072 


77 


8-775 


4-254 


X-2 


.871 


. -518 


.30 


5-477 


3-107 


78 


8.832 


4-273 


5-8 


.904 


535 


3 1 


5.568 




79 


8.888 


4.291 , 


3~4 


936 


553 


3 2 


5.657 


3-175 


80 


8.944 


4-309 


7-8 


.968 


570 


33 


5-745 


3.208 


81 


9- 


4 327 


4 




587 


34 


5-831 


3.240 


82 


9.056 


4-345 




.061 


619 


35 


5.916 


3.271 


83 


9. no 


4.362 


1-2 


.121 


-651 


36 


6. 


3-302 


84 


9.165 


4-379 


3-4 


.179 


.681 


37 


6.083 


3-332 


85 


9.220 


4-397- 


5 


.236 


.710 


38 


6.164 


3-362 


86 


9.274 


4.414. 




.291 


738 


39 


6.245 


3-39 1 


87 


9-327 


4-431 


1-2 


345 


765 


40 


6-325 


3.420 


88 


9.381 


4.448 


3-4 


.398 


.792 




6.403 


3-448 


89 


9-434 


4.465 



io8 



TABLE OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS. Continued, 



No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 

Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


90 


9.487 


4.481 


138 


11.747 


5-167 


286 


13-638 


5.708 


9i 


9-539 


4.498 


J 39 


11.789 


5.180 


287 


13-674 


5-7x8 


92 


9-592 


4-5I4 


140 


11.832 


5.192 


1 88 


13.712 


5.728 


93 


9.644 


4.531 


141 


11.874 


5.204 


289 


13-747 


5-738 


94 


9- 6 95 


4-547 


142 


ir .916 


5-217 


190 


13-784 


5.748 


95 


9-747 


4-563 


143 


11.958 


5-229 


291 


13.820 


5-758 


96 


9.798 


4-579 


144 


2. 


5-241 


292 


13-856 


5-769 


97 


9.849 


4-595 


J 45 


2.041 


5-253 


193 


23.892 


5-779 


98 


9.899 


4.610 


146 


2.083 


5-265 


294 


23.928 


5.788 


99 


9-950 


4.626 


M7 


2. 124 


5-277 


195 


13.964 


5.798 


xoo 


10. 


4.641 


148 


2 .165 


5-289 


296 


24. 


5.808 


XOI 


0.049 


4-057 


149 


2.206 


5-3i 


197 


14-035 


5-828 


202 


0.099 


4.672 


150 


2-247 


5-3I3 


198 


24.072 


5-828 


I0 3 


0.148 


4-687 


151 


2.288 


5-325 


200 


24.142 


5-848 


104 


0.198 


4.702 


152 


2.328 


5-335 


202 


24.212 


5.867 


105 


0.246 


4.717 


153 


12.369 


5.348 


204 


24.282 


5.886 


106 


10.295 


4-732 


154 


12.409 


5-36o 


206 


14-352 


5-905 


107 


o-344 


4-747 


155 


12.449 


5-371 


208 


24.422 


5-924 


jo8 


0.392 


4.762 


156 


12.490 


5-383 


2IO 


14.492 


5-943 


109 


0.440 


4.776 


157 


12.529 


5-394 


212 


14-560 


5.962 


no 


0.488 


4.791 


158 


12.569 


5.406 


214 


24.628 


5.981 


III 


0-535 


4-805 


159 


12.009 


5-4I7 


216 


24.696 


6. 


222 


0-583 


4.820 


160 


12.649 


5-428 


218 


24.764 


6.018 


"3 


0.630 


4.834 


161 


12.688 


5-440 


220 


24.832 


6.036 


114 


0.677 


4.848 


162 


12.727 


5-451 


222 


24.899 


6.055 


5 


0.723 


4.862 


163 


12.767 


5.462 


224 


24.966 


6.073 


116 


0.770 


4.877 


164 


12.806 


5-473 


225 


15- 


6.082 


117 


0.816 


4.890 


165 


12.845 


5-484 


226 


15-033 


6.092 


1x8 


0.862 


4.904 


266 


12.884 


5-495 


228 


25.099 


6.209 


9 


0.908 


4.918 


267 


22.922 


5-506 


2 3 


25.265 


6.226 


120 


o-954 


4.632 


268 


22.962 


5-5I7 


232 


25.232 


6.244 


221 


i. 


4.946 


269 


13- 


5-528 


234 


15.297 


6.262 


IC2 


2.045 


4-959 


270 


13-038 


5-539 


2 3 6 


15-362 


6-279 


3 


1.090 


4-973 


272 


13-076 


5-550 


2 3 8 


15-427 


6.297 


124 


2.235 


4-986 


272 


23.214 


5-562 


240 


I5-49I 


6.224 


125 


2.280 


5- 


173 


13-152 


5-572 


242 


15-556 


6.2 3 X 


126 


2.224 


5-oi3 


174 


23.290 


5-582 


244 


25.620 


6.248 


127 


2.269 


5.026 


175 


23.228 


5-593 


2 4 6 


25.684 


6.265 


128 


i-3i3 


5-039 


276 


23.266 


5.604 


2 4 8 


15.748 


6.282 


129 


1-357 


5-052 


277 


I3-304 


5-624 


250 


25.812 


6.299 


130 


22.402 


5.065 


278 


I3-34I 


5-625 


252 


15-874 


6.326 


131 


"455 


5.078 


279 


'3.379 


5.635 


254 


z 5-937 


6.333 


232 


22.489 


5.091 


280 


13-416 


5-646 


256 


26. 


6-349 


133 


"-532 


5.204 


282 


J 3-453 


5-656 


2 5 8 


26.062 


6.366 


134 


"-575 


5.227 


282 


23.490 


5.667 


260 


26.224 


6.382 


*3S 


22.628 


5.229 


183 


13-527 


5-677 


262 


26.286 


6.398 


136 


22.662 


5.242 


284 


13-564 


5-687 


264 


26.248 


6.415 


137 


22.704 


5-155 


*8 5 


23.601 


5-698 


266 


26.309 


6.43* 




5 

















TABLE OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS. Continued. 



No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


268 


16.370 


6.447 


360 


18.973 


7.113 


500 


22.360 


7-937 


270 


16.431 


6.463 


361 


19. 


7. 1 20 


505 


22 . 472 


7.963 


272 


16.492 


6-479 


362 


19.026 


7. 126 




22 . 583 


7.98? 


274 


16.552 


6-495 


364 


19.078 


7.140 


515 


22.693 




276 


16.613 


6.510 


366 


19.131 


7-153 


520 


22.803 


8.041 


278 


16.678 


6. 526 


368 


19.183 


7.166 


525 


22.912 


8.067 


280 


16.733 


6.542 


370 


19-235 


7- J 79 


530 


23.021 


8.092 


282 


16.792 


6-557 


372 


19.287 


7.191 


535 


23.130 


8.118 


284 


16.852 


6-573 


374 


19-339 


7.204 


540 


23.237 


8.143 


286 
288 


16.911 

1 6 Q7O 


6.588 
6.603 


376 
078 


19.390 


7.217 


545 


23-345 


8.168 

8 T.Q1 


289 


iv_>. y/>J 
17- 


6.610 


o/" 

380 


19-493 


7.241 


555 


23-558 


o. iy.j 
8.217 


290 


17.029 


6.619 


382 


19-544 


7.225 


560 


23-664 


8.242 


292 


17.088 


6.634 


384 


19-595 


7.268 


565 


23.769 


8.267 


294 


17.146 


6.649 


386 


19.646 


7.281 


570 


23.874 


8.291 


296 


17.204 


6.664 


388 


19.697 


7-293 


575 


23.979 


8.315 


298 


17.262 


6.679 


390 


19.748 


7.306 


580 


24-083 


8-339 


300 


17.320 


6.694. 


39 2 


19.798 




585 


24.186 


8.363, 


302 


I7-378 


6.709 


394 


19.849 


7-33 1 


59 


24.289 


8.387 


34 


17-435 


6.723 


396 


19.899 


7-343 


595 


24.392 


8.410 


306 


17.492 


6.738 


398 


19.949 


-355 


600 


24.494 


8.434 


308 


17-549 


6-753 


400 


20. 


7.368 


605 


24.596 


8-457 


310 


.17.606 


6.767 


402 


20.049 


7.580 


610 


24.698 


8.480 


312 


17.663 


6.782 


404 


20.099 


7-3^- 


615 


24.799 


8.504 




17.720 


6.796 


406 


20.149 


7.404 


620 


24-899 


8-527 


316 


17.776 


6.811 


408 


20.199 


7.416 


625 


25* 


8-549 




17.832 


6.825 


410 


20.248 


7.428 


630 


25.099 


8.572 


320 


17.888 


6.839 


412 


2O.297 


7.441 


635 


25.199 


8-595 


322 


17.944 


6.854 


414 


20.346 


7-453 


640 


25.298 


8.617 


324 


18. 


6.868 


416 


20.396 


7-465 


645 




8.640 


326 


18.055 


6.882 


418 


20.445 


7-476 


650 


25.495 


8.6*2 


328 


18.110 


6.896 


420 


20.493 


7-488 


655 


25-592 


8.68 s t 


33 


18.165 


6.910 


422 


20.5 4 2 


7-5 


660 


25.690 


8.706 


332 


18.220 


6.924 


425 


20.615 




665 


25.787 


8.728 


334 


18.275 


6.938 


430 


20.736 


7-547 


670 


25.884 


8.750 


336 


18.330 


6.952 


435 


20.857 


7-576 


675 


25.980 


8.772 


338 


18.384 


6.965 


440 


20.976 


7.605 


680 


26.076 


8.793 


340 


18.439 


6-979 


445 


21.095 




685 


26. 172 


8.815 


342 


18.493 


6-993 


450 


21.213 


7-663 


690 


26.267 


8.836 


343 


18.520 


7- 


455 


21.330 


7.691 


695 


26.362 


8 857 


344 


18.547 


7.006 


460 


21-447 


7.719 


700 


26.457 


8.879 


346 


18.601 


7.020 


465 


21.563 


7-747 


75 


26.551 


8.900 


348 


18.654 


7-033 


470 


21 .679 


7-774 


710 


26.645 


8.921 


350 


18.708 


7.047 


475 


21.794 


7.802 


1 7*5 


26.739 


8.942 


352 


18.761 


7.060 


480 


21.908 


7.829 


720 


26.832 


8. 9 6a 


354 


18.8x4 


7.074 


485 


22.022 


7-856 


i 725 


26.925 


8.983 


356 


18.867 


7.087 


490 


22.13 


7.883 


730 


27.018 


9.^04 


358 


18.920 


7,100 


I 495 


22.248 


7 Q i 


1 735 


27 no 


9.024 




tf\ 

















TABLE OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS. Contimu 



No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


No. 


Square 
Root. 


Cube 
Root. 


740 


27.202 


9-45 


820 


28.635 


9-359 


900 


30. 


9.654 


745 
75<> 


27-294 . 
27.386 < 


9.065 
9.085 


825 
830 


28.722 
28.809 


9.378 
9-397 


905 
910 


30.083 

30.166 


9-67* 
9.690 


755 


27.477 


9.105 


83S 


28.896 


9.416 


915 


30-248 


9.708 


760 


27-568 


9.125 


840 


28.982 


9-435 


920 


30-33I 


9.725 


765 


27.658 


9-M5 


845 


29.068 


9-454 


925 


30-413 


9-743 


770 


27.748 


9.165 


850 


29-154 


9.472 


93 


30.496 


9.761 


775 
780 


27-838 
27.928 


9.185 
9.205 


855 
860 


29.240 

29-325 


9.491 
9-509 


940 
950 


30.659 
30.822 


9-796 
9-830 


785 


28.017 


9.224 


865 


29-410 


9.528 


960 


30.983 


9.864 


79 


28 . 106 


9 244 


870 


29-495 


9.546 


970 


3 1 *44 


9.898 


795 


28.195 


9.263 


875 


29.580 


9.564 


980 


3 I -34 


9.932 


800 


28.284 


9.283 


880 


29.664 


9.582 


990 


31.464 


9-966 


805 


28.372 


9.302 


885 


29.748 


9.600 


IOOO 


31.623 


10. 


810 


28.460 


9.321 


890 


29.832 


9.619 


I TOO 


33-J66 


10.323 


i5 


28.548 


9-340 


895 


29.916 


9.636 


I2OO 


34-64I 


10.627 



HOW TO GEAR A LATHE FOR SCREW 
CUTTING. 

There is a long screw upon every screw-cutting lathe, 
called the lead-screw. This lead-screw feeds the carriage of 
the lathe while cutting screws, and has a gear wheel placed 
upon its end which takes motion from another gear wheel 
attached on the end of the spindle. Each of these gear 
wheels contain a different number of teeth, so that different 
threads may be cut. All threads are cut a certain number 
to the inch, from one to fifty or more. In order to gear your 
lathe properly to cut a certain number of threads to the 
inch, you will first multiply the number of threads to the 
inch you wish to cut by 4, or any other small number, and 
this will give you the proper gear to put on the lead-screw. 
Now. with the same number, 4, multiply the number of 
threads to the inch in the lead-screw, and this will give you 
the proper gear to put on the spindle. 

Example. You wish to cut a screw with ten threads to the 
inch. Multiply 10 by 4 and it will give you 40; put this gear 
on the lead-screw. The lead-screw on your lathe has 7 
threads to the inch: multiply 7 by 4, and you will have 28. 
Put this gear on your spindle, and your lathe is geared to 
cut 10 threads to the inch 



Ill 

The rule above is for those lathes which have not a stud 
grooved into the spindle. As this stud runs with but half 
the speed of the spindle, you must change the rule somewhat. 

First, multiply the number of threads to the inch you wish 
to cut, by 4 (or some other small number), and this will give 
you the proper gear to put on your lead-screw. Next multi- 
ply the number of threads to the inch on your lead-screw by 
the same number, and multiply this product by <?, and this 
will give you the proper gear to go on your stud. 

Example. Using same numbers 10 times 4 is 40. Put this 
gear on your lead-screw; 7 times 4 is 28, and 2 times 28 is 56$ 
put this gear on your stud, and your lathe is grooved to cut 
lo threads to the inch. 



THE THEORY OK THE STEAM ENGINE. 

For many year-; engineers cared nothing about the 
theory of the steam ea^ine. They went on improving 
and developing it without any assistance from men of pure 
science. Indeed it may he said with truth that the greatest 
improvement ever effected, the introduction of the com- 
pound engine, was made in spite of the physicist, who always 
asserted that nothing in the way of economy of fuel was to 
be gained by having two cylinders instead of one. In like 
manner, the mathematical theorist was content to make cer- 
tain thermo-dynamic assumptions, and, reasoning from them, 
to construct a theory of the steam engine, without troubling 
his head to consider whether his theory was or was not con- 
sistent with practice. Within the last few years, however, 
the theorist and the engineer have come a good deal into 
contact, and the former begins at last to see that the theory 
of the steam engine is laid down by Rankine, Clausius, and 
other writers, must be deeply modified, if not entirely re- 
written, before it can be made to apply in practice We 
have recently shown what M. Hirn, who combines in himself 
practical and theoretical knowledge in an unusual degree, 
has had to say concerning the received theory of the steam 
engine, and its utter inutility for practical purposes ; and 
papers recently read before the Institutions of Mechanical 
and Civil Engineers, and the discussions which followed 
them, have done something to convince mathematicians that 
they have a good deal to learn yet about the laws which 
determine the efficiency of a steam engine. It has always 
been the custom to class the steam engine with other heat 
engines. It is now known that nothing can be more errone- 
ous. The steam engine is a heat engine sni generis, and to 
confound it with a hot-air engine, or any motor working 
with a non-condensible fluid, is a grave mistake. It is not 
too much to say that many engineers now understand the 
mathematical theory of the steam engine better than do 
men making thermo-dynamics a special study. But there 
remains a large number of engineers who do not as yet quite 
see their way out of certain things which puzzle them, or 
which they fail to understand. There are, indeed, phe- 
nomena attending the use of steam which are not yet quite 
comprehended by any one, and we may be excused if we say 
something about one or two points which require elucidation. 
^One of these is the mode of operation of the^' Steam 
jacket. It is a very crude statement that it does good be- 
cause it keeps the cylinder hot. It might keep the cylinder 



hot, and yet be a source of loss rather than gain ; and, a^ a 
matter of fact, it is doubtful now if the application of steam 
jackets to all the cylinders of a compound engine is advisa- 
ble. It is well known, too, that circumstances may arise, 
under which the jacket is powerless for good. Thus, for 
example, the late Mr. Alfred Barrett, when manager of the 
Reading Iron Works, carried out a very interesting series of 
experiments with a horizontal engine, in order to test the 
value of the jacket. This engine had a single cylinder fitted 
with a very thin wrought -iron liner, between which and the 
cylinder was a jacket space. The jacket was very carefully 
drained, and could be used either with steam or air in it. 
Experiments were made on the brake with and without 
steam in the jacket. The result was a practically infinitesi- 
mal gain by using steam in the jacket. In one word, the 
loss by condensation was transferred from the cylinder to 
the jacket. On the other hand, it is well known that single 
cylinder condensing engines must be steam jacketed if they 
are to be fairly economical. Circumstances alter cases, and 
the circumstances which attend the use of the jackets a.:-- 
more complex than appears at first sight. 

In considering the nature of the work to be done, we 
must repeat a fundamental truth which we have been the first 
to enunciate. A steam engine can discharge no water from 
it which it did not receive as water, save the small quantity 
which results from loss by external radiation and conduction 
from the cylinder, and from the performance of work. At 
first sight, the proposition looks as though it were untrue. 
Its accuracy will, however, become clear when it is carefully 
considered. After the engine has been fully warmed up, the 
cycle of events is this: Steam is'admitted to the cylir.der from 
the boiler. A portion of this is condensed. It parts with 
its heat to the metal with which it is in contact. The piston 
makes its stroke, and the pressure falls. The water mixed 
with the steam is then too hot for the pressure. It boils and 
produces steam, raising the toe of the diagram in a way well 
understood and needing no explanation here. During the 
return stroke the pressure falls to its lowest point, and the 
water, being again too hot for the pressure, boils, and is con- 
verted into steam, which escapes to the atmosphere or con- 
denser without doing work, and is wasteA The metal of the 
cylinder, etc., falls to the same temperature as the water. 
At the next stroke the entering steam finds cool metal to 
come into contact with, and is condensed, as we have said, 
and so onfi But the quantity condensed during the steam 
stroke is precisely equal to that evaporated during the 



114 

exhaust stroke, and consequently no condensed steam can 
leave the engine as water. 

Let us suppose, for the sake of argument, however, that 
an engine using 20 Ibs. of 100 Ibs steam per horse per hour, 
discharges two pounds of water per horse per hour. As 
each of these brought, in round numbers, f 185 thermal units 
into the engine, and takes away only 212 units, it is clear 
that each pound must leave behind it 973 units ; conse- 
quently the cylinder will be hotter at the end of each revolu- 
tion than it was at the beginning, and the process would 
go on until condensation must entirely cease. It will be 
urged, however, that a steam jacket certainly does discharge 
water, and that h; considerable quantity, which it did not re- 
ceive ; and, as this is apparently indisputable, we are here face 
to face with one of tht puzzles to which we have referred. 
The fact, however, is in no wise inconsistent with what is ad- 
vanced, v If an engine with an unjacketed cylinder regularly 
receives water from the boiler, that engine will discharge 
precisely an equal weight of water. The liquid will pass 
away in suspension in t he exhaust steam The engine has 
no power whatever of converting it into steam. The case 
of a jacketed engine is different. Such an engine will evap- 
orate in the cylinder water received with the steam, but it 
can only do so at the expense of the steam contained in the 
jacket. For every i Ib. of water boiled away in the cylinder 
I Ib. of steam is condensed in the jacket ; and the corollary 
is that, if an engine were supplied with perfectly dry steam, 
there would be no steam condensed in the jacket, save that 
required to meet the loss due to radiation and the conver- 
sion of heat into work. The effect of the jacket will be to 
boil a portion of the water during the close of the stroke, 
and so to keep up the toe of the diagram, and so get more 
work out of the steam. If, however, the steam was deliv- 
ered wet to the engine, it is very doubtful if the jacket could 
be productive of much economy. The water would be con- 
verted into steam during the exhaust stroke, and no equiva- 
lent would be obtained for the steam lost in the jacket. 

In a good condensing engine about 3 Ibs. of steam per 
horse per hour are condensed in the jacket. The cylinder 
will use, say, 15 Ibs. of steam, so the total consumption is 
1 8 Ibs. per horse per hour. It is none the less a fact, al- 
though it is not generally known, that the average Lancashire 
boiler sends about 8 per cent, of water in the forif of in- 
sensible priming with the steam. Now, 8 per cent, of 1 8 
Ibs. i's 1.44 Ibs., so that in this way we have nearly one-half 
the jacket condensation accounted for as just explained. 



One horse-power represents 2,562 thermal units expended 
per hour, or, say, 2.6 Ibs. of steam of 100 Ibs. pressure con- 
densed to less than atmospheric pressure; aiid 1.44 
260= 4. 04 Ibs. per horse per hour, as the necessary jacket 
condensation, if no water is to be found in the working 
cylinder at the end of each stroke. That this quantity is not 
condensed only proves that the water received from the 
boiler, or resulting from the performance of work, is not all 
re-evaporated. 

Something still remains to be written about the true 
action of the steam jacket, but this we must reserve for the 
present. We have said enough, we think, to show that, as 
we have stated, the jacket has more to do than keep the 
cylinder hot. With jacketed engines, more than any other, 
it is essential that the steam should be dry. In the case of 
an unjacketed engine, water supplied from the boiler will 
pass through the engine as water, and do little harm; but, if, 
the engine is jacketed, then the whole or part of this water 
will be converted into steam, especially during the period of 
exhaust, when it [can do more good than if it were boiled 
away in a pot in the engine room. This is the principal 
reason why such conflicting opinions are expressed concern- 
ing the value of jackets. That depends principally on the 
merits of the boiler. 

TREATMENT OF NEW BOILERS. 

No ne-.v boiler should have pressure put upon it at once. 
Instead, it should be heated up slowly for the first day, and 
whether steam is wanted or not. Long before all the joints 
are made, or the engine ready for steam, the boiler should 
be set and in working order. A slight fire should be 
made and the water warmed up to about blood heat only, 
and left to stand in that condition and cool off, and absolute 
pressure should proceed by very slow stages. Persons who 
set a boiler and then build a roaring fire 'under it, and get 
steam as soon as they can, need not be surprised to find a 
great many leaks developed; even if the boiler does not actu- 
ally and visibly leak, an enormous strain is needlessly put 
upon it which cannot fail to injure it. Of all the forces en- 
gineers deal with, there are none more tremendous than ex- 
pansion and contraction. 



COMPARATIVE ECONOMY OF HIGH AND 
SLOW SPEED ENGINES. 

In nearly every case where a flour mill is built, it is 
intended to be a permanent investment. The very nature of 
the milling business makes it necessary that the plant shall 
be built and operated, not for one, two or three years, but 
for a long term of years. It is the ambition of every mill 
owner, when he builds a mill, to make it the foundation of a 
permanent business, and, if he is wise, he will build such a 
mill and select such machinery as will prove economical, not 
in first cost, but in the long run. In no part, of the milling 
plant is this more important than in the power outfit of 
steam mills, and, as most of the mills now being built are 
steam mills, the comparative economy of different kinds of 
steam engines becomes an important subject for considera- 
tion. No matter whether the mill is large or small, unless 
it is so advantageously located as regards its supply of fuel 
that the cost is practically nothing, any wastefulness in the 
consumption of fuel creates a steady drain on the earning of 
the mill which will seriously affect the balance of the profit 
and loss account, and, where fuel is expensive, may result in 
transferring the balance to the wrong side ofthe account, 

In selecting a power plant, it is a mistake, frequently made, 
to consider the first cost of the plant as of the highest 
importance, and any saving in this direction as so much 
clear gain. Especially is this the case in flouring mills of 
small capacity, where the builder's capital is limited, and 
where the idea is to get as much mill for as little money as 
possible. In such case, any money borrowed from the 
power plant to put into the balance of the mill, is bor- 
rowed at a ruinously high rate of interest, and it is, more- 
over, borrowed without any chance of repayment, except 
by throwing out the cheap plant and substituting the 
higher priced and more economical one at great expense. 
In no way is the miller more often misled than by the 
claims of the builders of the high-speed automatic engines, 
where the name automatic is relied upon to cover a mul- 
titude of sins in the direction of low economy. In this 
connection, some facts from a paper by J. A. Powers are 
instructive: 

After carefully analyzing the problem and considering 
the requirements of the load to be driven in electric 
lighting stations, which are more favorable for the high 
speed engines than is the case in flouring-mill work, Mr. 
Powers reaches the conclusion as to the different styles of 



engines in t"he consumption of steam, as stated by engine 
builders : 

Steam per H. P. per hour. 

High speed engines 28 to 32 Ibs 

Corliss engines, non-condensing 24 to ?6 Ibs. 

" < " condensing 20 to 21 Ibs. 

compound condensing. 15 to 16 Ibs. 

With an evaporation of eight pounds of water per 
pound of coal, the coal consumption would be as follows : 

Coal per H. P. per hour. 

High speed engine 3.50104 Ibs. 

Corliss engines, non-condensing 3 to 3.25 Ibs, 

" condensing 2.50 to 2.62 Ibs. 

" compound condensing 1.87102 Ibs. 

As the interest on the first cost of the steam plant should 
properly be charged against its economy, the following 
statement of comparative first cost is given: 

High speed engine $31 to $36 per H. P. 

Corliss engines, non-condensing 42 to 46 

condensing 43 to 48 

" " compound condensing 5210 57 " 

The comparison of first cost and fuel saving is as follows : 

Coal. 
Cost. Consumption. 

High speed engine 100 per cent. 100 per cent. 

Corliss engine, non-condensing 131 " 62 " 

" " condensing 136 " 56 

" " compound cond'g.. 163 44 

If the cost of coal is taken at $3 per ton and interest i> 
figured at six per cent., which figures may be considered a 
fair average, the results, based on the foregoing figures, fcr 
a plant of 400 horse-power, will be as follows : 

Cost of Coal Saving in Coal 

per day. over High Speed. 

High speed engine $24.75 $ 

Corliss engine, non-condensing. .. 18.90 5.85 

condensing 15-24 9.51 

" " com'd condensing 11.64 13.11 

Interest Loss in Interest 

per day. over High Sp eed. 

High speed engine $2.36 $.... 

Corliss engine, non-condensing 3.08 .72 

condensing 3.15 .79 

" " com'd condensing. 3.75 1.39 

And the saving per day over the high speed engine is: 

Corliss engine, non-condensing $ 5.13 

" " condensing ' 8.72 

" " compound condensing 1172 

So far as the steam consumption is concerned, results in 
every-day work show that the comparison is made as favor- 



able as possible for the high speed engine, for, while records 
of actual tests of Corliss engines show that the figures given 
are not'understated, the average of high speed engines after 
running a short time is not nearly as low as thirty-two 
pounds per indicated horse power per hour. So far as the 
cost of the respective plants are concerned, we should be 
inclined, especially for small plants, to put the average cost 
of the high speed plant a little lower than that, of the Corliss a 
little higher, but this change would not materially affect the 
result so far as comparative economy is concerned. 

To bring the matter in shape to fairly apply to the 
requirements of the average 100 barrel mill, it may be assumed 
that the power required will be 50 horse power. In the 
absence of exact data as to the cost of the high speed plant, 
and to give it as favorable a showing as possible, the cost of 
the respective plants may be stated as follows : 

High speed $1,500 

Corliss, non-condensing 2,700 

condensing 3,200 

" compound condensing 4,300 

The economy would then be : 

Water per Coal per 

H. P. per hour. H. P. per hour. 

Highspeed 32 Ibs. 4 Ibs. 

Corliss non-condensing 26 Ibs. 3.25 Ibs. 

" condensing 20 Ibs. 2.5 Ibs. 

" compound condensing 16 Ibs. 2. Ibs. 

And with coal and rate of interest assumed as above, 
based on a continuous run of 280 days, 24 hours per day, the 
comparison is summarized as follows : 
Cost of 

Fuel per Year Interest. Total. 

~ High speed $2,016 $90 $2,106 

Corliss, non-condensing 1,638 162 1,800 

" condensing 1,260 192 J ,452 

" comp'd condensing 1,008 258 1,266 

The ratio of saving to difference in cost between the high 
speed plant and the others, may be stated as follows : 

Between high speed and Corliss non-condensing, 25 per cent. 

" condensing 38^ " 

" " comp.condens'g 30 " 

Or, in other words, it would take four years to save the 
difference in cost using the non-condensing Corliss, a little 
over two and one-half years if condensing, and three and one- 
half years if compound condensing. In either case, the sav- 
ing would be steadily continued, long after the cost of the 
plan,t had been wiped out. 



U 9 
RULE FOR SAFETY VALVE WEIGHTS. 

There seems to be a steady demand for this rule. The 
following is an easily remembered formula which may be of 
service to some : 

D 2 X .7854 X P D W + F 

L = W * 

Now, this looks somewhat formidable to those who are 
not familiar with calculations in any form, but a few words 
and a little study will make it clear to most persons. The 
explanation is this : 

D 2 means that the diameter of the valve is to be multi- 
plied by the same figure. If the valve is 4" diameter multi- 
ply it by 4. If it is 2" multiply it by 2 ; if ^y 2 " multiply it 
by 3^. This is called squaring the diameter. Now multi- 
ply the sum by .7854 and observe the decimal. This gives 
the area, as it is called, or number of square ' inches in the 
valve exposed to pressure. Of course, the end of the valve 
exposed to steam has been measured not the top of it. 
Now multiply the sum last found by the pressure to be car- 
ried on the boiler, say 60, if it is 60 pounds. This gives the 
force pressing on the bottom of the valve to blow it off its 
seat. Take half the weight of the lever and whole weight 
of valve and stem from this last sum, and then multiply by 
the distance from the center of the valve-stem to the center 
of the hole in the short end of the lever. Divide the sum so 
found by the whole length of the lever. Then you have the 
weight of the ball to go on the end to give 60 Ibs. per square 
inch on the boiler. 

This is, in brief, the rule ; but it is of no earthly use to those 
who are not familiar with ordinary arithmetic, for they will 
be very likely to make serious errors in the result by mis- 
takes in figuring. 

The steamboat inspection law demands that candidates 
for marine licenses shall know this rule; but in many cases it 
would be just as useful to demand that a man should be able 
to jump twenty-five feet from a standstill, for those who are 
incompetent can learn the rule as above given, and pass mus- 
ter, without being practical working engineers, while those 
who have mathematical abilities and practical experience 
also, are only affronted by such appeals to the knowledge 
they have of their calling. 

The qualifications and abilities of engineers for their 
positions are in nowise determined by such trifling exercises 
as these. 



Amount of horse power transmitted by single belts to pul 
leys running 100 revolutions per minute when the diameter of 
the driving pulley is equal to the diameter of the driven pulley. 



Diameter 
of 
Pulley. 


WIDTH OF BELT IN INCHES, 


2 


2^2 


3 


Z l /2 \ 4 


4^ 


5 


6 
H. P. 


In. 


H P 


H. P. 


H P 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P 


H. P 




44 


54 


.65 


.76 


.87 


.98 


.09 


3 1 


W 


47 


59 


7i 


83 


95 


.07 


.19 


.42 


7 


51 


.64 


.76 


.89 


.01 


.14 


27 


53 


rA 


55 


-68 


.82 


95 


.09 


23 


36 


.64 


8 


58 


73 


.87 


.02 


.16 


3 1 


45 


75 


8/2 


.62 


' -77 


93 


.08 


,24. 


39 


55 


.86 


9 , 


65 


.82 


.98 


*5 


3 1 


.48 


.64 


97 


9K 


.69 


.86 


.04 


.21 


-391 -5 6 


74 


2.08 


10 


73 


.91 


.09 


.27 


45 


63 


.81 


2.18 


ii 


.8 


i. 


.2 


4 


.6 


.8 


2. 


2.4 


12 


.87 


.09 


31 


53 


75 


97 


2.18 


2.62 


13 


95 


.18 


42 


65 


.89 


2.12 


2. 3 6 


2.83 


H 


.02 


.27 


52 


77 


2.02 


2.27 


2-53 


3-05 


r$ 


.09 


36 


.64 


.91 


2.19 


2.46 


2-73 


3-29 


16 


.16 


45 


74 


2.0^ 


2.32 


2.6l 


2.91 


3-48 


17 


2* 


55 


.85 


2.16 


2.47 


2.78 


3-09 


3-70 


18 


31 


.64 


.96 


2.29 


2.62 


2.95 


3-27 


3-92 


*9 


39 


73 


2.07 


2.42 


2. 7 6 


y 1 l 


3-45 


4.14 


20 


45 


.82 


2.18 


2.55 


2. 9 I 


3-27 


3-64 


4-36 


21 


52 


.91 


2.29 


2.67 


3-05 


3-44 


3.82 


4-58 


22 


.6 


2. 


2.4' 


2.8 


3-2 


3-6 


4 


4-8 


23 


.67 


2.09 


2-5 1 


2-93 


3-35 


3-75 


4.18 


5.02 


24 


3-5 


4-4 


5-2 


7- 


8.7 


10.5 


12.2 


14. 


25 


3-6 


4-5 


5-5 


7-3 


9.1 


10.9 


12.7 


14-5 


26 


3-8 


47 


5-7 


7.6 


9-5 


11.3 


I 3 .2 


15.1 


27 


3-9 


4.9 


5-9 


7.8 


9.8 


11.8 


*3-7 


15.6 


28 


4.1 


5-i 


6.1 


8.1 


10.2 


12.2 


14-3 


16.3 


2 9 


4-2 


5-3 


6-3 


8.4 


10.5 


12.6 


14.8 


16.9 


30 


44 


5-4 


6.6 


8.7 


10.9 


I3-I 


15-3 


17.4. 


3 1 


4-5 


5-6 


6.8 


9- 


"3 


J 3-5 


15.8 


1 8. 


3 2 


4-7 


5-8 


7- 


9-3 


ii. 6 


14, 


16.3 


18.6 


33 


4.8 


6. 


7-2 


9.6 


12. 


14.4 


16.8 


19.2 


34 


4.9 


6.2 


7-4 


9-9 


12.4 


14.8 


17-3 


19.8 


35 


5- 1 


6.4 


7.6 


10.2 


12.7 


!5-3 


17.9 


20.4 



Amount of horse power transmitted by single belts to pul- 
leys running 100 revolutions per minute when the diameter of 
the driving wheel is equal to the diameter of the driven pulley. 



Diameter 
of 
Pulley. 


WIDTH OF BELT IN INCHES. 


2 


2/2 


3 


3/2 


4 


4/2 


5 


6 


In. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H.P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


36 


5-2 


6-5 


7.8 


10.5 


'3- 1 


15.7 


18.3 


20.9 


37 


5-4 


6.7 


8.1 


10.8 


13.5 


16.2 


18.9 


21.5 


38 


5-5 


6.9 


8.3 


ii. 


13.8 


16.6 


'9-3 


22.1 


39 


5-7 


7- l 


8.5 


11.3 


14.2 


17. 


19.9 


22.7 


40 


5-8 


7-3 


8.7 


u. 6 


14.6 


175 


20.4 


23-3 


42 


6.1 


7-6 


9.2 


12.2 


'5-3 


I&2 


21.4 


24.3 




6.4 


8. 


9.6 


12.8 


16. 


19.2 


22.4 


2 5 .6 


46 


6.7 


8.4 


10. 


13.4 


1 6. 


20.1 


23-4 


26.8 


48 


7- 


8.8 


10.4 


14. 


17.4 


21. 


24.4 


28. 


50 


7.2 


9- 


10.9 


14.6 


18.2 


21.8 


25.4 


2 9 . 


54 


7.8 


9.8 


ii. 8 


I 5 -6 


19.6 


23.6 


26.4 


31.2 


60 


8.8 


10.8 


13.1 


17.4 


21.8 


26.2 


30.6 


34-8 


66 


9.6 


12. 


14.4 


19.2 


24. 


28.8 


33-6 




72 


10.4 


13. 


15.6 


21. 


26.2 


31.4 


36.6 


41.8 


i 


11.4 

12.2 


14-2 
15.2 


17- 

19.4 


22.6 
24.4 


28.4 
30.6 


34- 
36.4 


30.8 
42.8 


45-4 

48.6 


26 


3-8 


4-7 


5-7 


7 .6 


9-5 


"3 


13.2 


15.1 


27 


3-9 


4-9 


5-9 


7 .8 


9.8 


H.8 


13-7 


15.6 


28 


4.1 




6.1 


8.1 


10.2 


12.2 


14-3 


16.3 


29 


4.2 


5-3 


6.3 


8.4 


10.5 


12.6 


14.8 


16.9 


30 


4.4 


5-4 


6.6 


8.7 


10.9 


13.1 


15-3 


17.4 




4-5 


5-6 


6.8 


9- 


II.3 


13.5 


15.8 


1 8. 


3 2 


4-7 


5.8 


7- 


9-3 


ii. 6 


14. 


16.3 


18.6 


33 


4-8 


6. 


7.2 


9.6 


12. 


14.4 


16.8 


19.2 


34 


4.9 


6.2 


7-4 


9-9 


12.4 


14.8 


17.3 


19.8 


35 




6.4 


7.6 


10.2 


12.7 


15-3 


17.9 


20.4 


36 


5-2 


6.5 


7.8 


10.5 


I3.I 


15-7 


18.3 


20.9 


37 


5-4 


6.7 


8.1 


10.8 


13-5 


16.2 


18.9 


21.5 


38 


5-5 


6.9 


8.3 


ii. 


13.8 


16.6 


19-3 


22.1 


39 


5-7 


7.1 


8.5 


11.3 


14.2 


17- 


19.9 


22.7 


40 


5-8 


7-3 


8.7 


u. 6 


14.6 


17-5 


20.4 


23-3 


42 
44 


6.1 
6.4 


7.6 

8. 


9.2 
9.6 


12.2 

12.8 


'I' 3 

1 6. 


18.2 
19.2 


21.4 

22.4 


24-3 
25-6 



HOW TO TRUE AN EMERY WHEEL. 
An emery wheel may be trued by using a bar of rough iron 
or copper as a turning tool. 



122 

HOW TO FIND THE DIAMETER OF HIGH AND 
LOW PRESSURE CYLINDERS AT DIF- 
FERENT PRESSURES. 

The following is a table from actual practice giving the 
diameters of the high and low pressure cylinders at different 
boiler pressures, the piston speed being taken at 420 ft. 
minute : 



Indicated 
horse-power. 


PH . 

I 

.2 & 

Q 


Boiler pres- 
sure 45 Ibs. 


Boiler pres- 
sure 80 Ibs. 


Boiler pres- 
Isure 125 Ibs. 


Diam. H.P. 
cylinder. 


Diam. H.P. 
cylinder. 


Diam. H.P. 
cylinder. 


10 

20 
25 
3 
40 

50 

100 

150 


7X in. 

10 

nX 

I2# 
1* 

16 

22> 
27^ 


4 in. 
& 

*>y 2 

7 1 /* 
W 
9X 
13 
16 


3^ ^. 

\ 1 A 
6# 

I? 

uX 

H 


3Xin- 
4K 
S'A 

5% 
W 

7X 

10% 

tt 



THE LARGEST STEAM BOILER IN AMERICA. 

The largest steam boiler ever constructed in America has 
been manufactured at Scranton, Pa. The boiler is 35 feet 4 
inches in length, 10 feet 6 inches wide, and n feet 6 inches 
high. It is made of steel, weighs 45 tons, and is of 1,000 
horse-power. One sheet of steel used weighed two tons. 
The metal from the " crown sheet " to the " wagon top " is 
i y$ inches in diameter, that near the valve is ^ of an inch, 
and the other parts 9-16 of an inch in diameter. There are 
198 three-inch tubes in the boiler, a double fire box connect- 
ing with the flues, and stay bolts and rivets are used varying 
in length from six to ten inches. 

HOW TO MAKE A STRONG FLANGE JOINT. 

To make a flange joint that won't leak or burn out on 
steam pipes, mix two parts white lead to one part red lead to 
a stiff putty ; spread on the flange evenly, and cut a liner of 
gauze wire like mosquito net wire and lay on the putty, of 
course cutting out the proper holes ; then bring the flanges 
*' fair," put in the bolts and turn the nuts on evenly. For a 
permanent joint this is A i. 



123 
DENSITY OF WATER. 



Tempera- 
ture F. 


Comparative 
Volume. 
Water 32-=:!. 


Comparative 
Density. 
Water 32= I. 


Weight of 
I Cubic Foot. 


3 2 


i .00000 


.00000 


62.418 


35 


0.99993 


.00007 


62.422 


40 


0.99989 


.ooou 


62.425 


45 


0.99993 


.00007 


62.422 


46 


.00000 


.00000 


62.418 


50 


.00015 


.99985 


62.409 


55 


.00038 


.99961 


62.394 


60 


.00074 


.99926 


62.372 


5 


.00119 


.99881 


62.344 


70 


.00160 


.99832 


62.313 


75 


.00239 


.99771 


62.275 


80 


.00299 


.99702 


62.232 


85 


.00379 


.99622 


62.182 


90 


.00459 


99543 


62.133 


95 


.00554 


.99449 


62.074 


100 


.00639 


.99365 


62.022 


105 


.00739 


.99260 


61.960 


no 


.00889 


.99119 


61.868 


"5 


.00989 


.99021 


61.807 


120 


.01139 


.98874 


6i.7i5 


125 


.01239 


.98808 


61.654 


130 

135 


.01390 
01539 


.98630 
.98484 


61.563 
61.472 


140 


.01690 


.98339 


61.381 


145 


.01839 


.98194 


61.291 


150 


.01989 


.98050 


61.201 


155 


.02164 


.97882 


61.096 


160 


.02340 


.97715 


60.941 


165 


.02589 


-97477 


60.843 


170 


.02690 


.97380 


60 783 


175 


.02906 


.97193 


60.665 


180 


.03100 


.97006 


60.543 


185 


.03300 


.96828 


60.430 


190 


.03500 


.86632 


60.314 


195 


.03700 


.96440 


60.198 


200 


.03889 


.96256 


60.081 


205 


.0414 


.9602 


59-937 


210 


0434 


.9584 


59 822 


112 


.0444 


9575 


59.769 



I2 4 

CALKING STEAM BOILERS. 

No well-made boiler ought to require to be heavily calked, 
and to provide fcfr light calking it is imperative that the 
plates of a boiler should be effectually and thoroughly 
cleaned of all fire scale before being riveted up. Good boiler 
work should be very nearly tight without calking, but it is 
difficult to attain this degree of excellence with hand work. 
Hydraulic riveting, in which the plates are forcibly pressed 
together before the rivet is closed and made to fit the hole, 
will, if carefully done, be found to give a tight boiler without 
calking. It is obvious that tightness can only be secured by 
insuring metallic contact. If all the rivets fill the holes per- 
fectly, no leakage can percolate past the rivet heads. If any 
rivet heads require calking, they should be cut out and a 
fresh rivet inserted, as a leak is a sure indication that the 
rivet does not fill the hole, and is possibly imperfectly closed 
in addition. It is also obvious that to insure a tight boiler 
the surfaces of the plates must be in metallic contact, and 
must remain so when the boiler is subjected to the working 
pressure which, with the alterations of temperature, will pro- 
duce certain inevitable changes in the form of the boiler. It 

is obviously necessary 
that the surfaces of the 
plates should be smooth 
in order to insure metal- 
lic contact, and that 
this cannot be attained 
unless the scale covers 
the plates completely, 
or is wholly detached. 
As a slight pin-hole in 
the magnetic oxide with 
which steel plates are 
coated will cause aleak- 
age, and under certain 
circumstances, set i|3 a 

F galvanic and corrosive 

IG> 2 ' action, it is advisable to 

wholly detach the scale. This is easily done with iroiv 
pUtes, but steel plates cannot be completely cleaned of mag- 
ntic oxide by the usual mechanical methods. An excellent 
arid effective method is that used at the Crewe Works of the 
London & Northwestern Railway (England). The plates 
Are brushed over with muriatic acid diluted with water, and 
Applied with a brush or pad made with woolen waste- This 




FIG. i. 




125 

loosens and detaches all the scale, and the plates are then 
cleaned by a solution of lime, which effectually removes any 
surplus muriatic acid. If the plates are not wanted imme- 
diately, they can be protected from rust by a coat of turpen- 
tine and oil. If these precautions be not taken, the scale or 
dirt upon the plates becomes crushed to powder by the 
squeeze of the riveter, and a close metal to metal joint is i en- 
deied impossible, and the consequent leakage must be stopped 
by calking. With clean plates much calking is not neces- 
sary, nor should it be countenanced, for, after all, calking is 
only an evidence of, and a concession to, 'more or less in- 
ferior, or, at least, imperfect workmanship. 

Some boiler-makers firmly believe that calking should be 
performed both internally and externally, and we may fre- 
quently hear this double calking expatiated upon as adding 
to the value of a boiler. As a matter of fact, however, in- 
ternal calking should never be resorted to. By internal calk- 
ing we mean specially to indicate the calking of edges ex- 
posed to steam or water, especially the latter, for long expe- 
rience has shown, with very little room for doubt, that internal 
calking has frequently been either a cause or an aid in the 
initiation of corrosive channeling of the plates along the line 
of the rivet seams. Though channeling is commonly met 
with along the longitudinal seams, being started, more fre- 
quently than by any other cause, by the want of perfect cir- 
cularity of the boiler, yet it is aggravated by the calking of 
the edge of the plate which borders the channeling, and the 
explanation is that an abnormal stress is set up in the plate 
upon which the calked edge is forced down, and too fre- 
quently the calking toul itself is driven so severely upon the 
plate surface as to cause an injury which develops as chan- 
neling when other conditions, such as bad water, etc., are 
present. These causes have been mainly contributory to the 
modern practice of outside calking only, and, with proper 
workmanship, this is all that should be required, but the best 
practice rejects any calking at all in the strict acceptation of 
the term, and demands that the edges of the plates shall be 
planed and "fullered;" fullering being the thickening up of 
the whole edge of the plate by means of a tool having a face 
equal to the plate thickness. With such a tool as this, it is 
impossible to wedge apart the plates forming the joint, and 
so frequently done in the manner shown (exaggerated) in 
Fig. i, when the narrow edge of the calking tool, driven per- 
haps by a heavy hammer, actually forces the plates apart and 
insures a tight joint only, by the piece of damaged plate corner 
which remains driven fast into the gap. 



126 

In contrast to this, Fig. 2 may be taken to fairly repre- 
sent the correct action of the more correct fullering tool, the 
plate edge being simply thickened, and contact between the 
two plates rendered certain for some distance in from the 
edge. To thus thicken, or " fuller " a plate, requires con- 
siderable power, and yet, even the use of a more than usually 
heavy hammer will not cause injury, as it certainly would do 
in careless hands, if used with a narrow calking tool. All 
modern first-class boiler work in England is inviarably ful- 
lered, and, though the practice of inside calking is still fol- 
lowed by firms who " fuller, " nevertheless, outside work is 
gaining the day. A further advantage of the " fulling " tool 
may be named. If inside calking be still practiced, the 
tendency to cause grooving will be less marked than with 
the narrow tool, and where, as at times, it is absolutely 
necessary to internally calk, as may sometimes happen, the 
last is a great point in favor of the broad tool. 

The foregoing remarks are suggested by a few notes on 
calking in an engineering work, wherein calking tools are 
described as having from y% to 3-16 of thickness, and "best 
work " as being calked both inside and out. In itself, 
calking properly carried out, and lightly performed on good, 
close-riveted joints, is not necessarily bad, but too frequently 
is badly performed by careless workmen and boys, and hence 
" fullering," which is better practice, and is also a safeguard 
against carelessness, is to be preferred to the old method. 

HOW TO THAW OUT A FROZEN STEAM-PIPE. 
A good way to thaw out a frozen-up steam pipe, is to 
take some old cloth, discarded clothes, waste, old carpet, or 
anything of that kind, and lay on the pipe to be thawed; 
then get some good hot water and pour it on. The cloth 
will hold the heat on the pipe, and thaw it out in five min- 
utes. This holds good in any kind of a freeze, water-wheel, 
or anything else. 

How many people, outside of practical men, know that 
steam is an invisible gas until the moisture it bears is con- 
densed l.y contact with cold air. Such is a fact, neverthe- 
less, as we may readily see by boiling water in a glass vessel. 
The bubbles that rise to the surface of the water are appar- 
ently empty the white vapor appears after they burst iiithe 
air at the surface of the water. 



THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS FROM RUN* 

NING MACHINERY. 

A German commission \vas appointed to investigate acci- 
dents in mills and factories, and draw up a series of rules fof 
their prevention. Some of these rules are as follows: 

SHAFTING. 

All work on transmissions, especially the cleaning and 
lubricating of shafts, bearings and pulleys, as well as the* 
binding, lacing, shipping and unshipping of belts, must be 
performed only by men especially instructed in, or charged 
with, such labors. Females and boys are not permitted to 
do this work. 

The lacing, binding or packing of belts, if they lie upon 
either shaft or pulleys during the operation, must be strictly 
prohibited. During the lacing and connecting of belts, 
strict attention is to be paid to their removal from revolv- 
ing parts, either by hanging them upon a hook fastened to 
the ceiling, or in any other practical manner; the same 
applies to smaller belts, which are occasionally unshipped 
and run idle. 

While the shafts are in motion, they are to be lubricated, 
or the lubricating devices examined only when observing the 
following rules: a. The person performing this labor must 
either do it while standing upon the floor, or by the use of b. 
Firmly located stands or steps, especially constructed for the 
purpose, so as to afford a good and substantial footing to the 
workman, c. Firmly constructed sliding ladders, running 
on bars. d. Sufficiently 'high and strong ladders, especially 
constructed for this purpose, which, by appropriate safe- 
guards (hooks above or iron points below), afford security 
against slipping. 

The cleaning and dusting of shafts, as well as of belt or 
rope pulleys mounted upon them, is to be performed only 
when they are in motion, either while the workman is 
standing : #, on the floor ; or , on a substantially con- 
structed stage or steps ; in either case, moreover, only by 
the use of suitable cleaning implements (duster, brush, etc.), 
provided with a handle of suitable length. The cleaning of 
shaft bearings, which can be done either while standing upon 
the floor or by the use of the safeguards mentioned above, 
must be done only by the use of long-handled implements. 
The cleaning of the shafts, while in motion, with cleaning 
waste or rags held in the hand, is to be strictly prohibited., 

All shaft -bearings are to be provided with automatic 
Imbricating apparatus. 



Only after the engineer has given the well understood 
signal, plainly audible in the work-rooms, is the motive en- 
gine to be started. A similar signal shall also be given to 
a certain number of work-rooms, if only their part of the 
machinery is to be set in motion. 

If any work other than the lubricating and cleaning of 
the shafting is to be performed while the motive engine is 
standing idle, the engineer is to be notified of it, and in what 
Toom or place such work is going on, and he must then allow 
the engine to remain idle until he has been informed by 
proper parties that the work is finished. 

Plainly visible and easily accessible alarm apparatus shall 
be located at proper places in the work-rooms, to be used in 
cases of accident to signal to the engineer to stop the 
motive engine at once. This alarm apparatus shall always 
be in working order, and of such a nature that a plainly 
audible and easily understood alarm can at once be sent to 
the engineer in charge. 

All projecting wedges, keys, set-screws, nuts, grooves, or 
other parts of machinery, having sharp edges, shall be sub- 
stantially covered. 

All belts and ropes which pass from the shafting of one 
story to that of another shall be guarded by fencing or 
casing of wood, sheet -iron or wire netting four feet six 
inches high. 

The belts passing from shafting in the story under- 
neath and actuating machinery in the room overhead, 
thereby passing through the ceiling, must be inclosed with 
proper casing or netting corresponding in height from the 
flooi to the construction of the machine. When the ^on- 
strucHon of the machine does not admit of the introduction 
of c&sing, then, at least, the opening in the floor through 
which the belt or rope passes should be inclosed with a 
low casing at least four inches high. 

Fix xl shafts, as well as ordinary shafts, pulleys and fly- 
wheels, running at a little height above the floor, and being 
within the locality where work is performed, shall be securely 
covered. 

These rules and regulations, intended as preventions of 
accidents to workmen, are to be made known by being con- 
spicuously posted in all localities where labor is performed. 

ENGINEERS. 

The attendant of a motive engine is responsible for the 
preservation and cleaning of the engine, as well as the floor 
of the engine-room. The minute inspection and lubrication 



I2 9 

of the several parts of the engine is to be done before it is 
set in motion. If any irregularities are observed during the 
performance of the engine, it is to be stopped at once, and 
the proper person informed of the reason. 

The tightening of wedges, keys, nuts, etc., of revolving 
or working part^, is to be avoided as much as possible during 
the motion of the engine. 

When large motive engines are required to be turned 
over the dead point by manual labor, the steam supply valve 
is to be shut off. 

After stoppage, either for rest or other cause, the engine 
is to be started only after .a well-understood and plainly 
audible signal has been given. The engineer must stop his 
engine at once upon receipt of an alarm signal. 

The engineer has the efficient illumination of the engine- 
room, and especially the parts moved by the engine, under his 
charge. 

The engineer must strictly forbid the entrance of unau- 
thorized persons into the engine-room. 

An attendant of a steam or other power motor, who is 
charged with the supervision of the engine as his only duty, 
is permitted to leave his post only after he has turned the 
care of the engine over to the person relieving him in the 
discharge of his duties. 

The engineer is charged with the proper preservation of 
his engine, and means therefor. He must at once inform 
his superior of any defect noticed by him. 

The engineer on duty is permitted only to wear closely 
fitting and buttoned garments. The wearing of aprons or 
neckties with loose, fluttering ends, is strictly prohibited. 

GEARING, 

Every work on gearing, such as cleaning and lubricating 
shafts, bearings, journals, pulleys and belts, as well as the 
tying, lacing and shipping of the latter, is to be performed 
only by persons either skilled in such work, or charged with 
doing it. Females and children are absolutely prohibited 
from doing such work. 

When lacing, binding or repairing the belts, they must 
either be taken down altogether from the revolving shaft or 
pulley, or be kept clear of them in an appropriate manner. 
Belts unshipped for other reasons are to be treated in the 
same manner. 

The lubricating of bearings and the inspection of lubri- 
cating apparatus must, when the shafting is in motion, be 
performed either while standing upon the floor- or by the use 



of steps or ladders, specially adapted for this purpose, or 
proper staging or sliding ladders. The lubrication of 
wheel work and the greasing ol belts and ropes with solid 
lubricants is absolutely prohibited during the motion of the 
parts. 

In case of accident, any workman is authorized to sound 
the alarm signal at once by the use of the apparatus 
located in the room for this purpose, to the engineer in 
charge. 

The following rules, classified under proper sub-heads, 
are published by the Technische Verein^ at Augsburg: 

TO PREVENT ACCIDENT BY THE SHAFTING. 

While the shafts are in motion, 51 IB strictly prohibited: 
a. To approach them with waste or rags, in order to clean 
them. b. In order to clean them, to raise above the floor 
by means of a ladder or other convenience. 

It is allowable to clean the shafting and pulleys only while 
in motion. 

These parts of the machinery must be cleaned by means 
.:f a long-handled brush only, and while standing upon the 
floor. 

The workmen charged with these or other functions 
about the shafting must wear jackets with tight sleeves, and 
closely buttoned up ; they must wear neither aprons nor 
neckties with loose ends. 

Driving pulleys, couplings and bearings are to be cleaned 
only when at rest. 

This labor should, in general, be performed only after the 
close of the day's work. If performed during the time of 
an accidental idleness of the machinery, or during the time 
of rest, or in the morning before the commencement of 
work, the engineer in charge is to be informed. 

HOW TO FIND THE HORSE-POVER OF AN 
ENGINE. 

Multiply the square of the diameter of the cylinder by 
0.7854, and, if the cut-off is not known, multiply the product 
by four-fifths of the boiler pressure; multiply the last 
product by the speed of the piston in feet per minute (or 
twice the stroke in feet and decimals, multiplied by the revo- 
lutions per minute). Divide the final product by 33.^00. 
and the horse-power will be the answer. 



ECONOMY IN THE USE OF AN INJECTOR. 

The following is an interesting discussion of the economy 
due to the use of an injector, in comparison with a direct- 
acting steam-pump, both with and without a feed-water 
heater, and a geared pump with heater. Although the in- 
vestigation is theoretical, it seems to be based on reliable 
data, so that the results, as summarized in the following 
table, differ little, in all probability, from the figures which 
would be obtained by actual experiment : 



Manner of feeding 
boiler. 


Temperature Relative amount 


Per cent, of 


of Jeed- 


of coal required 


fuel saved 


water. 


for feed 


over first 


Fahrenheit. 


apparatus, in 


case. 




equal times. 




i. 


D ir ec t- acting ) 
steam-pump, V 


600 


IOO 


o. 




no heater ) 








'2. 


Injector, no heater 


150 o 


98-5 


1 -5 


3- 


Injector, w i t h 1 
heater \ 


2OO 


93-8 


6.2 


4- 


D irec t- acting | 










steam-pump, V 


2OO 


87.9 


12. I 




with heater. . . j 








5- 


Ge a red-pump, ) 










a c t u ated by | 




* 






the main en- } 


2000 


86.8 


13-3 




gi n e , with] 










heater J 









This does not make the comparison between the eco- 
nomical performance of an injector and pump actuated by 
the main engine, wi'.hout heater in each case, or, in other 
words, he does not consider one of the most general divisions 
of the problem. Some experiments made on the Illinois 
Central Railroad may be briefly cited to supplement the dis- 
cussion. The figures given represent averages of eight trips 
of 128 miles in each case : 



Pounds of coal per trip. . . 
Pounds of water per trip. 
Pounds of water evapo- 
rated per pound of coal 



Feeding 

with 
pump. 

9,529 

4 S : SS8 

5.14 



Feeding 

with 

injector. 

8,736 

46,826 



Per cent, 
of grain 
for injector 
9.08 
4.04 



5.26 4.28 



In the experiments with pump, the trains were slightly 
heavier than when the injector \vas used, and more time was 



132 

lost in switching and standing, for which reason the experi- 
menters considered that the economy of coal consumption 
for the injector should be reduced from 9.08 to 6.21 per cent. 
Some incidental advantages were observed in the case of the 
injector, the boiler steamed more freely, and there was less 
variation of pressure. 

TELEPHONES. 

Telephones are of two kinds magneto and electric. In one 
sense of the word they both work on the same principle. 
namely: A series of pulsations, corresponding in length and 




SECTION OF A BLAKE TRANSMITTER 

strength to the sound waves made by the voice, cause simi- 
lar pulsations in the receiving end of the telephone circuit, 
and these pulsations in turn make sound waves which reach 
the ear. Magnetism and electricity work together in a tele- 
phone. If a wire is moved just in front of the poles of a 
magnet, whether it be an electro or a permanent magnet, a 
current of electricity is induced in the wire. If a current of 
electricity is set to flowing around a piece of soft iron, that 



133 

piece of iron becomes an .electro-magnet and remains as such 
as long as the electricity flows around it. A steel magnet, 
however, is always a mnguet unless particular pains are 
taken to de-magnetize it. Around every magnet is a mag- 
netic field, and the iield is traversed by what are known as 
lines of force. Any change in the lines of force induce elec- 
tricity, and this is the bottom principle in the working part 
of a telephone. In the receiver of a telephone of the Bell pat- 




SECTION OF A BELL RECEIVER. 

tern is a bar or straight permanent magnet. At one end of 
this bar-magnet is an electro-magnet. Two small copper 
wives lead back from the electro-magnet to the closed end of 
the receiver and the diaphragm of the telephone fits into the 
case so near the poles of the electro-magnet as to almost 
touch it. This is a magneto-telephone, and such telephones 
are usually used as receivers. When the diaphragm is 
moved back and forth by sound waves, it cuts the lines of 
force in the magnetic field and induces undulatory currents 



134 

of electricity, which are transmitted by the telephone wire 
to the other telephone. In practice, ho-vever, the imdulatory 
currents are induced by the transmitter which is an electric 
telephone. The most common type of transmitter in the 
United States is the Blake. In this transmitter the working 
parts are the diaphragm; touching it is a platinum bottom 
which in turn rests lightly against a carbon button. The 
current of electricity flows through the carbon button, then 
through the platinum bottom and so out to the wires. When 
the diagraphragm, vibrating on account of the sound waves 
of the voice, presses against the platinum* bottom, it in turn 
presses against the carbon button giving it a succession of 
little squeezes which make the current of electricity stronger 
or weaker, thus producing an unduiatory current. The un- 
dulations carried over the wires affect the magnet in the re- 
ceiving telephone, causing the diaphragm to respond, thus 
reproducing speech at that end of the telephone circuit. 

RAPID KAILWAY TRANSIT. 

As an illustration of the speed at which railway traveling 
can be effected wnen the necessity arises, it may be mentioned 
that an American having missed the train in London, and 
having to catch an Atlantic steamer at Liverpool, proceeded 
by the ordinary train to Crewe, where a special engine had 
been chartered to convey him direct to Liverpool. The dis- 
tance between Crewe and Liverpool is 36 miles, and one of 
the large Crewe engines completed the journey in 33 min- 
utes, reaching the landing stage at Liverpool 10 minutes 
before the timed departure of his steamer. 

USEFUL CEMENTS. 

A cement said to resist petroleum is made by taking three 
parts resin, one part caustic soda to five of water, boiled to- 
gether, the resin being melted first, of course. This makes a 
resin soap, to which must be added half its weigh of plaster. 
It hardens in forty minute;?. Useful for uniting lamp tops 
to glass. Glycerine and litharge, mixed thoroughly, is said 
to form a cement which hardens rapidly, and will join iron 
to iron or iron to stone. Not affected by water or acids. 

A cement for leaky roofs is made by the following articles 



in the proportions named: -4 pounds resin, i pint linseed oil, 
2 ounces red lead; stir in finest white sand until of the 
proper consistency, and apply hot. It possesses elasticity, 
and is fireproof. 

Starch and chloride of zinc form a cement which hardens 
quickly, and is durable. Sometimes used for stopping blow- 
holes in castings. 

A cement for uniting metal to glass is made with 2 ounces 
thick solution of glue, i ounce linseed oil varnish. Stir and 
boil thoroughly. The pieces should be tied togeth""' for 
three days. 

A cement of 100 parts each white sand, litharge ,.nd 
limestone, combined with 7 parts of linseed oil, makes the 
strongest mineral cement known. At first the mass is soft 
and of little coherence, but in six months' time it will, if 
pressed, become so hard as to strike fire from steel. 

A free application of soft soap to a fresh burn almost 
instantly removes the fire from the flesh. If the injury is 
very severe, as soon as the pain ceases apply linseed oil, and 
then dust over with fine flour. When this covering dries 
hard, repeat the oil and flour dressing until a good coating is 
obtained. When the latter dries, allow it to stand until it 
cracks and falls off, as it will in a day or two, and a new skin 
will be found to have formed where the skin was burned. 

A new form of electrical railway is being erected at St. 
Paul, Minn. The cars do not touch the ground, but are 
suspended from girders which form the track and at the 
same time the mains conveying the current. Speeds of from 
eight to ten miles per hour are expected. 

CELLULOID SHEATHING. 

Among the various uses of celluloid, it would appear to 
be a suitable sheathing for ships, in place of copper. A 
French company now undertakes to supply the substance for 
this at nine francs p^r surface meter, and per millimeter of 
thickness. In experim -,its by M. Butaine, plates of celluloid 
applied to various v?s-e!s in January last, were removed fivft 
or six months after a id found quite intact and free from 
marine vegetation, \\hich was abundant on parts uncovered. 
The color of the .substance is indestructible; the thickness 
may be reduced to o 0003 meter; and the qualities of elas- 
ticity, solidi'y and impe v meability, resistance to chemical 
action, etc , a c> a 1 in favor of the use of celluloid. 



13* 

TRANSMITTING POWER BY A VACUUM. 

The idea of producing a vacuum in a receiver or in a sys- 
tem of pipes, and utilizing this vacuum to transmit power, 
was put forth many years ago. In an article published in 
1688 Papin recommends the use of this mode of transmission. 
He mentions its advantages, particularly its simplicity and 
convenience ; he gives for different cases, the proper diameters 
of the pipes in which the vacuum is made, and recommends 
lead as the material from which to make them. The idea is 
therefore old, but it is only recently that it has been put into 
practice. There is now a central station running on this prin- 
ciple in Paris, distributing 250 h. p. by means of pipes in 
which a seventy-five per cent, vacuum is maintained. One 
year ago the company running this station had fifty custom- 
ers ; now there are 105 leases signed. 

The possibility of maintaining a vacuum in an extensive 
system of pipes has sometimes been questioned. Repeated 
experiments, however, have shown that in a line of pipes a 
third < f a mile long a pressure of a quarter of an atmosphere 
can be maintained so that two gauges, one at each end of the 
pipe, stand at exactly the same point. 

In the station at Paris the exhauster is operated by a 
Corliss engine of special construction, the speed of which is 
automatically controlled by a regulator operated by the 
variations in pressure in the main pipe. The branch pipes are 
of lead, and are of different diameters, according to the num- 
ber of consumers that each is to supply. Each of these branch 
pipes is provided with a cock that can be opened or closed by 
means of a wrench that is kept at the central station. The 
smaller branches that supply the individua 1 ru c "omers are also 
of lead, and are likewise provided wich o cks that can be 
opened or closed only by the employes of tne company, who 
retain possession of the wrenches that open them. 

Two kinds of motors are in use, one, the rotary class, 
being used for the smaller powers; the other class, which have 
cylinders and pistons, being used only for larger powers. The 
small motors have an efficiency of about 40 per cent., while 
in the largest size the efficiency is said to be as high as 80 per 
cent. 

SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. 

No one of average intelligence and information now 
believes in the possibility of human beings or the lower ani- 
mals undergoing spontaneous combustion ; and yet it is 
barely forty years since Liebig devoted a long chapter of his 



137 

celebrated " Familiar Letters on Chemistry " to exposing the 
fallacy of this idea, thus showing that at that date it was preva- 
lent. Every reader of Dickens will remember that in one of 
his most interesting stories an important episode is made to 
turn on the popular belief in spontaneous combustion, a belief 
which Dickens himself would seem to have shared. Of 
course, as Liebig points out, it requires no explanation 
to account for the connection which has often been shown 
to exist between death by burning and the too frequent indul- 
gence of ardent spirits. Spontaneous combustion, though 
not of living animals, may, however, occur in certain cases, 
and give rise to fires in buildings, etc., and it may, therefore, 
be of interest to the reader to examine shortly some of those 
possible cases and their causes. But first of all, a few words 
as to " combustion " itself, the true nature of which was 
explained by the famous French chemist Lavoisier, toward the 
end of last century. 

An act of combustion is an act of chemical combina- 
tion attended by the evolution of heat and light, and, for such 
an act, two conditions are necessary, viz. : (i) There must 
be a gas in which the given substance will burn, /'. e. with 
which it will combine chemically, and (2) there must be a 
certain temperature, the degree of temperature being different 
for each different substance. Thus, to take only one common 
example, a piece of coal will remain unaltered, at the ordi- 
nary temperature of the air, for practically an unlimited 
period of time; but, if it be heated to a sufficiently high 
temperature, it will burn. /. e. , the carbon of w r hich it is com- 
posed will combine with the oxygen of the air, to form car- 
bonic acid gas; chemical combination goes on in this case 
so rapidly, comparatively speaking, that the heat and light 
set free by it are palpable to our senses. Now, the two 
requisite conditions just mentioned sometimes occur together 
in nature, giving rise to true cases of spontaneous combustion, 
of which the following examples may be cited : 

1. The ignis fatmiS) or "will-o'-the-wisp," is the effect 
of the spontaneous ignition of a volatile compound of phos- 
phorus and hydrogen, which is generated, under certain con- 
ditions, from decomposing animal and vegetable matter. 
This compound has such an intense affinity for the oxygen of 
the air, that, ihe moment it comes in contact with ihe latter, 
it ignites of itself, giving out the flash of light that has de- 
luded so many a wanderer. 

2. Spontaneous combustion also occurs not unfrequently 
in coal ships, or in the coal bunkers of ordinary vessels. Coal 
generally contains iron pyrites or " coal brasses " disseminated 



138 

through it, and this pyrites, which is a compound of iron and 
sulphur, has a great tendency to absorb oxygen from the air 
and to combine with it, forming sulphate of iron, or " green 
vitriol." This absorption and combination are accompanied 
by a rise of temperature, and they sometimes go on so rapidly 
as to raise the temperature of the mass sufficiently high to 
cause the coal to catch, fire. 

3. Fires in buildings are often to be traced to the presence 
of heaps of old cotton waste. Such waste is always more or 
less impregnated with oil, and, being very loose in texture, it 
exposes a large surface to the air. The result is that the oil 
rapidly absorbs and combines chemically with the oxygen of 
the air, just as the pyrites in coal does, raising the temperature 
to such a degree that a fire ensues. 

4. The " heating of corn which has been stacked before 
the sheaves have been sufficiently dried, and which sometimes 
ends in the corn stack catching fire, is the result of chemical 
changes of the nature of fermentation. 

5. Every one must have observed what a large amount 
of heat is set free when lime is slacked so much, indeed, 
that fires have frequently been known to result from it. The 
reason of this is, that the lime combines with a certain pro- 
portion of water, this act of combination causing much heat 
Vo be liberated. 

The above instances are sufficient to show that sponta- 
neous combustion in no way differs from ordinary combustion, 
excepting in that the requisite temperature is attained by 
natural causes, and not artificially, and that the old idea held 
by the superstitions of last century, that the spontaneous 
combustion of animals (which we now know to be impossi- 
ble) was caused by a peculiar kind of fire, differing from ordi- 
nary fire, and not extinguishable by water, \\as the result of 
ignorance. There is still one other cause of spontaneous 
combustion, often very dangerous in its effects, and which 
leads us on to the subject of explosions, which must be men- 
tioned here. One occasionally reads in the newspapers of 
explosions occurring in flour mills, sometimes from no appar- 
ent cause. These explosions are cases of rapid sponta- 
neous combustion, in which a spark from the grindstone sets 
fire to the fine flour dust with which the air of the mill is 
impregnated. 

But what is an "explosion"? An explosion is nothing 
more nor less than a combustion which spreads with great 
rapidity throughout the whole mass of the combustible matter. 
To our senses it appears to be instantaneous, but it is not really 
so. An example \viil make this clear. A mixture of hydrogen 



339 

and oxygeii, or hydrogen and air, is a highly dangerous one, 
because the instant that a light is introduced into it it explodes ; 
that is to say, the particles of hydrogen and oxygen in the 
immediate neighborhood of the flame are raised to the requisite 
temperature at which chemical combination can take place 
between them. They therefore do combine to form water 
vapor, and, by doing so, give out heat enough to cause com- 
bination between the particles next to them, and so on 
throughout the whole mass of the gas. This action goes on, 
as already stated, so rapidly as to be practically instantaneous. 
The terrible effects of explosions are caused, then, by the 
sudden production of immense quantities of hot gases. ' The 
newspapers constantly tell us of disastrous explosions resulting 
from the bringing of a light into a room in which an escape of 
gas is going on. A mixture of coal gas and air behaves 
in precisely the same manner as the mixture of hydrogen 
and oxygen, or hydrogen and air, mentioned above, with 
the exception that the products of the combustion or ex- 
plosion are different. When an escape of gas is suspected, all 
lights should be rigorously excluded, the gas turned off at the 
meter or main, and windows and doors opened, so as to get 
rid of the already-escaped gas as quickly as possible ; and only 
then, after complete ventilation has taken place, may a light 
be brought into the room with safety. It is to be hoped that 
such a technical instruction bill will soon be passed by parlia- 
ment as will render avoidable accidents of this nature less and 
less likely to occur. It is likewise a dangerous thing to blow out 
aparaffine lamp instead of turning the wick down, as, by blow- 
ing the flame downward, one is apt to ignite the mixture of 
oil, gas and air which is in the upper portion of the oil reser- 
voir, and so to produce a serious explosion. 

The explosion caused by the ignition of gunpowder or any 
other ordinary explosive, is explicable in the same way, but 
can only be touched upon in this article. Gunpowder is a 
most intimate mixture of charcoal, sulphur and nitre (potassic 
nitre), the last named substance being a compound containing 
a very large percentage of oxygen, which can be liberated on 
heating it. On applying a light to gunpowder," we raise the 
temperature sufficiently to allow of the carbon and sulphur 
burning in the oxygen liberated from the nitre; and, since the 
three substances are so intimately mixed together, this com- 
bustion proceeds with explosive rapidity, and produces a rela- 
tively enormous quantity of hot gas. 

Steel, when hardened, decreases in specific gravity, con- 
tracts in length and increases in diameter. 



140 
RULES FOR THE FIREMAN. 

In the care and management of the steam boilef the 
first thing required is an unceasing watchfulness r ,vatch- 
careis the very word which describes it. The accidents 
arising from neglect or incompetency in care of the engine 
are few and unimportant compared to those which come 
from negligence in attending to the boiler. 

Hence the fireman needs to be a man possessed of some 
of the highest qualities of manhood. The fact that many of 
the best steam engineers in the country have begun their 
careers by handling the shovel is evidence that good men 
are required and employed in this capacity, and that they 
are rewarded for their faithfulness by advancement. 

An intemperate, reckless or indifferent man should never 
be given this place of trust. The sooner a man is dismissed 
who is either of these the better, both for himself and his 
employers, to say nothing of the innocent and unsuspecting 
public. 

!^A.n employer should know something of the character 
and habits of the man who does the firing. A daily visit, 
and, at irregular times, with an eye to things in the boiler- 
room, as well as the engine-room, will keep him posted, to 
his great advantage. This regular inspection is most wel- 
come to faithful and careful men, and is a great inspiration 
to good service. A steam -user should visit his steam depart- 
ment as regularly as he does his office, although he may not 
spend as much time there. The failure of scores of other- 
wise flourishing establishments is due to the waste and 
recklessness in the use of fuel under the boilers, or the 
heavy losses incurred by repairs and explosions by which 
the whole business is stopped while the expenses continue 
undiminished. 

A feeling of conscientious responsibility should be the 
uppermost thing upon the mind of a fireman when on duty. 
He should consider and know how to figure the total tons of 
pressure upon the plates of his boiler, and have constantly in 
mind the importance of unceasing vigilance. 

To know how to be a good fireman cannot be taught by 
a book. The knowledge comes by experience and by instruc- 
tion of engineers who have themselves been good firemen, 
but the following are some of the hints and rules which may 
be of advantage to the new beginner. #$ 

First The fireman should be a sober and temperate 
person. Frivolous or reckless conduct about a steam-boiler 
^entirely out of place, and should not be permitted. There 



/s too much danger and too much cost not to call it 
waste of fuel to allow any indifference or recklessness in, 
the man upon whom so many depend. 

Second The fireman should be punctual in beginning 
his work. A loss of five minutes in starting into vigorous 
activity the men and machines of an establishment is some- 
times caused by inattention of the fireman, and the blame 
which is showered upon him is a stern reminder that he is 
held accountable for the loss. 

Third A habit of neatness is an almost necessary qual- 
ity, and which pays better for the cost of investment than 
any other. 

Fourth The tools should be kept hi their places, and 
in good order. 

Fifth The boiler and all its attachments should be kept 
in the very tidiest and attractive condition possible. 

Sixth The fireman, notwithstanding its apparent diffi- 
culty, should keep himself as said once "respectable 
abjut his work." Scattered coal and ashes and dripping oil 
should be constantly cleaned up, and every effort made to 
make the boiler-room an attractive and cheerful place. 

Seventh The fireman needs to know all the details of 
his work, and to do with exactness every duty imposed upon 
him. He needs to be cool and brave in the presence of 
unexpected conditions, such as sudden leaks, breakages of 
the glass gauges and sudden stoppages of the engine with a 
heavy head of steam on. ( 

Eighth He should have an idea of the importance of his 
work, and keep in mind to learn to do everything that may 
fit him in time for an advanced position. 

GRAPHITE IN STEAM-FITTING. 
Few steam-fitters or engineers understand the valuable 
properties of graphite in making up joints; this valuable 
mineral cannot be overestimated in this connection. Inde- 
structib'e under all changes of temperature, a perfect lubn 
cant and an anti-incrustator, any joint can be mnde up per- 
fectly tight with it and can be taken apart years a.ter r.s ensy 
as put together. Rubber or metal gaskets, when previous!} 
smeared with it, will last almost any length of time, and wiH 
leave the surface perfectly clean and bright. Few engineer- 
put t> sea without a good supply of this valuable nuiier?! 
while i eems to be airr.oot overlooked on shore 



142 

HORSE POWER NOMINAL, INDICATED AND 
EFFECTIVE, WITH RULES FOR DETERMIN- 
ING THE HORSE POWER OF AN ENGINE. 

Engineers and others who never carefully considered 
the matter, often use the three terms above as synonymous. 
While the terms are far from having a like meaning, still we 
often hear the nominal horse power of a steam engine spoken 
of when the person using the expression really means the 
indicated power. To show the distinctive difference between 
the meanings of the words nominal, indicated and effective, 
as applied to the term horse power, is our aim. 

A horse power is merely an expression for a certain 
amount of work, and involves three elements force, space 
and time. If the force be expressed in pounds and the space 
passed through in feet, then we have a solution of, and 
'meaning for, the term foot-pound ; from which it will be 
seen that a foot-pound is a resistance equal to one pound 
moved through a vertical distance of one foot. The work 
done in lifting thirty pounds through a height of fifty feet is 
fifteen hundred foot-pounds. Now, if the foot-pounds 
required to produce a certain amount of work involve a 
specified amount of time during which the work is performed, 
and if this number of foot-pounds is divided by the equiva- 
lent number representing one horse power (which number 
will depend upon the time), then the resulting number will 
be the horse power developed. 

^ For example, suppose the 1,500 foot-pounds just spoken 
of to have acted in one second. To find the horse power 
divide by 550, and the result will be the horse power. 

A horse power is 33,000 foot-pounds per minute; or, in 
other words, 33,000 pounds lifted one foot in one minute, or 
one pound lifted 33,000 feet in one minute, or 550 pounds 
lifted one foot in one second, etc. 

Ths capacity for work of a steam engine is expressed in 
the number of horse powers it is capable of developing. 

Nominal horse power is an expression which is gradually 
going out of use, and is merely a conventional mode of 
describing the dimensions of a steam engine for the con- 
venience of makers and purchasers of engines. The mode 
of computing the so-called nominal horse power was estab- 
lished by the practice of some of the early English manu- 
facturers, nnd is as follows : 

As ume the velocity of the piston to be 128 feet per 
minute m'Htipl-ird by the cube root of length of stroke in feet. 

Asftn vi- the moral effective pressure to be seven pounds 



ner square inch. From these fictitious data and the area of 
the piston compute the horse power ; that is, nomma. hors* 
power- 7 X 128 X 3 \f stroke in feet X area of piston m 
square inches-f- 33, ooo. , 

Indicated horse power is the true measure of the work 
done within the cylinder of a steam engine, and is based upon 
no assumptions, but is actually calculated. 1 he data neces- 
sary are : The diameter of the cylinder in inches, length in 
feet the men effective pressure and number of revolutions 
per 'minute. As we have before stated, or implied, work is 
force acting through space, and a horse power is the amour 
of work in a specified time. In a steam engine the force 
which acts is the product of the area of the piston in square 
inches multiplied by the mean effective pressure ; the space 
is twice the stroke in feet, or one complete revolution, mul- 
tiplied by the number of revolutions per minute. 

Therefore, indicated horse power equals the area ot tne 
piston, multiplied by the mean effective pressure, multiplied 
by the piston speed in feet per minute divided by 33,000 

Effective horse power is the amount of work which an 
engine is capable of performing, and is the difference be- 
tween the indicated horse power and horse power required 
to drive the engine when it is running unloaded 

Engine rating, guarantees, etc., are usually based upon 
the indicated horse power, owing to the c:se and accuracy 
with which it can be determined, and as a means ot com- 
parison. 

Nominal horse power is computed from fictitious data. 

Indicated hoise power is computed from actual data, 
which is arrived at by means of what is known as the steam 
engine indicator. . 

Effective horse power is computed from actual data, 
either by means of the indicator, brake or dynamometer. 

THE CARE OF MACHINERY., 
The monev spent in keeping machinery clean and in 
order is by no' means wasted. The better the machinery, 
the greater the necessity for proper supervision. I he first 
knock in an engine, the smallest leak in a boiler, the slight- 
est variation from truth in a mill spindle, the wearing down 
of roller bearings, heating of journals, should be recti 
immediately. The smooth and even working of machinery 
has a great deal to do with the cost of driving, while avoid- 
ance of the risk of breakage saves a large sum that would 
otherwise be spent in i epairs. 



144 
FOAMING IN BOILERS. 

The causes are dirty water; trying to evaporate more 
water than the size and construction oi the boiler is intended 
for; taking the steam too low down; insufficient steam 
room; imperfect construction of boiler, and too small a 
steam pipe. 

Take a kettle of dirty water and place it on a fire and 
allow it to boil and watch it foam, and it will be the same in 
a boilei. 

Too little attention is paid to boilers with regard to 
their evaporating power. Where the boiler is large enough 
for the water to circulate, and there is surface enough to 
give oft the steam, foaming never occurs. As the particles 
of steam have to escape to the surface of the water in the 
boiler, unless that is in proportion to the amount of steam 
to be generated, it will be delivered with such violence that 
the w4tr will be mixed with it and cause what is called 
foaming. 

A high pressure insures tranquillity at the surface, and, 
the steam itself being more dense, it comes away in a more 
compact form, and the ebullition at the surface is no greater 
than at a lower pressure. When a boiler foams, we close 
the throttle to check the flow, and that keeps up the pres- 
sure and lessens the sudden delivery. 

> Too many flues in a boiler obstruct the passage of the 
C'jeam from the lower part of the boiler on its way to the 
surface; this is a fault in construction, but nearly all foaming 
arises from dirty water, or -from trying to evaporate too 
much water without heating surface or steam room enough. 
Usually, when first put in, a boiler and engine are large 
enough, but, as business increases, more machinery is added 
until the power required is greater than can be furnished by 
the engine, more pressure has to be carried, and the number 
of revolutions increased; consequently the evaporating 
power of the boiler is forced beyond its ability, the steam 
being drawn off so rapidly that a large portion of water is 
drawn with it so much that it would astonish any engineer 
if he had a testing apparatus attached to the steam pipe. 

For the remedy of foul water there are numerous con- 
trivances to prevent it from entering the boiler, which is a 
farbrtter way than trying to extract the sediment after it is 
there though there are many ingenious methods for doing 
ihat also.. Faulty construction, or lack of capacity, the 
engineer cannot help, but he soon learns how to run the 
boiler to get the best possible results from it. 



H5 

Every intelligent engineer has observed that his engine 
has an individuality not possessed by any other he ever ran, 
and nothing but personal acquaintance can get the best work 
out of it; so it is with the boiler. 

The steam pipe may be carried through the flange six 
inches into the dome, which would prevent the water from 
entering the pipes by following the sides of the dome as it 
does. 

For violent ebullition a plate hung over the hole where 
the steam enters the dome from the boiler is a good thing, 
and prevents a rush of water by breaking it when the throttle 
is opened suddenly. 

Clean water, plenty of surface, plenty of steam room, 
large steam pipes, 'boilers large enough to generate steam 
without forcing the fires, are all that is required to prevent 
foaming. A surface blow-off is a grand thing, and helps a 
foaming boiler, and would be a good thing on every boiler, 
as you can tlien skim it as you would an open kettle. 

HAND-HOLE PLATES. 

They should be placed in such a position as to be accessi- 
ble and at or near all those parts of the boiler where scale or 
sediment is liable to accumulate In the locomotive station- 
ary boiler there should be one in each outside corner of the 
fire box and above the bottom ring, and one in each head 
under the tubes. In the upright tubular there should be at 
least two hand-hole plates above the ring, and one over the 
furnace door, on a line with the lower tube sheet, as in the 
locomotive boner. The horizontal boiler should have one 
in each head under the tubes, and the rule generally observed 
is, that, whenever sediment is deposited, then there should be 
a hand-hole to get at it for a regular cleaning out. 

These plates should be removed once a month, or oftener 
if necessary, to keep them clean, and are never considered 
an article of ornament, but of primary importance. 

BOILING. 

Let it be remembered, that the boiling spoken of so often 
is really caused by the formation of the steam particles, and 
that, without the boiling, there can be but a very slight quan- 
tity of steam produced. 

While pure water boils at 212, if it is saturated with 
common salt, it boils only on attaining 224, alum boils at 
220, sal ammoniac at 236, acetate of soda at 256, pure 
nitric acid boils at 248, and pure sulphuric acid at 620 



I 4 6 
INCRUSTATION OF STEAM BOILERS. 

One of the greatest difficulties to be contended against in 
steam engineering is the incrustation on the boiler walls, aris- 
ing from impure water. This crust is a poor conductor of heat, 
and causes increased fuel consumption, as well as the oxidiz- 
ing or " burning " of the plates, owing to their increased tem- 
perature. A plate of iron 37^ inches thick conducts heat as 
well as a " crust " of one inch. A boiler bearing scale only 
1-16 inch thick requires 15 per cent, more fuel, with % inch 
60 per cent, more, % inch 150 percent, more. If the plates 
be clean, 90 pounds of steam require a plate temperature of 
only 325 F. ; that is, about 5 above the steam tempera- 
ture. But if there be a y 2 inch scale, or crust, the plate 
must be heated to about 700, or nearly ' low red " heat. 
Now, about 600 iron soon gets granular and brittle; hence 
such a scale is dangerous in its results. Crust also retards 
the circulation of the water. Two very common ingredi- 
ents in boiler scale are carbonate of lime and"sulphate of 
lime, or gypsum. The moderate use of soda ash (say one 
part in 5? f water) holds this deposit in check, by pro- 
ducing from the principal ingredients a neutral carbonate of 
lime, which will not adhere to the plates, when thus rapidly 
formed. -Soda ash,' if used in excess, boils up and passes 
into the cylinders and pumps, clogging up valves and pistons 
by combining with the lubricants. If the gauge-glasses 
become muddy, too much soda water is used. It is much 
better to supply the boilers with pure water that can deposit 
no scale, this being done by means of filters and heaters, or 
by surface-condensers, and being especially advisable with 
sectional and water tube boilers. 

SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

Superheated steam is made by drawing steam from the 
boiler and heating it after it has ceased to be in contact with 
the water in the boiler. The apparatus by which the extra 
heat is imparted is called a super-heater. The steam is con- 
ducted through the pipes, and hot air and gases of combus- 
tion are passed around the outside of them, thus raising the 
temperature and forming a more perfect gas. 

STEAM GAUGES. 

Steam gauges indicate the pressure of steam above the 
atmosphere, the total pressure being measured from a per- 
fect vacuum, which will add 14 7-10 pounds on the average 
to the pressure shown on the steam gauge. 



H7 

IMPORTANT TO THOSE OPERATING STEAM 
BOILERS. 

In view of the numerous boiler explosions that have 
recently occurred, we submit to them the following perti- 
nent questions asked by the American Machinist, which 
should command the careful consideration of every steam 
user in the land: 

How long since you were inside your boiler? 

Were any of the braces slack? 

Were Jny of the pins out of the braces? 

Did all the braces ring alike? 

Did not some of them sound like a fiddle-string? 

Did you notice any scale on flues or crown sheet? 

If you did, when do you intend to remove it? 

Have you noticed any evidence of bulging in the fire-box 
plates? 

Do you know of any leaky socket bolts? 

Are any of the flange joints leaking? 

Will your safety valve blow off itself, or does it stick a 
little sometimes? 

Are there any globe valves between the safety valve and 
the boiler? They should be taken out at once, if there are. 

Are there any defective plates anywhere about your 
boiler ? 

Is the boiler so set that you can inspect every part of it 
when necessary? 

If not, how can you tell in what condition the plates are? 

Are not some of the lower courses of tubes or flues in 
your boiler choked with soot or ashes? 

Do you absolutely know, of your own knowledge, that 
your boiler is in safe and economical working order, or do 
you merely suppose it is? 

HOW TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS TO BOILERS. 

I st. Carry regular steam pressure. 

2d. Start the engine slowly so as not to make a violent 
change in the condition of the water and steam, aiw*. when 
consistent, stop the engine gradually. 

3d. Carry sufficient water in the boiler. 

4th. Do not exceed the pressure in pounds per square 
inch allowed to be carried. 

5th. See that every appliance of the boiler, feed pipes 
and safety-valve, fusible plugs, etc., are in complete working 
order. 



I 4 8 

PRINCIPLES ON WHICH BOILERS AND THEIR 
FURNACES SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED. 

Hitherto, those who have made boiler-making a sepa- 
rate branch of manufacture, have given too much attention 
to mere relative proportions. One class place reliance on 
enlarged grate surface, another on large absorbing surfaces, 
while a third demand, as the grand panacea, "boiler-room 
enough," without, however, explaining what that means. 
Among modern treatises on boilers, this principle of room 
enough seems to have absorbed all other considerations, and 
the requisites, in general term*, are thus summed up : 

1. Sufficient amount of internal heating surface. 

2. Sufficient roomy surface. 

3. Sufficient air-space between the bars. 

4. Sufficient area in the tubes or flues ; and 

5. Sufficiently large fire-bar surface. 

In simpler terms, these amount to the truism give suf- 
ficient size to all the parts, and thus avoid being deficient 
in any. 

With reference to the proportions of the several parts of 
a furnace, there are two points requiring attention ; fust, 
the superficial area of the grate for retaining the solid fuel 
or coke ; and, second, the sectional area of the chamber 
above the fuel for receiving the gaseous portion of the coal. 

As to the area of the grate-bars, seeing that it is a 
solid body that is to be laid on them, requiring no more 
space than it actually covers at a given depth, it is alone 
important that it be not too large. On the other hand, as 
to the area of the chamber above the coal, seeing that it is 
to be occupied by a gaseous body, requiring room for its 
rapidly enlarging volume, it is important that it be not too 
small. 

As to the best proportion of the grate, this will be the 
easiest of adjustment, as a little observation will soon enable 
the engineer to determine the extent to which he may 
increase or diminish the length of the furnace. In this 
respect the great desideratum consists in confining that 
length within such limits that it shall, at all times, 
be well and uniformly covered. This is the absolute 
condition and sine qua non of economy and efficiency; 
yet it is the very condition which, in practice, is the 
i lost neglected. Indeed, the failure and uncertainty which 
has attended many anxiously conducted experiments has most 
frequently arisen from the neglect of this one condition. 

If ihe grate-bars be not equally and well covered, the 



149 

fr will enter in irregular and rapid streams or masses, 
j^rough the uncovered parts, and at the very time when it 
should be there most restricted. Such a state of things at 
once bids defiance to all regulation or control. Now, on the 
control of the supply of air depends all that human skill can 
do in effecting perfect combustion and economy ; and, until 
the supply of fuel and the quantity on the bars be regulated, 
it will be impossible to control the admission of the air. 

Having spoken of the grate-bar surface, and what is 
placed on it, we have next to consider the chamber 
part of the furnace, and what is formed therein. In marine 
and cylindrical land boilers, this chamber is invariably made 
too shallow and too restricted. 

The proportions allowed are indeed so limited as to give 
it rather the character of a large tube, whose only function 
should be, the allowing the combustible gases to pass through 
it, rather than that of a chamber, in which a series of consecu- 
tive chemical processes were to be conducted. Such 
furnaces by their diminished areas, have also this injurious 
tendency, --that they increase the already too great rapidity 
of the current through them. ^ 

The constructing the furnace chamber so shallow an\ 
with such inadequate capacity, appears to have arisen from 
the idea, that the nearer the body to be heated was brought 
to the source of heat, the greater would be the quantity 
received. This is no doubt true when we present a body to 
be heated in front of a fire. When, however, the approach 
of the colder body will have the direct effect of interfering 
with the processes of nature (as in gaseous combustion), it 
must manifestly be injurious. Absolute contact with flame 
should be avoided where the object is to obtain all the heat 
which would be produced by the combustion of the entire 
constituents of the fuel. 

So much, however, has the supposed value of near ap- 
proach, and even impact, prevailed, that we find the space 
behind the bridge, frequently made but a few inches deep, 
and bearing the orthodox title of the flame-bed. Sounder 
views have, however, shown that it should be made capa- 
cious, and the impact of the flame avoided. 

As a general view, deduced from practice, it may De 
stated that the depth between the top of the bars and the 
crown of the furnace should not be less than two feet six 
inches where the grate is but four feet long ; increasing in 
the same ratio where the length is greater ; and secondly, 
that the depth below the bars should not be less, although 
depth there is not so essential either practically or chemically. 



150 
PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM. 



PRESSURE. 




VOLUME. 




Total heat 










required 






Tempera- 






Latent 


to generate 


By 

Steam 
Gauge. 


Total 


ture in 
Fahrenheit 
Degrees 


Com- 
pared 
. with 
Water. 


Cubic Feet 
of Steam 
from i Ib. 
of Water. 


Heat in 
Fahren- 
heit 
Degrees. 


I Ib. Of 

Steam from 
Water at 32 
deig. under 
constant 














pressure. 














In Heat 














Units. 


o 


15 


212. 


1642 


26.36 


965.2 


146.1 


5 


20 


228.0 


1229 


19.72 


952-8 


150.9 


.0 


25 


240.1 


996 


15-99 


945-3 


154.6 


IS 


3 


250.4 


838 


13-46 


937-9 


157-8 


20 


35 


259-3 


726 


11.65 


931.6 


160.5 


25 


40 


267.3 


640 


10.27 


926.0 


162.9 


3 


45 


274.4 


572 


9.18 


920/9 


165.1 


35 


5 


281.0 


5i8 


8.31 


916.3 


167. r 


40 


55 


287. i 


474 


7.61 


912.0 


169.0 


45 


60 


292.7 


437 


7.01 


908.0 


170.7 


50 


65 


298.0 


405 


6.49 


904.2 


172.3 


55 


70 


302.9 


378 


6.07 


900.8 


173-3 


60 


75 


307-5 


353 


5-68 


897.5 


175-2 


65 


80 


312.0 


333 


5 35 


894.3 


176.5 


70 


85 


316.1 


3U 


5-05 


891.4 


177.9 


75 


90 


320.2 


298 


4-79 


888. s 


179-1 


80 


95 


324-1 


283 


4-55 


8858 


180.3 


85 


100 


327-9 


270 


4-33 


883.1 


181.4 


9 


105 


33i-3 


257 


4.14 


880.7 


182.4 


95 


I TO 


334-6 


247 


3-97 


878.3 


183-5 


100 


H5 


338.o 


237 


3.80 


875-9 


184.5 


no 


125 


344-2 


219 


3-5i 


871-5 


186.4 


I2O 


135 


350.1 


203 


3-27 


867.4 


188.2 


130 


145 


355-6 


190 


3.06 


863-5 


189.9 


140 


155 


361.0 


179 


2.87 


859-7 


I 9 I -5 


150 


I6 5 


366.0 


169 


2.71 


856.2 


192.9 


1 60 


175 


370.8 


159 


2.56 


852.9 


194.4 


170 


l8 5 


375-3 


151 


2-43 


849.6 


195-8 


1 80 


195 


379-7 


144 


2.31 


846.5 


197.2 



This table gives the value of all properties of saturated 
steam required in calculations connected with steam boilers. 

SODA ASH IN BOILERS. 

An English boiler inspection company recommends that 
soda ash be used to prevent scale, instead of soda crystals; 
and that it be pumped in regularly and continuously in solu- 
tion, with the feed, instead of spasmodically dumped in solid 
through the manhole. Tungstate of soda, instead of either 
soda ash or soda crystal, has been recommended strongly by 
some high authorities in lieu of the above. 



STEAM COAL. 

Steam coal, being, as everybody knows, unquestionably 
the most important and largest expense in the manufacture 
of steam, is deserving a most careful investigation by engi- 
neers and owners, who, unlike chemists and college pro- 
fessors, consider the subject wholly in a practical way, as 
relating to the coal bills of their establishments. 

Useful knowledge of e very-day economy of coal is seldom 
gained by " tests" conducted by experts, for several reasons so 
plain that they will not require explanation. 1st. The cost of 
the fuel used in tests, whatever may be stated, is too high, aver- 
age or " every-day " coal not being used. The experiments 
are made with picked men and picked fuel, for brief period* 
with everything at its best, and the results attained, iflookt^ 
for in the ordinary run of business, will be disappointmerj 
in the results of the wholesale order. 2d. Men, working r f 
firemen, twelve or fourteen hours per day in the hot furnac 
rooms, cannot be expected, with the ordinary appliances, t 4 
watch where every lump of coal falls when feeding the fur 
nace*, nor to clean the grates any oftener than they are cor* 
pelled to do. 3d. Moreover, too many employers favor t\ 
low wages plan, and, for the apparent saving of a few do" 
lars per month, waste many times the amount in the ; r fu 
nace doors, and render their establishments most disagrt" 
able to their neighbors, by a free distribution of unconsmn-^* 
carbon, or what is commonly called soot, and of which most 
people have no appreciation. 4. Little or no encourage- 
ment is given for careful or economical firing, as a rule. 
The fireman who oftentimes wastes as much as his entire 
wages, secures the same pay as the man working alongside 
of him who saves it all. It maybe remarked that this is 
" not business," but many are the concerns who run their 
steam plants upon this system. Careful handling of coal in 
firing pays better than any other thing about a steam plant, 
and it is the wisest economy to secure good and careful men 
to do it. 

As is well understood, the conditions or circumstances 
attending the combustion of coal for steam purposes, embra- 
ces a wide range. A very few establishments work under 
conditions that admit of a high attainment of economy by 
having a fixed performance of duty, and their plants well 
proportioned to the regular work, but by far the largest 
number having a fluctuating demand for steam, and in that 
respect are largely at a disadvantage. Many furnaces are 
badly constructed., others suffer from an insufficiency of 



152 

draft, and in many cases there seems to be no end of compli- 
cations detrimental to best results. 

These practical difficulties and uncertainties, which are well 
known to every experienced engineer, render any investiga- 
tion worthy of the name, slow and laborious. It has taken 
considerable time and research to arrive at the conclusion, 
though differing from the preponderance of hearsay 
or guess-work evidence, that now, at least, " the highest 
priced coal is not the cheapest for steam production^ 
and that, in fact, the reverse is undoubtedly true, especially 
in the Western country Late improvements in the con- 
struction of grate bars ha^e undoubtedly added largely to 
the value of Western soft coals. The great difficulty, in 
former times, of ridding the furnaces of the incombustible 
part of these very valuable coals, has now been removed by 
improvements, and there is no doubt but what a large num- 
ber of extensive establishments in the West are now, and for 
some time past have been, obtaining the same duty from the 
Illinois bituminous coals that they in former years obtained 
from the high-priced Eastern coals. 

BLOWING OFF UNDER PRESSURE. 

A boiler can be seriously impaired by blowing it down 
under a high pressure, and with hot brick work. The heat 
from the latter will granulate the iron and reduce its tensile 
strength. A boiler should not be blown right down under 
a higher pressure than twenty pounds, and not less than four 
hours after the fire has been drawn. 

When a boiler is exposed to cold air, especially in the 
winter, it is advisable that the damper be closed and the 
doors thrown open, or vice-versa. If both are left open, 
the strong draught of cold air will cool off the flues faster 
than the shell; which abuse, if kept up, would reduce the 
length of the life of the boiler. 

THE TOTAL PRESSURE. 

A boiler eighteen feet in length by five feet in diameter, 
with forty-four inch tubes, under a head of eighty pounds of 
steam, has a pressure of nearly 113 tons on ea^h head, 1,625 
tons on the shell and 4,333 tons on the tubes,, making a total 
of 6,184 tons on the whole of the exposed surfaces. 

This calculation is made by finding the total square inches 
under pressure, and multiplying the totals by the pressure, in 
this case, 80 pounds to the square inch. 



Table Showing Safe Working Steam Pressure for Iron 
Boilers of different sizes, using a Factor of Safety of Six. 



ill! 


J2 

.- "" 


Longitudinal Seams, 
Single Riveted. 


Longitudinal Seams, 
Double Riveted. 


11 .a 


H^ 


Tensil Strength of Iron. 


Tensil Strength of Iron. 






45,000 


50.000 


55,oo 


45,000 


50,000 


55,000 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 






Press- 


Press- 


Press- 


Press- 


Press- 


Press- 






ure. 


ure. 


ure 


ure. 


ure. 


ure. 



















36 


i 


104 
I 3 


116 
145 


127 
159 


156 


139 
174 


152 


38 


7 


99 
123 


1 10 

137 


121 


119 

148 


132 
l6 4 


\ 8 1 


40 


1 


1.17 


104 
130 


H3 


113 
140 


125 

I 5 6 


138 
172 


42 


X 


89 

112 


99 
124 


109 
136 


107 
134 


149 


163 


44 


1 


85 
107 


95 
118 


104 
130 


102 

128 


114 
142 


156 


46 


i 


82 
102 


"3 


100 
125 


98 
122 


109 
136 


120 
150 




X 


78 


87 


9 6 


94 


104 


115 


48 


& 


9 8 


109 


120 


118 131 


144 




y% 


118 


131 


144 


142 157 


173 




y t 


75 


83 


92 


90 ; IOO 


IIO 


5O 




94 


104 


115 


113 125 


138 




y& 


112 


125 


138 


134 ! 150 


1 66 


( 


x 


72 


80 


88 


86 i 96 


106 


52 ] 




90 


100 


IIO 


108 120 


132 


} 


y% 


108 


120 


132 


130 144 


158 







87 


9 6 i 


106 


101 112 


122 


54 j 


y& 


104 


116 


127 


120 134 


148 


( 


\ 


121 

78 


135 

87 


148 
95 


140 156 

94 104 


172 
114 


60 \ 


H 


94 


104 




113 125 


138 


I 


il> 


109 


121 


134 


I3 1 i H5 


160 






85 


95 


104 


102 114 


125 


66 


ft 


99 


in 


121 


120 


133 


146 


1 


/^ 


112 


117 


138 


137 


152 


167 




3/ 


78 


87 


9 6 


94 i 104 


"5 


72 


f e 


9 I 102 


112 


IIO 122 


134 






102 I 117 


128 


125 ! 140 


153 



154 
STEAM HEATING. 

The advantages of steam heating are set forth by Prof. 
W. P. Trowbridge, in the North American Review, as 
follows : 

1. The almost absolute freedom from risk of fire when 
the boiler is outside of the walls of the building to be heated, 
and the comparative immunity under all circumstances. 

2. When the mode of heating is the indirect system, 
with box coils and heaters in the basement, a most thorough 
ventilation may be secured, and it is in fact concomitant with 
the heating. 

3. Whatever may be the distance of the rooms from the 
source of heat, a simple steam pipe of small diameter con- 
veys the heat. From the indirect heaters underneath the 
apartments to be heated, a vertical flue to each' apartment 
places the flow of the low heated currents of the air under 
the absolute control of the occupants of the apartment. 
Uniformity of temperature, with certainty of control, may 
be thus secured. 

4. Proper hygrometric conditions of the air arc better 
attained. As the system supplies large volumes of air 
heated only slightly above the external temperature, there is 
but little change in the relative degree of moisture of the air 
as it passes through the apparatus. 

5. No injurious gases can pass from the furnace into the 
air flues. 

6. When the method of heat is by direct radiation in 
the rooms, the advantage of steadiness and control of tem- 
perature, sufficient moisture and good ventilation, are not 
always secured; but this is rather the fault of design, since 
all these requirements are quite within reach of ordinary 
contrivances. 

7. One of the conspicuous advantages of steam heating 
is that the most extensive buildings, whole blocks, and even 
large districts of a city may be heated from one source, the 
steam at the same time furnishing power where needed for 
ventilation or other purposes, and being immediately avail- 
able also for extinguishing fires, either directly or through 
force pumps. 

STOPPING WITH A HEAVY FIRE. 

When it becomes necessary to stop an engine with a heavy 
fire in the furnace, place a layer of fresh coal on the fire, shut 
the damper and start the injector or pump for the purpose of 
keeping up the circulation in the boiler. 



ANALYSIS OF BOILER INCRUSTATION. 

BY DR. WALLACE. 

Carbonate of lime 64.98 

Sulphate of lime 9. 33 

Magnesia 6.93 

Combined water 3. 15 

Chloride of sodium 23 

Oxide of iron. 1. 36 

Phosphate of lime of alumina 3.72 

Silica 6.60 

Organic matter 1.60 

Moisture at 212 degrees F 2. 10 

100. 
CLEANING BOILER TUBES. 

The method of cleaning boiler tubes depends upon the 
kind of fuel used. A steam jet will not answer where wood 
and soft coal are used, but will do for hard coal, though in 
any case a scraper is indispensable, where a steam jet is not. 
Soot and dust will collect in the tubes and burn on so as to 
require more than a jet of steam to move it. A steam jet or 
blower should be used only where dry steam is at hand, but 
by no means with wet steam. Before using the jet, thor- 
oughly blow all the water out of it and heat it up. We have 
seen some men put the point of the jet in a tube and turn on 
steam before warming, and then wonder what caused the brick 
work to crumble away at the back end . 

CLEANING BRASS. 

The government method prescribed for cleaning brass, 
and in use at all the United States arsenals, is said to be 
the best in the world. The plan is, to make a mixture of 
one part of common nitric, and one-half part sulphuric acid 
in a stone jar, having also a pail of fresh water and a box of 
saw-dust. The articles to be treated are first dipped into 
the acid, then removed into the water, and finally rubbed 
with the saw- dust. This immediately changes them into a 
brilliant color. If the brass has become greasy, it is first 
dipped into a strong solution of potash or soda, in warm 
water. This dissolves the grease, so that the acid has power 
to act. 

THE THERMAL UNIT 

Is the heat necessary to raise one pound of water at 39 F. 
one degree, or to 40 F. 



SMOKE HOW FORMED. 

When fresh coal is placed on a fire in an open grate, 
smoke arises immediately; and the cause of this smoke is not 
far to seek, as it will be easily understood that, before fresh 
coals were put upon the fire within the grate, the glowing 
coals radiated their heat and warmed the air above, and 
thereby enabled the rising gases to at once combine with the 
warmed air to produce combustion; but, when the fresh coals 
are placed upon the fire, they absorb the heat, and the air 
above remains cold. 

By gases, is meant the gases arising from coals while on 
or near the fire, and it may not be known to every one that 
we do not burn coals, oils, tallow or wood, but only the 
gases arising from them. This can be made clear by the 
lighting of a candle, which will afford the information 
required. By lighting the candle, fire is set to the wick, 
which, by its warmth, melts a small quantity of tallow 
directly absorbed by the capillary tubes of the wick, and 
thereby so very finely and thinly distributed that the burning 
wick has heat enough to be absorbed by the small quantity 
of dissolved tallow to form the same into gases, and these 
gases burning, combined with the oxygen in the atmosphere, 
give the light of the candle. A similar process is going on 
in all other materials; but coal contains already about sev- 
enteen per cent, of gases, which liberate themselves as soon 
as they get a little warm. The smaller the coal, the more 
rapidly will the gases be liberated, so that, in many cases, 
only part of the gases are consumed. 

The fact is, that the volatile gases from the coal cannot 
combine with cold air for combustion. Still combustion 
takes place in the following ways. The cold air, in the act 
of combination, absorbs a part of the warmth of the rising 
gases, which they cannot spare, and, therefore, must con- 
dense, so that small particles are formed, which aggregate 
and are called smoke, and when collected, produce soot; but 
as long as these particles and gases are floating, they cannot 
burn or produce combustion, as they are surrounded by a 
thin film of carbolic acid. It is only when collected and this 
acid driven off, that they are consumed. 

It has now been shown that cold is the cause of smoke, 
which may be greatly reduced by care. In the open fire 
grate the existing fire ought to be drawn to the front of the 
grate, and the fresh coal placed behind, or in the back of the 
fire The fire in the front will then burn more rapidly, 
warm the air above, and prepare the raising gases for com- 



157 

bustion. in this way smoke is diminished, as the 
from the coals at the back rise much more slowly then when 
placed upon the fire and the air partly warmed. 



WHAT IS LATENT HEAT? 

Heat has its equivalent in mechanical work, and, when 
heat disappears, work of some kind will take its place. 
When a body changes from the liquid to the gaseous form, 
the molecules have to be separated and placed in different 
positions with regard to each other. This calls for an ex- 
penditure of work. This work is supplied by heat, which 
disappears at the time. One can hold his hand in steam es- 
caping from a safety valve of a boiler for this reason. The 
heat of the steam disappears in pushing apart and rearrang- 
ing the molecules of the steam as it expands when it leaves 
the safety valve. 

The term latent heat, as commonly used, means the 
amount of heat which disappears when water changes from a 
liquid into steam. This is considerable, as will be seen by 
consulting any table of the heat contained in steam, and the 
water from which it comes. 

Water at 212 contains 180 units of heat. Steam at 
212 contains 1,146 units of heat. The latent heat is the 
difference of 966 links. Such a large quantity disappears 
when liquid water changes to steam, that boiling cannot be 
raised above 212, no matter how hard it is boiled. The 
heat becomes latent, and the mechanical work, or rather 
molecular work, is sufficient to take up all that is supplied by 
the fire. 

The specific heat of air at constant pressure being 
0.2377, the specific heat of water, which is i, is, therefore, 
4.1733 times greater under ordinary circumstances. A 
pound oi water losing i of heat, or one thermal unit, will 
consequently raise the temperature of 4.17 pounds, or, at 
ordinary temperatures, say 50' of air, i. A pound of steam 
at atmospheric pressure, having a temperature of 212 F., 
in condensing to water at 212 F., yields 966 thermal units, 
which, if utilized, would raise the temperature of 5X966= 
4830' of air i, or about 690' from 5 to 70 F. 



i 5 8 
MISTAKES IN DESIGNING BOILERS. 

One of the greatest mistakes that can be made in design- 
ing boilers, and the one that is most frequently made of any, 
consists in putting in a grate too large for the heating sur- 
face of the boiler, so that with a proper rate of combustion 
of the fuel an undue proportion of the heat developed passes 
off through the chimney, the heating surface of the boiler 
being insufficient to permit its transmission to the water. 
This mistake has been so long and so universally made, and 
boiler owners have so often had to run slow fires under their 
boilers to save themselves from bankruptcy, that it has given 
rise to the saying, " Slow combustion is necessary for econ- 
omy." This saying is considered an axiom, and regarded 
with great veneration by many, when the fact is, if the 
truth must be told, it has been brought about by the waste- 
fulness entailed by boiler plants and proportioned badly by 
ignorant, boilermakers and ignorant engineers, who ought to 
know better, but don't. 

Let us consider the matter briefly : Suppose we are 
running the boiler at a pressure of 80 tbs. per square inch, 
the temperature of the steam and water inside will be about 
325 degrees F. ; the temperature of the fire in the furnace 
will, under ordinary conditions, be about 2,500 degrees F. 
Now, it should be clear to the dullest comprehension, that 
we can transmit to the water in the boiler only that heat due 
to the difference between the temperature in the furnace and 
that in the boiler. In case of the above figures, about 
seven-eighths of the total heat of combustion is all that 
could, by any possibility, be utilized, and this would require 
that radiation of heat from every source should be absolutely 
prevented, and that the gases should leave the boiler at the 
exact temperature of the steam inside, or 325 degrees. 

To express the matter plainly, we may say that the 
utilization of the effect of a fall of temperature of 2.175 
degrees is all that is possible. 

Now, suppose, as one will actually find to be the case in 
many cases if he investigates carefully, that the gases leave 
the flues of another steam boiler at a temperature between 
500 and 600 degrees. The latter temperature will be found 
quite common, as it is considered to give "good draft." 
This is quite true, especially as far as the " draft " on the 
owner's pocket-book is concerned, for he cannot possibly 
utilize under these conditions more than 2,500 500=2,000 
degrees of that inevitable difference of temperature to which 
he is confined, or four-fifths of the total, instead of the 



seven-eighths, as shown above, where the boiler was running 
just right, and any attempt to reduce the temperature of the 
escaping gases by means of slower " combustion," as he 
would probably be advised to do by nine out of ten men, 
would simply reduce the temperature of the fire in his fur- 
nace, and the economical result would be about the same. 
His grate is too large to burn coal to the best possible ad van- 
tage, and his best remedy is to reduce its size and keep his 
fire as hot as he can. 

This is not speculation, as some may be inclined to think. 
Direct experiments have been made to settle the question. 
The grate under a certain boiler was tried at different sizes 
with the following result: 

With grate six feet long ratio of grate to heating surface 
was i to 24.4. 

With grate four feet long ratio of grate to heating surface 
was o to 36.6. 

The use of the smaller grate gave, with different fuels and 
all the methods of firing, an average economy of nine per 
cent, above the larger one, and, when compared by burning 
the same amount of coal per hour on each, twelve per cent. 
greater rapidity of evaporation and economy were obtained 
with the smaller grate. 

AVERAGE BREAKING AND CRUSHING STRAINS 

OF IRON AND STEEL. 

Breaking strain of wrought iron = 23 tons'") 

Crushing strain of wrought iron = 17 tons | 

Breaking strain of cast iron about 7^ tons PPer square inch 

Crushing strain of cast iron =50 tons. . . . j of section. 



Breaking strain of steel bars about 50 tons 



Crushing strain of steel bars up to 116 tonsj 

PITTING OF MUD DRUMS. 

Mud drums have frequently been known to pit through 
their close connection to the brick work with which they 
are covered. When the boiler is filled with cold water, the 
iron will sweat. This moisture mixing with the lime of the 
brick work will, after a length of time, injure the iron* 
Mud drums are injured on the inside by a similar chemical 
action. The sediments of lime, etc., deposit there where 
their action goes on undisturbed by any circulation. To 
prevent pitting on the inside from this cause, blow down fre- 
quently, and, on the outside, keep the brie 1 * off the rxlates, 
so that all moisture can pass off. 



i6o 
TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

Weight of a Cubic 
Inch in Lbs. 

Copper, cast 3178 

Iron, cast 263 

Iron, wrought 276 

Lead ; 4103 

Steel 2827 

Sun-metal 3177 

DIVISIONS OF DEGREES OF HEAT. 

The thermometer is an instrument for measuring sensible 
heat. It consists of a glass tube of very fine bore, terminat- 
ing in a bulb. This bulb is filled with mercury, and the top 
of the tube is hermetically sealed after all the air has been 
expelled. The instrument is then put into steam arising 
from boiling water and, when the barometer stands at thirty 
inches, a mark is placed on a scale affixed opposite the place 
the mercury stands at. It is again put in melting ice, and 
the scale again marked. The space between these marks is 
divided into spaces called degrees. In this country and 
England it is divided into 180 equal parts, calling freezing 
point 32, so that the boiling point is 212 ; and zero or o is 
32 belowfreezing point, and this scale is called Fahrenheit's. 
On the continent two other scales are in use; the Centi- 
grade, in which the space is divided into 100 equal parts, 
hence the name ; and Reaumur's, in which the space is 
divided into 80. In both of these scales freezing point is o, 
or zero ; so that the boiling point of centigrade is 100, and 
Reaumur 80. 

THE LAW OF PROPORTION IX STEAM 
ECONOMY. 

The basis of steam engineering science consists in closely 
adhering to the absolute ratio or proportion of the different 
parts of the steam-plant, representing the power of the en- 
gine and boiler to the amount of the work to be done. To 
use an extreme illustration, it is not scientific to construct a 
^hundred horse power boiler say j ,500 square feet of heating 
Surface to furnish steam for a six-inch cylinder; nor is it in 
proportion to use a cylinder of the latter size to drive a 
sewing machine. It may be said truthfully that the law of 
true proportion between boiler, engine and the desired 
amount of work is less understood than almost any other in 
the range of mechanical practice. 



101 

VALUABLE INFORMATION FOR ENGINEERS. 

To find the capacity of a cylinder in gallons, multiply the 
area in inches by the length of stroke in inches, and it will 
give the total number of cubic inches; divide this by 231, 
a:.d you will have the capacity in gallons. 

The U. S. standard gallon measures 231 cubic inches, and 
contains 8^ pounds of distilled water. 

The mean pressure of the atmosphere is usually estimated 
at 14.7 pounds per square inch. 

The average amount of coal used for steam boilers is 12 
pounds per hour for each square foot of grate. 

The average weight of anthracite coal is 53 pounds to one 
cubic foot of coal ; bituminous, about 48 pounds to the cubic 
foot. 

Locomotives average a consumption of 3,000 gallons of 
water per ico miles run. 

To determine the circumference of a circle, multiply the 
diameter by 3. 1416. 

To find the pressure in pounds per square inch of a 
column of water, multiply the height of the column in 
feet by .434, approximately, every foot elevation is equal to 
l /2 1 pound pressure per spare inch, allowing for ordinary 
friction. 

The area of the steam piston, multiplied by the steam 
pressure, gives the total amount of pressure that can be 
exerted. The area of the water piston, multiplied by the 
pressure of water per square inch gives the resistance. A 
margin must be made between the power and t"he resistance 
to move the pistons at the required speed, from 20 to 40 per 
cent., according to speed and other conditions. 

To determine the diameter of a circle, multiply circum- 
ference by .31831. 

Steam at atmospheric pressure flows into a vacuum at the 
rate of about 1550 feet per second, and into the atmosphere 
at the rate of 650 feet per second. 

To determine the area of a circle, multiply the square of 
diameter by .7854. 

A cubic inch of water evaporated under ordinary atmos- 
pheric pressure is converted into one cubic foot of steam 
(approximately). 

By doubling the diameter of a pipe, you will increase its 
capacity four times. 

In calculating horse-power of tubular or flue boilers, con- 
sider 15 square feet of heating surface equivalent to one 
nominal horse-power. 



1 62 

HOW TO TEST BOILERS. 

The safe- working pressure of any boiler is found by 
multiplying twice the thickness of plate by its tensile 
strength in pounds, then divide by diameter of boiler, 
then this result divide by six. This gives safe working 
pressure. 

EXAMPLE. 

Twice thickness plate X tensile strength -5- diameter of 
boiler in inches-5-6=safe working pressure + one-half more 
= maximum test pressure. 

Diameter of boiler, 60". Thickness of plate, y z ", 
Tensile strength of plate, 60,000 Ibs. i "X 60,000- 60 = 
1,000-7-6=166% Tbs., which. is the safe working pressure-f 
83^ Ibs. = 250 ft>s., which is the maximum test pressure. 

After the safe pressure has been found as above, the 
usual way is to add one-half more for a test pressure, then 
apply by hydraulic pressure as high as the test pressure, and, 
if the boiler goes through this test all right, it is safe to 
run it at two-thirds of test pressure. 

Before putting hydraulic pressure on an old boiler, empty 
the boiler, go over it carefully with the hammer for broken 
braces, weak and corroded spots, figure for safe pressure on 
the thinnest place found in boiler, fill boiler full of cold 
water, and gradually heat it until the desired pressure is 
reached. By this mode of testing by hot water pressure, the 
heated water is expanded, and is more elastic than when cold, 
and is not so liable to strain the boiler. 

Before allowing the pressure to be applied, see that the 
boiler is properly braced and stayed, and that the rivets are 
of proper size. 

All flat surfaces, such as found in fire-box boilers, should 
have stays not over 5 or 6 inches apart, for all ordinary 
pressure and boiler heads not over 7 inches apart. 

On account of the loss of strength in the plates by rivet 
holes, some authorities allow only 70 per cent, of the safe 
pressure given above, for double-riveted boilers, and 56 per 
cent, for single-riveted boilers: 

EXAMPLE. 

1 66 Tbs. safe pressure in first example x 70 per cent, for 
double-rivets = 116.20 Ibs. safe pressure for double- riveted 
boiler. 

1 66 Ibs. safe pressure in first example X5& per cent, for 
single-riveted seams =92.96 Ibs. safe pressure for single- 
riveted boilers. 



i6 3 
SCALE IN BOILERS 

Mr. T. T. Parker writes as follows to the Amerinm 
Machinist : 

If there is one thing more than another that the average 
engineer is careful with, it is the use of boiler compounds. 
With an open exhaust heater and an overworked boiler, and 
using water from a drilled well sixty feet deep in limestone, I 
have had to be rather careful to avoid scale and foaming. 

I offer some notes from my experience under the above 
conditions. 

In using compounds containing sal soda, I had to use 40 
per cent, more cylinder oil, and this invariably reacted, 
through the heater and feed water, on the boiler, and pro- 
duced foaming. I have used six compounds warranted to 
cure foaming with above results. The compounds were 
tannic acid and soda. 

Changing to the use of crude oil, I found that the volatile 
parts went over to the engine, and saved loper cent, cylinder 
oil over when using nothing, and 50 per cent, over the use 
of sal soda. There is a peculiar easy manner of making 
steam that is very different from the same boiler using sal 
soda. The results on scale are as follows : 

In changing to a different solvent, the results for a few 
runs were very good, and then it seemed to lose its virtue 
while'losing double quantity ; result, foaming. With crude 
oil used continually, I have had scale from one-eighth inch 
thick, but never any thicker, as it came off clean, and was 
very porous. I prefer oil to any acid or alkali solvent. 
For cleaning a scaled boiler I would recommend alternate 
use of oil and sal soda, but the remedy is heroic. If the 
boiler is not clean in two weeks, I miss my guess. I have 
tried kerosene, and found it too volatile to be of value in a 
limestone district. In summing up the results, I believe : 

First With an open exhaust heater, use only the 
best cylinder oil, which should be at least 80 per cent, 
petroleum. 

Second If the crude oil does not keep the scale all 
out, alternate one run with sal soda. 

Now, I only offer this as my experience, knowing full 
well that the conditions are never absolutely the same. 
But I know of a plant (in this city) where the boiler is not 
worked up to its full capacity, and which is kept entirely 
free from scale, using hard water, by the alternate use of sal 
goda and crude oil. 



i6 4 
FUTURE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. 

The annual meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, lately held at Bath, England, was 
opened by an address by Sir Frederick Bramwell, the pres- 
ident of the association, in which he repeated a prediction 
made by him at a former meet ing of the association regard- 
ing Ihe displacement of the steam engine in the future. He 
said it was a sad confession to have to make, that the very 
best steam engines only utilized about one-sixth of the work 
which resides in the fuel that is consumed, though at the 
same time it is a satisfaction to know that great economical 
progress had been made, and that the six pounds or seven 
pounds of fuel per horse power per hour consumed by the 
very best engines of Watts' days, when working with the 
aid of condensation, is now brought down to about one- 
fourth of this consumption. Continuing, he said: At the 
York meeting of our association I ventured to predict that, 
unless some substantial improvement were made in the steam 
engine (of which improvement, as yet, we have no notion), 
I believed its days for small powers were numbered, and that 
those who attended the centenary of the British Association 
in 1931, would see the present steam engines in museums, 
treated as things to be respected, and of antiquarian interest, 
by .he engineers of those days, such as tlie over-topped 
steam cylinders of Newcomen and of Smeaton to our- 
selves. I must say I see no reason, after the seven years 
which have elapsed since the York meeting, to regret having 
made that prophecy, or to desire to withdraw from it. 
The working of heat engines, without the intervention of 
the vapor of water by the combustion of the gases arising 
from coal, or from coal and from water, is now not merely 
an established fact, but a recognized and undoubted 
commercially economical means of obtaining motive power. 
Such engines, developing from I to 40 horse power, and 
worked by ordinary gas supplied by gas mains, are in 
most extensive use in printing works, hotels, clubs, 
theatets, and even in large private houses, for the w r orking 
of dynamos to supply electric light. Such engines are also 
in use in factories, being sometimes driven by the gas 
obtained from " culm " and steam, and are given forth a 
horse-power for, it is stated, as small a consumption as one 
pound of fuel per hour. It is hardly necessary to remind 
you but let me do it that, although the saving of half a 
pound of fuel per horse-power appears to be insignificant 
when stated in that bald way, one realizes that it is of the 



I6 S 

highest importance when that half-pound turns out to be 
33 per cent, of the whole previous consumption of one of 
those economical engines to which I have referred. But, 
looking at the wonderful petroleum industry, arid at the 
multifarious products which are obtained from the crude 
material, is it too much to say that there is a future for 
motor engines worked by the vapor of some of the more 
highly volatile of these products true vapor not a gas, 
but a condensable body capable of being worked over and 
over again? Numbers of such engines, some of as much as 
four horse-power, made by Mr. Yarrow, are now running, 
and are apparently giving good results, certainly excellent 
results as regards the compactness and lightness of the 
machinery; for boat purposes ihey possess the great advan- 
tage of being rapidly under way. I have seen one go to- 
work within two minutes of the striking of the match to 
light the burner. Again, as we know, the vapor of this 
material has been used as a gas in gas engines, the motive 
power having been obtained by direct combustion. Having 
regard to these considerations, was I wrong in predicting 
that the heat engine of the future will probably be one inde- 
pendent of the vapor of water? And further, in these days 
of electrical advancement, is it too much to hope for the 
direct production of electricity from the combustion of fuel ? 

GAS FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 

The problem of obtaining a cheaper fuel than coal for 
locomotives, which has long bothered railroad men, seems 
likely to be solved soon by experiments now being made with 
gds. A very good test of the new fuel has been made at the 
works of the electric light company in West Chester, which, 
since the fire that destroyed the old plant several months ago, 
have been dependent for their motive power upon the Shaw 
locomotive. This is the engine that made such a good record 
in some trial trips two or three years ago, but which has never 
done much road service. 

Instead of coal, gns mixed with air has been used in the 
locomotive with e.itire success in generating sufficient power 
to drive the dynamos. With larger machines for producing 
and mixing the gas, it is believed that power enough can be 
obtained for driving locomotives with trains, and a special car 
is now being built at New York to hold a large machine of 
the kind used in mixing the gas, and thestorage receivers. 



1 66 

PROPORTIONS OF STEAM BOILERS. 

In a recent communication to the Societe Scientifique 
Industrielle of Marseilles, M. D. Stapfer remarked that, as 
he had never met with any good practical rules for the pro- 
portions of boilers for steam engines, he had taken the trou- 
ble to examine a very large number of different types, which 
were working satisfactorily, and from them had deduced the 
following rules : The water level in the boilers of torpedo 
boats was usually placed at two-thirds the diameter of the 
shell, and in marine, portable and locomotive boilers at three- 
fourths this diameter. The surface from which evaporation 
took place should, however, be made greater as the steam 

Eressure was reduced that was to say, as the size of the 
ubbles of steam became greater. To produce 100 Itxs. of 
steam per hour, at atmospheric pressure, this surface should 
not be less than 7.32 square ft., which may be reduced to 
1.46 square ft. for steam at 75 Ibs. pressure, and 0.73 ft. for 
steam at a pressure of 150 Ibs. It is for this reason that 
triple-expansion engines can be worked with smaller boilers 
than were required with engines using steam of lower pres- 
sure. The amount of steam space to be permitted depends 
upon the volume of the cylinder and the number of revolu- 
tions made per minute. For ordinary engines it may be 
made a hundred times as great as the average volume of 
steam generated per second. The section through the tubes 
may be one-sixth of the fire-grate area when the draught is 
-due to chimney from 27 ft. to 33 ft. high, which in general 
corresponds to a fuel consumption of 12.3 pounds of coal 
per square foot of grate surface per hour. This area may 
be reduced to one-tenth that of the grate when forced 
draught is employed. 

TESTING BOILER PLATES. 

A good every-day shop plan of testing boiler plates is to cut 
ftff a strip i# inches wide and of any convenient length. 
Drill a quarter-inch hole, and enlarge it to three-quarters of 
an inch by means of a drift-pin and hammer. If the plate 
shows no signs of fracture, it may be considered of good 
quality. 

Another method is to cut off a narrow strip, heat it 
to a cherry red and cool suddenly. Grip the piece in a vise, 
and bend it back and forth at right angles by means of a 
piece of gas pipe dropped over the end. The number of 
times the piece can stand this bending is the measure of its 
quality. A good piece of soft steel boiler-plate should s'and 
twelve or fifteen bendings without showing fracture. 



167 
MANIPULATION OF NEW ENGINES. 

After engines have been set up, they must be adjusted to 
/heir work. It is not every man that can do this properly, 
for it requires experience and consideration to determine 
exactly what is to be done. A new engine is a raw machine, 
so to speak, and, no matter how carefully the work has been 
done upon it, it is not in the same condition that it will be 
in a few weeks, or after the actual work it does has worn 
its bearings smooth and true. In the best machine-work, 
there are more or less asperities of surface, and very much 
more friction than than there will be later on. Bearings and 
boxes are not fitted under strain ; they are fitted as they 
stand, independently in the shop, and this entails a condi- 
tion of things which actual work may show to be faulty. 
For this reason an engineer should not go at a new engine 
hammer and tongs, and try to suppress at once every slight 
noise or click that he may hear. Neither should he key up 
solid, or screw down hard, the working shafts and bearings, 
for the first few days. It is much better to let the things 
run easily for a while, at the expense of a little noise, rather 
than to risk cutting before the details get used to each other. 
Many good engines have been disabled by too great zeal on 
the part of those in charge, when a little forbearance would 
have been much better. Pounding, caused by bad adjust- 
ment, or valve setting, and pounding caused by new bear- 
ings not in intimate relation with each other, are quite 
different in character, and a careful engineer will not make 
haste to decide upon the remedy until he has indicated and 
investigated the engine, and found out exactly where the 
trouble is. Not long ago we saw a new engine badly cut in 
its guides from this very cause ; a slight jar was noticed, and 
the engineer, arguing that the crosshead was the seat of the 
noise, set out the gibs so much that they seized and plowed 
some bad scores in the cast-iron guides, which will always 
remain to remind him of his thoughtlessness. What has 
been said above of the engine, is also true of the boiler and 
its appurtenances. No new boiler should have pressure put 
upon it at once. Instead, it should be heated up slowly for 
the first day, and whether steam is wanted or not. Long 
before all the joints are made, or the engine ready for steam, 
the boiler should be set, and in working order. A slight fire 
should be made and the water warmed up to about blood 
heat only, and left to stand in that condition and cool off, 
and absolute pressure should proceed by very slow stages. 
Persons who set a boiler and then build a roaring fire under 



i68 

It, and get steam as soon as they can, need not be surprised 
to find a great many leaks developed ; even if the boiler does 
not actually and visibly leak, an enormous strain is need- 
lessly put upon it which cannot fail to injure it. Of all the 
forces engineers deal with, there are none more tremendous 
than expansion and contraction. 

TRIPLE EXPANSIONS. 

An interesting example of the value of triple expansion 
engines, as compared with compound, was exhibited on the 
Clyde, on the trial of the Orient liner Cuzco, which has 
recently been thoroughly renovated and furnished with new 
boilers working to a pressure of 150 pounds to the square inch, 
and with triple expansion engines of the most approved type, 
The Cuzco is seventeen years old, and has hitherto been 
regarded as a 12% knot boat. Recently she was tried on the 
measured mile for a six-hours run, when she attained a speed 
of 1 6 knots, and made upward of 75 revolutions per minute. 
This increase in speed was, a daily newspaper correspondent 
says, accompanied with the usual economy in coal consumption, 
and the incident is remarkable on account of the success with 
which the power of the new engines has developed a high 
speed in a vessel, the model of which is comparatively 
obsolete. 

STEAM AS A CLEANSING AGENT. 

For cleaning greasy machinery nothing can be found that 
is more useful than steam. A steam hose attached to the 
boiler can be made to do better work in a few minutes than 
any one is able to do in hours of close application. The 
principal advantages of steam are, that it will penetrate 
where an instrument will not enter, and where anything else 
would be ineffectual to accomplish the desired result. 
Journal boxes with oil cellars will get filthy in time, and are 
difficult to clean in the ordinary way ; but, if they can be 
removed, or are in a favorable place, so that steam can be 
used, it is a veritable play work to rid them of any adhering 
cubslance. What is especially satisfactory in the use of 
Steam, is that it does not add to the filth. Water and oil 
spread the foul matter, and thus make an additional amount 
of work. 



1 69 
POINTS FOR ENGINEERS. 

When using a jet condenser, let the engine make three or 
four revolutions before opening the injection valve, and 
then open it gradually, letting the engine make several more 
revolutions before it is opened to the full amount required. 

Open the main stop valve before you start the fires un- 
der the boilers. 

When starting fires, don't forget to close the gauge- 
cocks and safety-valve as soon as steam begins to form. 

An old Turkish towel, cut in two lengthwise, is better 
than cotton waste for cleaning brass work. 

Always connect your steam valves in such a manner that 
the valve closes against t^ie constant steam pressuie. 

Turpentine, well mixed with black varnish, makes a good 
coating for iron smoke pipes. 

Ordinary lubricating oils are not suitable for use in pre- 
venting rust. 

You can make a hole through glass by covering it with a 
thin coating of wax by warming the glass and spreading 
the wax on it, scrape off the wax where you want the hole, 
and drop a little fluoric acid on the spot with a wire. The 
acid will cut a hole through the glass, and you can shape 
the hole with a copper wire covered with oil and rotten- 
stone. 

A mixture of one (i) ounce of sulphate of copper, one- 
quarter (#) of an ounce of alum, half (y 2 ) a teaspoonfitl of 
powdered salt, one (i) gill of vinegar and twenty (20) drops 
of nitric acid will make a hole in steel that is too hard to 
cut or file easily. Also, if applied to steel and washed off 
quickly, it will give the metal a beautiful frosted appear- 
ance. 

It is a fact that thirty-five cubic feet of sea water is equal in 
weight to thirty-six feet of fresh water, the weight being one 
ton (2,240 pounds). 

Remember that coal loses from ten (10) to forty '(40) per- 
centum of its evaporative power if exposed to the influence 
of sunshine and rain. 

Those who have had experience think that for lubricat- 
ing_purposes palm nut oil cannot be surpassed, for the rea- 
son that it does not gum or waste; neither does friction 
remove it readily from the surfaces where it is applied, and 
its use is exceedingly economical. The best cylinder oils 
produce no better effect. 

If you are obliged to make use of such a barbarism as a 
rust joint, mix ten (10) parts by weight of iron filings, and 



three (3) parts of chloride of lime .with enough water to 
make a paste. Put the mixture between the pieces to be 
joined, and bolt firmly together. 

Too much bearing surface in a journal is sometimes worse 
than too little. 

Steel hardened in water loses in strength but hardenii- ; 
in oil increases its strength, and adds to its toughness. 



RAILWAY GAUGES OF THE WORLU 

jreland has a standard gauge of 5 ft. 3 in. ; Spain and 
Portugal 5 ft. 6y% in. ; Sweden and Norway have the 4 ft 
8/^ in. gauge over the majority of their railroads, but 20 
per cent of the Swedish roads have other gauges, varying 
from 2 feet 7^ in. up to 4 ft. 

In Asia, of the British-Indian roads, about 7,450 miles 
have a gauge of 5 ft. 5^ in., the remainder being divided 
among six gauges from 2 ft. to 4 ft. Of the narrow gauges, 
the most prevalent, embracing 4,200 miles, is the metre, 
3 ft. 3% in. , 

In Japan, with the exception of an 8-mile piece begun in 
1885, with a gauge of 2 ft 9 in., all the roads have a 3 ft. 
6 in. gauge. 

In Africa, the Egyptian railroads, amounting to 932 miles, 
are of the 4 ft. 8^ in. gauge. Algiers and Tunis, with 
1,203 m iles in 1884, had the 4 ft. 8)4 i"- standard on 
all but 155 miles, which had a 3 ft. 7^ in. gauge. The 
English Cape Colony had, in 1885, 1,522 miles, all of 3 ft. 
6 in. gauge. 

In America, practically the whole of the United States 
and Canadian railroads are of 4 ft. 8^ in. to 4 ft. 9 in. 
gauge. In Mexico, in 1884, 2,083 miles were 4 ft. 8^ in., 
and 944 3 ft. gauge. In Brazil, at the end of 1884, there 
were 869 miles of 5 ft. 3 in. gauge, and 4, 164 miles of various 
gauges between 2 ft. and 7 in., over 3,700 miles being I 
metre, or 3 ft. 3% in., or that this may be considered the 
standard gauge of Brazil. 

In Australia, the different colonies, rather singularly, 
have different gauges, that of New South Wales being 4 ft. 
8^ in., Victoria 5 ft. 3 in., South Australia 4 ft. 3 in. and 3 
ft. 6 in., and the other colonies 3 ft. 6 in. 

The total mileage in operation in the world at the end of 
1885 was 303,048 miles. Of this length, 74 per cent, were 
of the 4 ft. 8> in. to 4 ft. 9 in. standard, 12 per cent, had 
larger gauges, and 14 j er cent, smaller. 



MEASURES OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 

@ X 13 M ^ "" 

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METRIC SYSTEM 



172 

THE MONETARY UNITS AND STANDARD COINS 
OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

The first section of the act of March 3, 1873, provides 
" that the value of foreign coin, as expressed in the money of 
account of the United States, shall be that of the pure metal 
of such coin of standard. value," and that " the value of the 
standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the 
world, shall be estimated annually by the director of the 
mint, and be proclaimed on the first day of January by the 
secretary of the treasury. 

The estimates of values contained in the following table are 
those made by the director of the mint, Jan. i, 1878. 



Country. 


Monetary 
Unit. 


Standard. 


Value. 


Argen Repub. . . 


Peso fuerte. . . . 


Gold 


IX C. M. 
I O O 


Austria 


Florin 


Silver 


O 4.C 7 


Belgium . ... 


Franc 


Gold & Silver 


O IQ 1 


Bolivia . . . 


Dollar 


Gold Silver 


. * 

O QO ? 


Brazil 


Milreis of 1000 






British Amer . . . 
Bogota 


reis 
Dollar 
Peso 


Gold. . 
Gold 
Gold 


o 54 5 

I O O 

O Q6 C 


Central Amer.. . 
Chili 


Dollar 
Peso 


Silver 
Gold 


o 91 8 

O QI 2 


Cuba 


Peso 


Gold 


O Q2 5 


Denmark ....... 


Crown 


Gold 


o 26 8 


Ecuador 


Dollar 




O QI 8 


Egypt . 


Pound of 100 






France 


piasters .... 
Franc 


Gold 

Gold Silver 


4 97 4 

O IQ 1 


Gt Britain .... 


Pound sterling 


Gold . . 


4. 86 ofc 


Greece . 


Drachma .... 


Gold Silver 


O IQ 1 


German Emp . . . 
India 


Mark 
Rupee, 1 6 an. . 


Gold 
Silver 


o 23 8 
o 43 6 


Italv 


Lira 


Gold Silver 


o 19 3 


1 y 
Japan 

Liberia . . ...... 


Yen 
Dollar 


Gold 
Gold 


o 99 7 

I O O 


Mexico 


Dollar.... 


Silver.... .. . 


O QQ 8 


Neitherlands . . 


Florin 


Silver 




Norway . ... 


Crown 


Gold 


o 26 8 


Paraguay ...... 


Peso 


Gold 


I O O 


Feru . , 


Sol 


Silver.. 


o 06 o 



'I UK MONETARY UNITS Continued. 



Country. 


Monetary 
Umts. 


Standard. 


Value. 






Gold 


O 02 5 


Portugal 

R ussia 


Mil. looo r's . . 
Rubles, 100 co 


Gold 


I 80 

O77 4. 


Sandwich Islands 


Dollar 


Gold 


I O O 


%iin . . 


Peseta of 100 






Sweden 

Switzerland .... 
Tripoli 


centimes . . . 
Crown 
Franc 
Mah. 20 v''s 


Gold& Sil-cr 
Gold........ 
Gold & Silver 
Silver 


o 19 3 
o 26 8 
o 19 3 
o 82 9. 


Tunis 


Pi's 16 car 


Silver . ... 


o ii 8 


Turkey 


Piaster ..-..., 


Gold.. 


043 


Colombia . . 


Peso 


Silver 


o 91 8 


Uruguay 


Pat aeon ...... 


Gold.. 


o 94 9 



DIMENSIONS OF AMERICAN ENSIGNS. 



Numbers. 


Head or 
hoist. 


Whole 
length. 


Length of 
union. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


I 


19.00 


36.00 


14.40 


2 


16.90 


32.00 


12.80 


3 


14.80 


28.00 


1 1. 20 


4 


13.20 


25.00 


10.00 


5 


1 1. 60 


22.00 


8.80 


6 


IO.OO 


19.00 


7.60 


I 


8.45 
7.40 


16 oo 
14.00 


'!: 


9 




.12.00 


4.80 


10 


5.20 


IO.OO 


4.00 


ii 


4.20 


8.00 


3.20 


12 


3.7o 


7.00 


2.80 


13 


3.20 


6.00 


2.40 


14 


2.50 


5.00 


2.OO 



TO DETECT IRON FROM STEEL TOOLS. 
It is diffiult to distinguish between iron and steel tools. 
They have the same polish and workmanship ; use will com- 
monly show the difference. To make the distinction quickly, 
place the tool upon a stone, and drop upon it some diluted nitric 
acid, four parts of water to one of acid. If the tool remains 
clean, it is of iron; if of steel, it will show a black spot where 
touched with the acid. These spots can be easily rubbed off 



174 
ARTIFICIAL ICE-MAKING. 

Reduced to the fewest words, the scientific principle under- 
lying all methods for making artificial ice is that whenever 
a liquid is evaporated it takes up more or less heat from sur- 
rounding objects. This fact can be easily demonstrated by 
any one. Stick your finger in your mouth and moisten it 
with saliva. Then hold the wet finger in the wind. At once 
that finger feels colder than the rest, for the moving air 
takes up or evaporates the moisture, and the skin gives up 




some of its heat. It is an old scientific trick to freeze water 
in a fire by wrapping the bottle with a rag soaked in ether or 
chloroform. The heat of the fire evaporates the highly vola- 
tile ether so quickly that the etlicr sucks all of the heat out 
of the water and freezes it. This is practically what the ice 
maker does, only he uses ammonia or sulphurous oxide in- 
stead of ether, and works on a large scale with large pumps, 
engines and miles of iron pipe. 



175 

At ordinary temperature, ammonia is a vapor or gas. The 
common ammonia sold in drug stores is really ammonia 
water made by saturating water with ammonia gas. The 
ammonia commonly used in ice-making is anhydrous am- 
monia, which is liquid ammonia without any water in it. 
There are many kinds of ice-making machines made, but all 
practically work on the same principle. 

The principal part of the plant is the compressor pump. 
Then follows the condenser, the expansion coils and the re- 
ceiver. The anhydrous ammonia is received by the ice- 
maker in oblong iron drums containing 100 pounds or more, 
and it is fed into the pump through a small pipe to the suc- 
tion valve at the lower end of the pump, whether it be single 
or double acting. The pump performs a double office, for 
with one stroke of the piston it sucks in the anhydrous am- 
monia, and on the return stroke compresses the gas to a 
liquid, for the anhydrous ammonia is used over and over 
again, first as liquid, then as an expanding gas freezing the 
liquid, and then back as a liquid again. The ammonia gas 
is liquified not only by pressure but by cold. The pump 
forces the gas into the condenser first. This is a series of 
coils of small pipe over which cold water is constantly flow- 
ing. The gas pressed into the smaller pipes is condensed to 
liquid ammonia. As it condenses, the liquid ammonia flows 
into a storage tank through small pipes leading from the 
condenser. The pressure from the pump and suitable check 
valves force the liquid ammonia from the storage tank, 
which lies in a horizontal position, into two large vertical 
cylinders, and from them into the expansion coils which lie 
in the bottom of the freezing tanks. 

Th*3 pipes of the expansion coil are much larger than the 
pipes in the condenser, and here the liquid ammonia expands 
or turns to vapor again, and as it evaporates it takes the 
heat from the salt brine in the tank and reduces its tempera- 
ture from 18 o above to 10 o below zero, depending on the 
flow of the gas. The compressor pump, by forcing the liquid 
ammonia from it and sucking the gas towards it, keeps the 
anhydrous ammonia moving along constantly, and it goes 
into the receiver, from which it is pumped to be compressed 
and chilled into a liquid again. 

The ice factories which use sulphurous oxide instead of 
anhydrous ammonia have a brine made from magnesium 
chloride instead of common salt, but in other respects the 



176 

system is about the same. The anhydrous ammonia and 
sulphurous oxide processes are called the compression 
system. In the absorption system the liquid is first heated 
in a boiler and "the vapor which is generated is made up of 
about 9 parts of ammonia gas and 1 part of steam. This 
vapor first passes through a condenser, where tte steam Is 
turned into water again, but as the temperature is not low 
enough to liquify the ammonia gas, it is forced along by the 
boiler pressure to another condenser. Here the gas is con- 
densed to a liquid, and then passes on to the expansion coils 
just as it does in the compression system. After doing its 
work, the gas is brought back to the "absorber," where it is 
taken up by water again and pumped back into the boiler. 

In making artificial ice, the manufacturer wants pure 
water. To be certain that the water is free from sedimeni 
and typhoid germs, he filters and distils the water before it 
is frozen. In some ice works the water is filtered once before 
it is distilled, and twice afterwards. The freezing tanks are 
made of iron. They usually are set below the floor for the 
purpose of facilitating the handling of ice. The average 
tank is about 50 feet long, 20 feet wide and 4 feet deep. The 
cans in which tne distilled water is frozen are 44 inches by 
22 inches by 11 inches in size. 

ft The pipes which carry the anhydrous ammonia go back 
and forth across the tank between the cans, and the salt 
water brine is kept in motion by an agitator something like 
a screw propeller. This gives the brine an even tempera- 
ture. It requires from 34 to 60 hours to freeze a 300- pound 
cake of ice. Over the freezing tank is a traveling crane with 
a block and tackle for hoisting the cans with the frozen 
blocks out of the tank. The cans are lifted, so that when 
clear of the tank they tilt upside down. Streams of tepid 
water are directed on the can, and in a short time the cake 
of ice slips out of the can and slides down the gangway to 
the ice-house. 

Nearly every brewery in the country has its own refriger- 
ating plant. For cooling cellars, vaults and other parts of 
the brewery, chilled brine is pumped through pipes. Some- 
times, however, as in the direct expansion method, the ex- 
pansion pipes are used. Both methods are also employed in 
chemical works, cold storage warehouses and packing 
houses. Ice machines are rated with capacities varying from 
50 to 100 tons of ice a day. They are built vertical and hori- 



177 

zontal, single or duplicate, operated either direct or from 
an engine. 

NOVEL USES OF COMPRESSED AIR. 

Most people think that compressed air is only used for 
automatic car-brakes and rock drills. The fact is, com- 
pressed air as an agent for transmitting energy and power 
is pushing electricity hard and, on some lines, has distanced 
steam. 

On many railroads compressed air has taken the place o( 
whisk brooms and beaters for cleaning seat cushions of pas- 
senger cars. The air at 50 to 75 pounds pressure to the 
square inch is brought into the car through an air hose 
which has. a brass air nozzle on the end. The women handle 
this nozzle as though water instead of compressed air were 
coming through, and the air jet drives the dust, cinders and 
dirt out of the cushions quicker and better than any other 
method. 

In the new criminal court building of Chicago, a system of 
pneumatic clocks has been installed. The "master" clock 
sends pulsations of compressed air through small pipes to : 
the connecting clocks, and thus all run on the same time uiv 1 
are regulated together. 

In several machine shops in the country there is not a belt 
or a piece of shafting outside of the engine-room. Instead, 
pipes run from the compressed air reservoir to compressed 
air motors. Each drill, lathe, reamer, milling machine, 
emery wheel, bending rolls, punch, drop hammer and press 
has its individual air motor or engine, and the mere turning 
of a throttle valve starts or stops the machine. 

The pneumatic clock system was installed first in Paris 
about 1870. From it grew the present compressed air cen- 
tral-power system, which supplies over 10,000 horse-power 
to users in the French capital. It is there used for all pur- 
poses, from running clocks to operating dynamos for elec- 
tric lights. The central station furnishes air at a pressure 
of 75 pounds to the square inch. 

Asphalt used for street-paving is refined by compressed air. 
In its original shape, just as it comes from Trinidad, asphalt 
is too soft for street-paving, and is not homogeneous To 
refine it, the asphalt is boiled in kettles for three or four 
days, and while the heat is on it must be stirred. Pipes hav- 



178 

ing numerous holes are placed in the bottom of the kettle, 
and while the asphalt is boiling, compressed air is forced 
through the pipes and, escaping through the holes, agitates 
the thick black material, thus refining it. 

Compressed air was the paint-brush which placed the color 
on the World's Fair buildings in Chicago, and which to-day 
is painting railroad bridges and corrugated iron plates for 
buildings. The compressed air not only draws the liquid 
paint from the tubs or buckets, but sprays it over the sur- 
face and drives it into the wood. 

In the big shipyards, where the government vessels are 
built, all the calking is done by compressed air. and one com- 
pressed air calking machine does the work of four men. 
TLis calker strikes 1.000 blo\vs a minute. The same tool is 
used by boiler-makers, and. in a modified form, by stone- 
cutters for dressing an i carving stone. The little engine 
which does the work is in the handle of the tool which is 
about the size of a larne chisel handle. Tiie air is brought 
to the tool by a small rubber pipe, which is so flexible it can 
be handled easily and at any angle. A piston and spring 
shove the tool in and out, and it can be so adjusted that the 
heaviest or most delicate work can be done with it. 
* Acids which would eat a pump up at once, are raised by 
compressed air. Sewage which is below the level of the 
sewer is forced up by compressed air. Impure water is 
cleaned, gold and silver are dug from mines, letters are 
copied in the letter press, elevator signal bells are rung, 
cattle are lifted after being killed in slaughter houses, fur- 
nace grates are shaken, crude oil is atomized under steam 
boilers, grain is cleaned, and a hundred other things are 
daily done by compressed air. 

CONCERNING ELECTRIC BATTERIES. 

In a general way batteries are divided into two classes- 
open circuit batteries and closed circuit batteries. In all 
kinds of batteries the electro-motive force decreases and the 
internal resistance increases when working on a circuit of 
low resistance. This is caused by "polarization," which is 
the collecting of tiny bubbles of hydrogen gas on the nega- 
tive plate due to the action of the current. These bubbles 
covering the negative plate not only diminish the working 
surface of the plate, and thus reduces the electro-motive 



179 

f.>rce. but increases the re>ist,ince. In this condition the 
battery is said to be polarized. To correct this evil various 
chemicals, either fluid or solid are placed in the battery to 
generate oxygen which may unite with the hydrogen. Such 
chemicals are called "depolarizers."' Those batteries in 
which the depolarizers act slowly and after the buttery has 
stopped work are called "open circuit 1 ': that in which the 
depolarizers is working is "closed circuit." The open circuit 
battery is used where the demand for the current is inter- 
mittant: the "closed circuit battery" is used where the cur- 
rent is required almost continuously. 

Batteries should be kept where the temperature is about 
even, avoiding extremes of heat or cold. They should be 
carefully protected from dust and dirt. The cells should be 
covered so as to prevent rapid evaporation of the solution. 
The best place for batteries is a dry cool place. 

\Vhere zinc is used in a battery the plate should be rolled 
and not cast zinc. The carbon plates should be solid, fine 
and hard. Those made from gas-retort carbon. The upper 
part of carbon rods should be dipped in melted paraffiine 
until the wax has soaked in, say to an inch or so from the 
top. This will keep the solution from "creeping" or crawl- 
ing up, as it will do unless the rod is waxed. Before a zinc 
rod is placed in a battery it should first be thoroughly 
brightened by scouring it with weak sulphuric acid, and then 
a small portion of mercury should be rubbed over it. The 
amalgamation will prevent what is known as "local action." 
Sal-ammoniac, if used, should be pure, otherwise the battery 
will become dirty. Porus cups should be soaked in water 
and then thoroughly scrubbed out. Carbon plates, in renew- 
ing batteries, should be treated in the same way. Batteries 
should never be neglected if good work from them is desired. 
A poor battery is often worse than no battery at all, and it is 
false economy to re-charge with impure and therefore cheap 
chemicals. 

HOW BOILER PLATES ARE PROVED. 

This is done by placing a piece of Bessmer steel 10 inches 
long in a testing machine. Gradually the surface scales off 
in the middle, to become smaller in area, and somewhat 
elongated, til. at last, it breaks with a sharp snap at a break- 
ing strain of about 28 tons to the square inch, the reduction 
of area beinr 51 per cent, and the elongation 23 per cent. 



i So 

DIFFERENCES OF TIME FROM NEW YORK. 
At any Given Time hi New York it is in 

HKS. MIN. SKC. 

Amsterdam (Holland) 5 16 later. 

Berne (Switzerland) 5 26 

Berlin ( Prussia) 5 49 * - " 

Brusses (Belgium). ... 5 13 30 u 

Buda Pesth (Hungary) 6 12 

Carlsruhe ( Baden) 5 30 

Qhristiania (Norway) 5 39 

Cologne (Germany) 5 2 j. 

Constantinople (Turkey) 6 52 

Copenhagen (Denmark) 5 46 

Dublin (Ireland) 4 30 30 " 

Frankfort (Germany) 5 30 

Geneva (Switzerland) 5 23 30 " 

Gothenburg (Sweden) 5 45 

Greenwich (England) 4 56 

Hamburg (Germany) 5 36 

Lisbon (Portugal) , .... . .. .... 4 19 30 ' 

London (England) 4 5 > 5^ *" 

Madrid (Spain) 4 41 15 u 

Moscow (Russia) 7 26 " 

M unich ( Bavaria) 5 42 30 " 

Naples (Italy) ?, . . . 5 53 

Paris (P>ance) 5 05 15 " 

Prague (Austria) 5 54 " 

Rome (Italy) 5 46 " 

St. Petersburg ( Russia) 6 57 " 

Stuttgart ( Witrtemberg) . , 5 33 " 

Stockholm (Sweden) 6 08 " 

Trieste (Austria) 5 51 

Venice (Italy) 5 45 30 " 

Vienna (Austria 6 01 33 " 

Warsaw (Poland) 6 20 ' " 

The differences are at the rate of one hour for every 
fifteen degrees of longitude, or four minutes for each degree. 

A VALUABLE PRESERVATIVE PAINT. 
Soapstone incorporated with oil, after the manner of paint, 
is said to be superior to any kind of a paint as a preservative. 
Soapstone is to be had in an exceedingly fine powder, mixes 
readily with prepared oils for paint, which covers well surfaces 
of iron, steel, or stone, and is an effectual remedy against 
rust. 



TIME AT DIFFERENT PLACES, WHEN IT IS 
O'CLOCK AT NEW YORK CITY; ALSO, DIF- 
FERENCE IX TIME FROM NEW YORK. 



New York City 12 M. 


Fast. 


Slow. 


Places. 


II 

12 
II 
12 
II 
12 
12 
II 
I I 
II 
I I 
II 
II 
12 
II 
12 
12 
II 
12 
II 
12 
II 
10 
II 

4 
ii 

12 
10 
II 
12 
12 
12 
12 
10 
II 
II 
IO 


MS 


p.m 

a. m. 
}.m 
a.m. 
p.m 

a.m. 

p.m 
a.m. 
p.m 

a.m. 
p.m 
a.m. 
p.m 
a.m. 

a. m. 



p.m 
a.m. 
p.m 

a. m. 



p.m 


u 

a.m. 

! 


11 


M 

.: 



u 

IO 

28 

II 
41 

5 
43 

10 

5 

i 

12 

4 


S 


II 


M 

9 

10 

'9 

23 
54 
4i 
3i 
36 

36 

42 
u 

3i 

22 

41 

4 6 

4 

55 

4 

20 

9 

27 


56 

27 

40 
42 



24 

12 

10 

40 
20 
10 

56 

12 

3* 

37 

16 
H 

56 


Albany, N. Y 
Annapolis, Mel 


1 l 

5 4 
1 6 40 

4933 
20 52 
ii 46 
4020 
36 18 
529 
18 2 
2836 
23 4 

10; 4 

2350 
28l6 
I1 3 2 
I7|20 

4i:33 
48 '40 

5 r 7 
2850 

37 4 
1848 

4356 
H 
1044 
5528 
423 
536 
148 
1218 
418 
56| 
3944 
5046 
32 4 


4 


I 
40 

52 
46 

if 

3 2 

33 
i7 

$( 
44 

36 
48 
ft 

18 


i 

i 

i 

1: 


Augusta, Me 


Baltimore Md 






Buffa'o, NY 


Charleston S. C 


Chicago, 111 




Cleveland, O.. . . 






Detroit, Mich- 




Fall River, Mass 


Frankfort, Ky 


Halifax, N. S 


Harrisburg, Pa 


Hartford, Conn 


Key West, Fla 


Leavenworth, Kan 




Liverpool, Eng. 




Lowell j^lass 




Milwaukee, Wis 


Montpelier, Yt 


Montreal, Que.. 


New Bedford, Mass 


New Haven, Conn 


New Orleans, La 


Niagara Falls, N. Y. 


Norfolk, Ya 


Omaha, Neb 



1 82 

TIME AT DIFFERENT PEACES. Continued. 



New York City 12 M. 


I 
II 


"as 
M 


t. 
S 


S 
II 


lo\\ 
M 

10 

4 

4 
24 

*9 
13 
9 

32 

13 

28 

8 

21 

' 2 
12 


S 


Places. 


II 


M 


s 






u 

5 
ii 

9 
u 

12 
12 
12 
II 
II 

8 

9 

8 
1 1 

12 
10 
II 
II 
II 
II 


49 

5 
55 
56 
35 
15 

10 

ii 

40 

46 
50 

27 
46 
3i 

5 
54 
5i 

38 
57 

A7 


36 
21 
20 

52 
2 

25 
II 
4 8 
10 

9 

36 
13 

39 

37 
59 

12 

27 

2 4 
/|8 




]). m 
a. m . 

p. in 

C( 

a.m. 

u 

p. m 
a m. 


5 


5 

15 

10 

ii 

5 


21 

2 

25 
II 

37 


2 

3 

2 

3 

I 


24 
40 

8 

12 
50 
51 

24 

47 

21 

I 

4 8 

33 
3 6 

12 


Paris, France 


Philadelphia, Pa 


Pike's Peak, Col 


?ittsburg, Pa 


Portland, Me 
Providence, R. I 


Quebec, Oue 


Raleigh, N. C 


Richmond, Va 




Salt Lake City, Utah. . . . 


San Francisco, Cal 


Savannah, Ga. . 




St. Loui-, Mo. 


Syracuse, N. Y.. 


Toronto, Ont. . . 


Trenton, N. J 
Washington, D. C.. . 



4.ENGTII AND NUMBER OF TACKS TO THE 
POUND. 



Title. 


Length. 


No. p. Ib. 


Title. 


Length. 


No. p. Ib. 


I oz. 


Y* in - 


16,000 


10 OZ. 


11-16 


1, 600 


1/2 " 


3-i6 ' 


10,666 


12 ' 





^333 


2 " 


X ' 


8,000 


14 * 


13-16 


Ii43 


?.y* " 


5-i6 ' 


6,400 


16 < 


H 


1,000 


6 " 


X ' 


5>333 


.18 


15-16 


888 


4 


7-16 ' 


4,000 


20 ' 


I 


800 


6 " 


9-16 ' 


2,666 


22 ' 


11-16 


727 


8 " 


% ' 


2,000 


24 ' 


i>* 


666 



SWITCHING FROM THE ENGINE CAB. 

A device that will enable the engineer, from his cab, to 
switch his locomotive at pleasure, while the conductor on 
the caboose or rear car closes the switch again, would surely 
be a novelty in railroading, amounting to a revolution. Yet 
a Cleveland inventor claims to have solved the problem, and 
to be able to demonstrate its practicability with a working 
model. Not to go into the details, it may be sufficient to 
say that the " central throw " switch is shifted by a double- 
flanged shoe, of any length, dropped from beneath any front 
or rear truck, while the train is in motion, first overthrowing 
the crank that draws the lock-plate off the fixed rail, then 
moving the lug of the angle connected with the fly-rail to the 
right or left, as indicated by the target on the engine or 
caboose, after which the lock slides forward and grasps the 
fixed rail, holding the " fly " in alignment, making a continuous 
rail. Thus, a switch is carelessly left open, ai.d a passenger 
train is approaching. The engineer detects the danger ; the 
improvised " shoe " is dropped to the rail ; it strikes the lug, 
the switch is closed, and, a collision avoided. On the other 
hand, a train may be side-tracked by the same simple 
operation from the cab. Of course, this would do away with 
switchmen and frog accidents, and a great many other disad- 
vantages incident to the present method, should the invention 
come into practical use. This, necessarily is yet to be dem- 
onstrated by actual test, under varying conditions, before 
success can be confidently claimed ; but the device is certainly 
of general interest. 

RAILROAD SIGNALS. 

The following signals, taken from the " Standard Code," 
are in use on a majority of American railroads. Explanation: 
O means short, quick sound; means long sound. 

Apply brakes, stop O 

Release brakes O O 

Back O O O 

Highway crossing signal . O, or O O 

Approaching stations blast lasting five C3& 

Call for switchman O O O O 

Cattle on track ^~~- 

Train has parted O 

For fuel O O O Op 

Bridge or tunnel warning a * O O 

Fire aiarm c , O O 3 

Will take side track. . , , 



184 
MANILLA KOPE TRANSMISSION. 

A four-strand, hard-laid manilla rope, having a core, or 
"heart-yarn," is probably the best rope for transmission pur- 
poses, although three-strand rope is generally recommended, 
says a writer in the American Miller. Of course it is im- 
portant to have the rope, laid in tallow, as that greatly pro- 
longs its life. The matter of splice is also important. Sea- 
men all agree that the long splice is the best, but the expe- 
rience of rope-transmission men is almost universally in 
favor of a short splice. The length of a long splice in an 
inch diameter rope will be five or si x feet, while a short one 
is two and two and a half feet. I think this is what the 
sailors term "a short splice." I have seen a short splice suc- 
ceed where long ones have repeatedly failed. I have known 
of a manilla rope used out of doors being painted with oil, 
and then varnished. It seems to work well. Tar is certainly 
unsuitable as a dressing for transmission rope. In the first 
place it weakens it; in the second, its sticking to the pulley 
or sheave would be a detriment rather than an improvement. 
There is no difficulty about the ropes sticking on the sheave, 
if properly designed and constructed. 

SAFE WORKING PRESSURE FURNACE FLUES. 

In a report to his company, the chief engineer of the 
Engine, Boiler and Employers' Liability Insurance Company, 
purposes the following rule for the safe-working pressure for 
cylindrical furnaces in fines : Safe-working pressure 
50/2 d 



where 

/=thickness of plate in thirty-second of au inck. 
/=length of flue in feet. 
//=diameter in inches. 

RIVETLESS STEEL SLEEPERS. 
^Mr. H. Hipkins has invented a rivetless steel sleeper for 
railroads. The lips or jaws for holding the rails in place are 
stamped out of the solid plate, and are stiffened by corruga- 
tions or brackets, which are also raised from the solid plate 
out of the hollow at the back of each jaw. A center strip 
is provided for the rail to rest upon, dispensing with all rivets 
and loose parts. These sleepers can be laid rapidly, and they 
are claimed to be especially adapted to use underground in 
mines 



TAKE CARE OF YOUR AUTOMATIC SPRINK- 
LERS. 

Ma"}* business blocks, workshops, stores, etc., have been 
expensively fitted up with automatic sprinklers as a safeguard 
against fires, a certain temperature of heat fusing the metal, 
opening a valve and letting on a flow of water. But an in- 
spection of th3 perforated pipes in a majority of instances will 
reveal the fact that the apparatus has been neglected. Cob- 
webs and dust cover the pipes, the sprinklers have been per- 
mitted to corrode and unsolder, and, should a fire chance to 
occur and the friendly services of the sprinklers ever be 
required, they would l.e found almost useless, and for all the 
work they would perform in the line of throwing cold water 
on the devouring elements, the premises might as well have 
remained l< unprotected. " 

HOW TO OVERCOME VIBRATION. 

How to put the smith shop in an upper story without 
having the working on the anvils jar the building, has been a 
problem that has frequently given manufacturers trouble. A 
mechanical engineer says it may be safely done by placing a 
good heavy foundation of sheet lead on the floor, and on that 
putting a good thickness of rubber belting. 

Another person who is interested in the problem has tried 
the experiment, with some success, of placing the block, not 
on the floor, but on the joist direct, making a cement floor up 
to the block, and over the wooden floor, reaching back beyond 
the reach of sparks. It is sometimes said that blacksmith 
shops never burn, but they keep right on burning in spite of 
theory, and cement floors ought to be helpful in guarding 
against fires. 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS IN GERMANY. 

In Germany, during 1887, there were thirteen boiler 
explosions, the Germans making up in destructiveness what 
they lack in numbers of these accidents. 

By the thirteen explosions, seventeen persons were killed; 
five seriously, and fifty-nine slightly injured. One of these 
explosions was, so far as known, the most destructive that 
ever occurred. A battery of twenty-two boilers, at the blast 
furnaces of Friedenshutte, Silesia, exploded, completely 
demolishing the boiler-house, setting fire to a number of 
other houses by throwing red-hot bricks, killing ten persons, 
and wounding fifty-two. 



i86 
ALLOYS AND SOLDERS. 



ALLOYS. 


H 


1) 

a. 
a, 
o 
U 


G 

N 


Antimony. 


-i 

V 


Bismuth. 1 


Brass enjjine bearmfs 


13 
15 

25 


112 

100 

1 60 


1 4 
15 

5 








Tough brass, engine work. . . . 
" for heavy bearings .... 
Yellow brass for turning. 




























Bell metal 




16 
i 










i 






Brass locomotive bearings. . . . 
" for straps and glands. . 
Munt/'s sheathing 


7 
F') 


64 

I }O 

6 


i 
i 

4 








........ 


Metal t ') expand in cooling. . . 




2 


9 1 














i 
9 


I 

5 




2 

3 

7 

1 l < 


. . 

:::: 


Statuary bronze 


2 


Type m^tal from 


" to 


j 




SOLDERS, 

For lead 








" tin 








2 






2 








I 








^ 
i 


i 

3 








" " (hard) 








" " (soft) 


I 
2 






u a 


I 





HOW TO MAKE HARD AND DUCTILE BRASS 
CASTINGS. 

Two per cent, by weight of finely pounded bottle glass, 
placed at the bottom of the crucible in which red brass is 
being melted for castings, gives great hardness, and at the 
same time ductility to the metal. Porous castings are said to 
be almost an impossibility when this is done, and the product 
is likely tc V of great service in parts of machinery subject to 
strain. An addition of one per cent, of oxide of manganese 
facilitates working in the lathe and elsewhere where great 
hardness might be an objection. 



1*7 

DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS 
of 8ths, i6ths, 32ds and 64ths of an 



Inch. 



tractions Decimals 


Fractions Decimals 


of an of an 


of an of an 


Inch. Inch. 


Inch. Inch. 


1-64 = .015625 


33-64= .515625 


1-32 = .03125 
3-64 = .046875 


17-3 =03125 
35-64 = .546875 


1-16 = .0625 


9-16 = .5625 


5-64 = .078125 


37-64 =0/8125 


3-32 = .09375 


19-32 = -59375 


7-64= -109375 


39-64 = .609375 


# = .125 


H = .625 


9-64 = .140625 


41-64 = .640625 


5-32 = .15625 
11-64= .171875 


21-32 = .65625 
43-64= -671875 


3-16= .1875 


11-16 = .6875 


13-64= .203125 


45-64 V. -703*25 


7-32 =.21875 


23-32 = .7185 


15-64 = .234375 


47-64 =.734375 


X = -5 


^ = 75 


17-64 = .265625 


49-64= .765625 


9-32 = .28125 
19-64 = .296875 


25-32 = -78125 
51-64= .796875 


5-16 =.3125 


13-16 = .8125 


21-64 -328125 


53-64= .828125 


1 1-32 = .34375 


27-32 = .84375 


23-64 = .359375 


55-64 = .859375 


H = -375 


% = -875 


25-64= 39 625 


57-64 = .89625 


13-32 = .40625 


29-32 = .90625 


27-64 = .421895 


59-64= .921871 


7-16 = .4375 


15-16 = .9375 


29-64= .453*25 


61-64 = .953125 


15-32 = .46875 
31-64= .484375 

X = -5 


31-32= .96875 
63-64 = -9 8 43 7 5 



HOW TO ANNEAL SMALL TOOLS. 

A very good way to anneal a small piece of tool steel is to 
heat it up in a forge as slowly as possible, and then take two 
fireboards and lay the hot steel between them and screw them 
in a vice. As the steel is hot, it sinks into the pieces of 
wood, and is firmly imbedded in an almost air-tight charcoal 
bed, and when taken out .cold will be found to be nice and 
soft. To repeat this will make it as soft as could be wished. 



1 88 
AN EXPERIMENT WITH A LOCOMOTIVE. 

A locomotive engineer who takes an intelligent interest 
in operating his engine economically, relates the particulars 
of runs where careful efforts were made to test the differ- 
ence in the consumption of coal that resulted with the re- 
verse lever hooked back as far as practicable and the throttle 
full open, and running with a late cut-off, and the steam 
throttled, or the difference between throttling and cutting off 
short. 

First Case A train of 19 loaded and 12 empty cars, 
rated at 25 loads. Run from Mansfield to Lodge, distance, 
8.6miles, nearly level. Forced the train into speed, and then 
pulled the reverse lever to the center notch, and opened the 
throttle wide. The engine jarred a good deal, due, doubtless, 
to the excessive compression, but the speed was maintained. 
Twenty-two minutes were occupied by the run, a speed of 
23 miles per hour, and 17 shovelfuls of coal M'eie con- 
sumed in keeping up steam. By weighing, it was found a 
shovelful averaged 14 pounds, making the coal used per 
train mile average 27.7 pounds. 

Second Case A train of 25 loads and six empties, rated 
as 28 loaded cars. Ran, as in the first case, from Mansfield 
to Lodge. Pulled the train into speed in as nearly as possi- 
ble the same time as in the previous test, but, when the 
speed was attained, kept the reverse lever in the nine-inch 
notch, and throttled the steam to keep down the speed. 
Although the train was rated two loads heavier than the pre- 
vious one, it consisted mostly of merchandise, while the 
other was heavy freight, and handled decidedly easier. Hav- 
ing pulled both trains over 40 miles before arriving at Mans- 
field, there was full means of judging which was the easier 
train to handle. 

The run was made in 24 minutes, two minutes longer 
than in the other case, and 32 shovelfuls of coal were used, 
being at the rate of 52 pounds per train mile. In both 
instances the fire was as nearly as possible the same depth at 
the beginning and end of the run. 

Our correspondent thus concludes his narrative: " It is 
interesting to know that on the first occasion 238 pounds of 
coal were used to do the same work in less time than 448 
pounds were required to do under the changed circumstances 
of the second trip; showing that a gain of 88 per cent, may 
be effected by running with full throttle and early cut off."' 



1 89 

FAST AMERICAN STEAMERS. 

The following is a list of twenty-eight fast American 
steamers of from 2,200 to 4,000 tons, all of which have 
shown a sea speed of more than fifteen knots for six consecu- 
tive hours, and from which would be made the selection of 
vessels to be held in reserve for cruisers: 

Vessels. Hailing Port. Tonnage. Speed. 

Newport New York 2,735 17-9 

City of Augusta Savannah .2,870 16.5 

City of Puebla New York .2,624 16.5 

Queen of the Pacific. . . .Portland, Or 2,728 16.5 

Alameda .Philadelphia 3,158 16.5 

Mariposa San Francisco 3*158 16.5 

State of California San Francisco 2,266 16 

Alliance New York 2,985 16 

Louisiana New York .. . . , 2,840 16 

Ohio Philadelphia 3,126 15.6 

Saratoga New York 2,426 15.4 

City of Alexandria New York 2,480 15.4 

Nacoochee Savannah 2,680 15.4 

Chattahoochee New York 2,676 15.4 

Roanoke ... , New York 2,354 15.4 

Excelsior. New York 3,264 15.4 

Alamo New York 2,943 15.4 

Lampasas New York 2,943 15.4 

SlPaso New York 3,531 15.4 

El Dorado San Francisco .... .3,531 15-4 

H. F. Dimock Boston .2,625 15.4 

Herman Winter Boston 2,625 15.4 

Seminole New York 2,557 15.4 

El Monte New York 3,53* J 5-4 

San Pedro New York 3, 119 15.4 

San Pablo New York. 4,064 15.4 

Cherokee New York 2,557 15 

Santa Rosa New York. -.2,417 "*> 

A WARNING TO ENGINEERS. 

. Never take the cap off a bearing and remove the upper 
brass to see if things are working well, for you never can 
replace the brass exactly in its former position, and you will 
find that the bearing will heat soon afterward, on account 
of your unnecessary interference. If there is any trouble, 
you will find it out c oon enough. 



190 
WEIGHT AND AREAS OF 

SQUARt & ROUND BARS OF WROUGHTIRON 

And Circumference of Round Bars. 

One cubic foot weighing 480 Ibs. 









i 




Thickaesa 


Weight of 


Weight of 


irea of 


irea of 


CirflUnftlWH 


r Diameter 


CD Baj 


O B 


CD B 


O Bar 


of Q Btf 


IQ laches. 


Oaa Foot long. 


On9 Foot long 


;n sq inches. 


m sq. inahea. 


miaehes. 


O 














.013 


.010 


.OO39 


.0031 


.1963 


1, 


.052 


.041 


.0156 


.O123 


.3927 


ft 


.117 


.092 


.0352 


.0276 


.5890 


} 


.208 


.164 


.0625 


.0491 


.7864 


ft 


.326 


.256 


.0977 


.O767 


.9817 




.469 


.368 


.1406 


.11O4 


1.1781 


A 


.638 


.501 


.1914 


.15O3 


1.3744 


* 


.833 


.654 


.2500 


.1963 


1.5708 


A 


1.056 


.828 


.3164 


.2485 


1.7671 


t 


1.3O2 


1.O23 


.39O6 


.3O68 


1 9635 


fi 


1.576 


1.237 


.4727 


.3712 


2 1598 


1 


1.875 


1 473 


.6625 


.4418 


2 3662 


if 


2.2O1 


1.728 


.6602 


.5185 


2 6625 




2.552 


2.0O4 


.7656 


.6013 


2.7489 


U 


2.93O 


2.3O1 


.8789 


.6903 


2.9452 


1 


3.333 


2.618 


1.0000 


.7854 


3.1416 


A 


3.763 


2.955 


1.1289 


.8866 


33379 


i 


4.219 


3.313 


1.2656 .9940 


36343 


A 


4.7O1 


3.692 


1.4102 


1 1075 


373O6 


i 


5.208 


4.091 


1.5625 


1.2272 


3.9270 


A 


5.742 


4.510 


1 7227 


1 3530 


4 1233 


i 


6.302 


4.950 


1.8906 


1 4849 


43197 


A 


6.888 


5.410 


&OQ64 


1.6230 


4.5160 


i 


7.500 


5.89O 


2.2600 


1 7671 


4 7124 




8.138 


6.392 


2.4414 


1.9175 


4.9O87 





8.802 


6.913 


2.64O6 


2.0739 


5.1051 


H 


9.492 


7.455 


2.8477 


2.2365 


6.3O14 


i ' 


10.21 


8.018 


3.0625 


24053 


6.4978 


H 


1O.95 


8.601 - 


3.2852 


2.5802 


5.6941 




11.72 


9.2O4 


3.5156 


2.7612 


5.89O5 


H 


12.51 


9.828 


3.7539 


2.9483 


,6.0868 



SQUARE AND ROUND BARS. 

(CONTINUED.) 



Ttttknea 
v Diameter 
in Inches, 


Weight of 
QBar 
One Foot long. 


Weight of 

O *" 

One Foot long. 


ire* of 

in sq. inches. 


ire* of 

O B 

in sq. inchea 

3.1416 
3.341O 
3.5466 
3.7583 


GrcnmfannM 
in inches. 


2 

! 


13.33 
14.18 
15.05 
15.95 


10.*47 
11.14 
11.82 
12.63 


4.0000 
4.2539 
4.5156 
4.7852 


6.2832 
6.4795 
6.6759 
6.8722 


| 

j* 


16.88 
17.83 
18.80 
<L9.8O 


13.25 
14.OO 
14.77 
16.55 


6.O625 
6.3477 
5.64O6 
6.9414 


3.9761 
4.2OOO 
4.4301 
4.6664 


7.0686 
7.2649 
7.4613 
7.6578 


it 


2O.83 
21.89 
22.97 

24.08 


16.36 
17.19 
18.O4 
18.91 


6.250O 
6.5664 
6.89O6 
7.2227 


4.9O87 
6.1672 
5.4119 
5.6727 


7.854O 
8.O5O3 
8.2467 
8.4430 


I 


25.21 
26.37 
27.65 
28.76 


19.8O 
20.71 
21.64 
22.69 


7.6625 
7.9102 
8.2656 
8.6289 


5.9396 
6.2126 
6.4918 
6.7771 


8.6384 
8.8357 
9.O321 
9.2284 


3 

! 


30.00 
31.26 
32.65 
33.87 


23.66 

24.65 
25.67 
26.60 


9.0000 
9.3789 
9.7656 
10.16O 


7.0686 
7.3662 
7.6699 
7.9798 


9.4248 
9.6211 
9.8173 
10.014 


| 


36.21 
36.68 
37.97 
39.39 


27.65 
28.73 
29.82 
30.94 


1O.563 
10.973 
11.391 
11.816 


8.2958 
8.6179 
8.9462 
9.28O6 


10.21O 
10.4O7 
10.6O3 
1O.799 


! 


40.83 
42.30 
43.80 
45.33 


32.O7 
33.23 
34.40 
35.60 


12.25O 
12.691 
13.141 
13.598 


9.6211 
9.9678 
10.321 
1O.68O 


10.996 
11.192 
11.388 
11.585 


H 


46.88 
48.45 
60.05 
61.68 


36.82 
38.O5 
39.31 
40.59 


14.O63 
14.535 
15.O16 
15.5O4 


11.O45 
11.416 
11.793 
12.177 


11.781 
11.977 
12.174 
12.37O 



192 



SQUARE AND ROUND BARS. 



>r DiuoeUr 
A fl Inches. 


Weigh: of 
D B 
One Koot long. 

63.33 
65.O1 
66.72 
68.46 


We: ? ht of 

Das *'no: long. 


O*f 

in ^. inches. 


4re of . 
t O Bar 
in sq. inches. 


of O Bar 

in inches. 


4 
ji 

A 


41.89 
43.21 
44.55 
45.91 


1G.OOO 
16.5O4 
17.016 
17.535 


12.566 
12.962 
13.364 
13.772 


12.566 
12.763 
12.959 
13.155 


T5 


60.21 
61.99 
63.8O 
65.64 


47.29 
48.69 
60.11 
61.55 


18.O63 
18.598 
19.141 
19.691 


14.180 
14.607 
15.O33 
15.466 


13.352 
13.548 
13.744 
13.941 


1 
H 


67.60 
69.39 
71.3O 
73.24 


63.01 
64.60 
6.00 
67.52 


20.25O 
20.816 
21.391 
21.973 


15.904 
16.349 
16.800 
17.267 


14.137 
14.334 
14.53Q 
.14.72(3 


1 


75.21 
77.20 
79.22 
81.26 


69.07 
60.63 
32.22 
63.82 


22.563 
23.160 
23.766 
24.379 


17.721 
18.19O 
18.665 
19.147 


14.923 
15.119 
15.315 
15.512 


s 


83.33 
85.43 
87.65 
89.70 


65.45 
67.10 
68.76 
70.45 


25.00O 
25.629 
26.266 
26.910 


19.635 
20.129 
2O.629 
21.135 


157O8 
15.9O4 
16.1O1 
16.297 


I 


91.88 
94.08 
96.30 
98.55 


72.16 
73.89 
75.64 
77.4** 


27.563 
28.223 
28.891 
29.666 


21.648 
22.166 
22.691 
23.221 


16.493 
16.69O 
16.886 
17.082 


A 

A 


100.8 
103.1 
106.5 
IO7.8 


79.19' 
81.00 
82.83 
84.69 


3O.250 
30.941 
31,641 
32.348 


23.758 
24.3O1 
24.85O 

25.400 


17.279 
17.475 
17.671 
17.868 


y 

it 


11O.2 
112.6 
116.1 
117.F 


86.56 
88.45 
90.36 
92.29 


33.063 
33.785 
34.516 
35.254* 


25.967 
26.635 
27.10G 
27.688 


18.O64 
..18.261 

18.653 



193 



SQUARE AND ROUND BARS. 

(CONTINUED) 







. , . . 






4 


^kiifJS 


We.pht of 


I Weight of 


ire* of 


inn of 


Circumferan* 


fcimetei 


G - 


O B < 


QBar 


Bar 


of O Bw> 


Inches. 


One Foot long 


Oae foot long. 


in sq. incbas. 


in sq. inches 


in inch**. 


3 


120.0 


94.25 


36.00O 


28.274 


18.85O 




122.5 


96.22 


36.754 


28.806 


19.O46 





125.1 


98.22 


37.516 


29.465 


19.242 




127.6 


10O.2 


38.285 


30.O69 


19.439* 




130.2 


102.3 


39.063 


30.680 


19.635 


, 


132.8 


1O4.3 


39.848 


31.296 


19.831 


i 


135.5 


106.4 


4O.641 


31.910 


20.028 


A 


138.1 


1O8.5 


41.441 


i 32.548 


20.224 












. 4 


I 


14O.8 


110.6 


42.250 


33 183 


20.420 




143.6 


112.7 


43.O66 


33.824 


20.617 




146.3 


1149 


43.891 


34.472 


2O.813 


H 


149.1 


117.1 


44.723 


35.125 


21.000 


f * 


151.9 


119.3 " 


45.663 


35785 


21.206 


4.1 


154.7 


121.5 


46.410 


36.450 


21.402 


l| 


157.6 


123.7 


47.266 


37.122 


21.598 




160.4 


126.0 


48.129 


37.800 


21,79$ 






i 


. 






i 


163.3 


128.3 


49.000 


38.485 


21,90* 




166.3 


13O.6 


49.879^ 


39.175 


-22.187 


u f 


169.2. 


132.9 


50.766 


39.871 




1 3 s 


172.2 


135.2 . 


51.660 


40.674 


22.'58O 


i* 


175.2 


137* 


52 563 


41.282 


22.777 


1$L 


178.2 


14O.O 


63^473 


41.997 


22.973 


t 


181.3 
184.4 


142.4 
144.8 


64.391 
55.318 


'42.718 
43.446 


23.160 
23.366 


I 


187.5 


147.3 


56.25O 


44.179 


23.662 


iV 


190.6 


149.7 


67.191 


44.918 


23.758 


f 


193.8 


152.2 


68.141 


45.664 


23.955 




197.0 


154.7 


59.098 


46.415 


,24.151 


f 


500.2 


157.2 


60.063 


47.173 


24.347 


H 


203.5 


159.8 


61.O35 


47.937 


24.544 


1 


2O6.7 


162.4 


62.O16 


48.707 


24.74O 


il 


210.0 


164.9 


63.0O4 


49.483 


24.030 



194 



SQUARE AND ROUND BAfcS. 

(CONTINUED.) 



feekam 

n Inches. 


One Foot long 


Weight of 
QBar 
One foot long 


Arctof " 
in sq. inches. 


Area of 
O Bar 
in sq. inches. 


Cireiunferenc* 
of O ** f 


8 


213.3 


167.6 


64.000 


50.265 


26.133 


A 


216.7 


170.2 


65.004 


61.O54 


25.329 


i 


220.1 


172.8 


66.O10 


51.849 


25.525 


A 


223.5 


175.5 


67.035 


62.649 


25.722 


'i 


226.9 f 


J78.2 


68.063 


53.456 


25.918 


ft 


23O.3 


180.9 


69.098 


54.269 


26.114 


i 


23Q.8 


183.6 


70.141 


65.088 


26.311 


A 


237.3 


186.4 


71.191 


65.914 


26.6O7 


Fi 


1* 
240.8 


189.2 


72.260 


56.745 


26.704 


! (, 


244.4 


191.9 


73.316 


67.583 


26.9<X> 


fY 


248.0 


194.8 


74.391 


58.426 


27.096 




251.6 


197.6 


75.473 


69.276 


27.293 


1 


255.2 


200.4 


76.563 


60.132 


27.489 


'11 


258.9 


203.3 


77.660 


60.994 


27.685 


ft 


262.6 


206.2 


78.766 


61.862 


27.882 


H 


266.3 


2O9.1 - 


79.879 


62.737 


28078 


v 




* 


m* 




0) 


9 


270.0 


J2121 ' 


81.000 


63.617 


28.274 




273.8 1 


215.0 r 


82.129 


64.5O4 


28.471 


I i I 


277.61 


218.0 


83.266 


65.397 


28.667 


Al 


281.41 


221.O 


84.410 


66.296 


28.863 


IT" 


^285.2 


224.O 


85.563 


67.201 


29.060 


'A 


289.1 


.227.0. 


t 86723 


68.112 


29.256 




293.0 


230.1 


187JB91 


69.029 


29.452 


A' 


296.9 


233.2 


P9.066 


69.953 


29.649 


| 


300.8 


236.3 " 


90.250 


70.882 


29.845 


1 


3O4.8 
308.8 
312.8 


239.4 
242.5 I 
2*5.7 


91.441 
r 92.641 
93.848 


71.818 
72.76O 
73.7O8 


3O.O41 
30.239 

30.434. 


I 


316.9 


248.9 


95.063 


74.662 


30.63r 


ft- 


321.0 


252.1 


96.285 


75.622 


3o]827j 


1- 


325.1 


255.3 


97.516 


76.589 


31.O23 


It 


329.2 

1 


258.5 


98.754 


77.561 


1.220 



195 



SQUARE AND ROUND BARS. 

(CONUINUED.) 



iiekaess 

Duuaetw 


T 
Weight of 

On* Foot long. 


Weight of 
QB*r 
On* Foot long. 


ATM of 

in iq. inches. 


ireiof 

OB- 

in sq. inches. 


CircuoftraM 
of O B* 

in inchM. 





333.3 


261.8 


100.00 


78.540 


31.416 


1*5 


^37.5 


265.1 


1O1.25 


79.525 


31.612 





341.7 


268.4 


1O2.52 


80.616 


31.8O9 


A 


346.0 


271.7 


103.79 


81.513 


32.005 


* 


350.2 


275.1 


105.06 


82.516 


32.201 


A 


354.5 


> 78.4 


106.36 


83.625 


32.398 


I 


358.8 


28i.8 


107.64 


84.641 


32.694 


A 


363.1 


285.2 


1O8.94 


85.662 


32.79O 


i 


367.5 


288.6 


' \ 10.26 


86.590 


32.987 


A 


371.9 


292.1 


1O1.57 87.624 


33.183 


1 


376.3 


295.5 


112.89 88.664 


33.379 


a 


380.7 


299.0 


114.22 89.710 


33.576 


i 


385.2 


302.5 


115.56 


90.763 


33.772 


it 


389.7 


306.1 


116.91 


, V821 


33.968 


i 


394.2 


309.6 


118.27 


92.386 


34.166 


H 


398.8 


313.2 


119.63 


93.966 


34.361 












f 


L 


403.3 


318.8 


121.00 


95.033 


i S4.568 


X 


407.9 


320.4 


122.38 


96.116 


34.764 


| 


412.6 


324.0 


123.77 


97.2O6 


34.^50 


nr 


417.2 


327. 1 / 


126.16 


98.301 


35.147 


1 


421.9 


331.3 


126.56 


99.402 


35.343 


A 


426.6 


335.O 


127.97 


10O.61 


35.539 


| 


431.3 


333.7 


129.39 


kOl.62 


35.736 


A 


436.1 


342.5 


130.82 


102.74 


35.932 


i 


440.8 


346.2 


132.25 


1O3.87 


36.128 


A 


445.6 


35O.O 


133.69 


105.00 


36.325 


1 


450.6 


353.8 


135.14 


106.14 


36.521 


H 


455.3 


367.6 


136.60 


107.28 


36.717 


f 


460.2 


361.4 . 


. 138.06 


108.43 


36.914 


H 


465.1 


365.3- 


139.64 


109.59 


37.11O 


| 


470.1 


369.2 


141.02 


11O.75 


37.3O6 


** 


475.0 


373.1 


142.60 


111.92 


37,503 



196 

Weight of Sheets of Wrought Iron, Steel Cop* 
per and Brass. (From Haswell.) 

er Square Foot. Thickness by Birmingham Gauge. 



"O.rf 

^ftagai 


Thickness 
in inches. 


Iron. 


Steel. 


co p y. 


Brass. 


0000 


.454 


18.22 


18.46 


20.57 


19.43^ 


t ooo 


.425 


17.05 


17.28 


19.25 


18.19 


>00 


.38 


15.25 


15.45 


17.21 


16.26 


o 


.34 


13.64 


13.82 


15.4O 


14.55 


1 


.3 


12.04 


12.20 


13.59 


12.84 


2 


.284 


11.40 


11.55 


12.87 


12.16 


3 


.259 


10.39 


10.53 


11.73 


11.09 


4 


.238 


9.55 


9.68 


10.78 


10.19 


6 


.22 


8.83 


8.95 


9.97 


9.42 


6 


.203 


8.15 


8.25 


9.20 


8.69 


7 


.18 


7.22 


7.32 


8.15 


7,70 


8 


.165 


6.62 


6.71 


7.47 


,7,06 


,0 


.148 


5.94 


6.02 


6.70 


6.33 


10 


.134 


6.38 


6.45 


6.07 


6.74 


11 


.12 


4.82 


4.88 


5.44 


6.14 


12 


.109 


4.37 


4.43 


4.94 


4.67 


13 


.095 


3.81 


3.86 


4.30 


^4.07 


14 


.083 


3.33 


3.37 


3.76 


3.55 


15 


.072 


2.89 


2.93 


3.26 


3.08 


16 


.065 


2.61 


2.64 


2.94 


2.78 


17 


.058 


2.33 


2.36 


2.63 


2.48 


(18 


.049 


1.97 


1.99 


2.22 


2.10 


19 


.042 


4.69 


171 


.90 


1.80 


20 


.035 


1.40 


1.42 


.59 


1.60 


21 


.032 


1.28 


1.3O 


.45 


1.37 


.22 


.028 


1.12 


1.14 


.27 


1.20 


'23 


.025 


1.00 


1.02 


.13 


1.07 


24 


.022 


.883 


.895 


.00 


.942 


25 


.02 


.803 


.813 


.906 


.856 


26 


.018 


.722 


.732 


.815 


.770 


27 


.016 


.642 


.651 


.725 


.685 


28 


.014 


.662 


.569 


.634 


.599 


29 


.013 


.522 


.529 


.589 


.556 


30 


.012 


.482 


.488 


.544 


.514 


31 


.01 


.401 


'.407 


.453 


.428 


32 


.009 


.361 


.360 


.408 


.385 


33 


.008 


.321 


.325 


.362 


.342 


34 


.007 


.281 


.285 


.317 


.300 


35 


.005 


.201 


.203 


.227 


.214 


Specific Gravity, 


7.704 


7.806 


8.698 


8.218 


Weight Cubic Foot, 


481.25 


487.75 


543.6 


613.6 A 


" Inch, 


.2787 


.2823 


314$ 


.297? 



i 9 7 



Weight of Sheets of 'Wrought Iron, Steel, Cop- 
per and Brass. From Haswell. 

Weight per Square Foot. Thickness by American (Brown oc 
Sharpen) Gauge. 



la of 
fa*g* 


thickness 
in inches. 


Iron. 


Steel. 


Copper. 


Brass. 


oooo 


.46 


18.46 


18.7O 


20.84 


19.69 


000 


.4096 


16.44 


16.66 


18.56 


17.53 


00 


.3648 


14.64 


14.83 


16.53 


15.61 





.3249 


13.04 


13.21 


14,72 


13.90 


1 


.2893 


11.61 


11.76 


13.11 


12.38 


2 


.2576 


10.34 


10.48 


11.67 


11.03 


3 


.2294 


9.21 


9.33 


10.39 


9.82 


4 


.2043 


8.20 


8.31 


9.26 


8.74 


5 


.1819 


7.30 


7.40 


8.24 


7.79 


6 


.1620 


6.50 


6.59 


7.34 


6.93 


7 


.1443 


5.79 


5.87 


6.54 


6.18 


8 


.1285 


5.16 


5.22 


5.82 


5.50 


9 


.1144 


4.59 


4.65 


5.18 


4.9O 


1O 


..1019 


4.09 


4.14 


4.62 


4.36 


11 


.0907 


3.64 


3.69 


4.11 


3.88 


12 


.0808 


3.24 


3.29 


3.66 


3.46 


13 


.0720 


2.89 


2.93 


3.26 


3.08 


14 


.0641 


2.57 


2.61 


2.90 


2.74 


15 


.0571 


2.29 


2.32 


2.69 


2.44 


16 


,0508 


2.04 


2.07 


2.30 


2.18 


17 


.O453 


1.82 


1.84 


2.05 


1.94 


18 


.0403 


1.62 


1.64 


1.83 


1.73 


19 


.0359 


1.44 


1.46 


1.63 


1.54 


20 


.032O 


1.28 


1.30 


1.45 


1.37 


21 


.0285 


1.14 


1.16 


1.29 


1.22 


22 


.O253 


1.02 


1.03 


1.15 


1.08 


23 


.0226 


.906 


.918 


1.02 


.966 


24 


.0201 


.807 


.817 


.911 


.860 


25 


.0179 


.718 


.728 


.811 


.766 


26 


.0159 


.640 


.648 


.722 


.682 


27 


.0142 


.570 


.577 


.643 


.608 


28 


.0126 


.507 


.514 


.573 


.541 


29 


.0113 


.452 


.458 


.510 


.482 


3O 


.O10O 


.402 


.408 


.454 


.429 


31 


.0089 


.358 


.363 


.404 


.382 


32 


.0080 


.319 


.323 


.360 


.340| 


33 


.0071 


.284 


.288 .321 


.303 


34 


.O063 


.253 


.256 .286 


.270 


35 


.0056 


.225 


.221 j .254 


.240; 



I 9 8 

WEIGHTS OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PER 

LINEAL FOOT. 
For Thicknesses from 1-16 in. to 2 in., and 

Width from i in. to 12^ in. 
Iron weighing 480 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



fUeknesf 

la laches. 


1" 


w 


IK" 


w 


2" 


w 


2K" 


2V< 


12" 


A 


208 


260 


.313 


.365 


.417 


.409 


-521 


.573 


2.50 


i 


.417 


.521 


.625 


.729 


.833 


.938 


1.C4 


1.15 


5.CO 


A 


.625 


.781 


.938 


1.09 


1.25 


1.41 


1.56 


1.72 


7.CO 




.833 


1.04 


1.25 


1.46 


1.67 


1.88 


2.08 


2.29 


10.00 


A 


1.04 


1.30 


1.56 


1.C2 


2.08 


2.34 


2.GO 


2.8G 


12.60 


i 


1.26 


1,56 


1.88 


2.19 


2.LO 


2.81 


8.13 


3.44 


15.CO 


A 


1.46 


1.82 


2.19 


2.55 


2.92 


3.28 


8.C5 


4.01 


17.50 


* 


1.67 


2.08 


2.50 


2.92 


3.33 


3.75 


4.17 


4.58 


20.00 


& 


1.88 


2.34 


2.81 


3.28 


8.75 


4.22 


4.C9 


5.16 


22.50 


ft 


2.08 


2.60 


8.13 


3.C5 


4.17 


4.C9 


6.21 


5.73 


25.CO 




2.29 


2.86 


3.44 


4.01 


4.58 


5.16 


6.73 


6.SO 


27.50 


jl 


2.50 


3.13 


3.75 


433 


5.00 


5.G3 


625 


6.88 


30.CO 


II 


2.71 


339 


4.06 


474 


5.42 


6.09 


6.77 


7.45 


"kco 


i 


2.92 


3.G5 


4.38 


5.10 


6.83 


6.56 


719 


802 


33.CO 




3.13 


3.91 


4.69 


5.47 


6.25 


703 


7.81 


8.59 


87.50 


i 


3.33 


4.17 


6.00 


5.83 


6.67 


7.60 


8.33 


9.17 


40.00 


i& 


8.54 


4.43 


5.31 


6.20 


7.08 


7.97 


8.85 


9.74 


42.50 


u 


3.75 


4.69 


5.63 


6.56 


7.50 


8.44 


9.38 


10.31 


45.00 




3.% 


4.95 


5.94 


6.93 


7.92 


8.91 


9.90 


10.89 


47.50 


u 


4.17 


5.21 


6.25 


7.29 


8.33 


9.38 


10.42 


11.46 


50.00 


I* 


4.37 


5.47 


6.56 


7.G6 


8.75 


9.84 


10.94 


12.03 


52.60 


if 


4.58 


6.73 


6.88 


8.02 


9.17 


10.31 


11.46 


12.60 


55.00 


til 


4.79 


5.99 


7.19 


8.39 


9.58 


10.78 


11.98 


13.18 


57.50 


U 


5.00 


625 


7.50 


8.75 


10.00 


11.25 


12.50 


13.75 


60.00 


IT'S 


5.21 


6.51 


7.81 


9.11 


10.42 


11.72 


1302 


1432 


62.50 


If 


5.42 


6.77 


8.13 


9.48 


10.83 


12.19 


13.54 


14.90 


65.00 


Ifl 


5.63 


7.03 


8.44 


9.84 


1125 


12.66 


14.06 


15.47 


67.50 




5.83 


7.29 


8.75 


10.21 


11.67 


13.13 


14.58 


16.04 


70.00 


Hi 


6.04 


7.55 


9.06 


10.57 


12.08 


13.59 


15.10 


16.61 


72.50 


If 


625 


7.81 


9.38 


10.94 


12.50 


14.06 


15.63 


17.19 


75.00 


tf* 


6.46 


8.07 


9.69 


11,30 


12.92 


14.53 


16.15 


1776 


77.50 


8 


6.67 


8.33 


10.00 


11.67 


13.33 '15.00 


16.67 


18.33 


80.00 



199 



WEIGHT OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PE* 
LINEAL FOOT. 

(CONTINUED.) 



Thickness 
IB Inebn. 


3" 


1 


3'i" 


3X 


4" 4^" 


4 tJ 


4%"' 


is- 


rs 


.625 


.677 : 729 


.781 


833 


.885 


.938 


.990 


2.50 


5 


1.25 


1.35 


1 46 


1.56 


167 


1.77 


1.88 


1.98 


5.00 


A 


1.88 


2.03 2.19 


234 


250 


2.66 


2.81 


2.97 


7.50 


V 


2.50 


2.71 


2.92 


8.13 


333 


3.54 


3.75 


396 


10.00 


^ 


313 


339 


3.65 


3.91 


417 


4.43 


4.69 


4.95 


12.50 


t 


375 


406 


48g 


469 


600 


5.31 


563 


5.94 


15.00 


* ? 


4.38 


474 


6.10 


6.47 


6.83 


0.20 


6.56 


6.93 


17.50 


i 


5.00 


5.42 


6.83 


6.25 


6.67 


7.08 


7.50 


7-92 


20.00 


A 


6.63 


6.09 


6.56 


7.03 


750 


797 


844 


8.91 


22.50 


I 


6.25 


6.77 


7.29 


7.81 


8.33 


8.85 


938 


9.90 


25.00 




6.88 


7.45 


8.02 


8.59 


9.17 


9.74 


10.31 


0.89 


27.50 


1 


7.50 


8.13 


8.75 


9.38 


10.00 


10.63 


1155 


1.88 


30.00 


41 


8.13 


8.80 


948 


10.16 


10.83 


11.51 


12.19 


2.86 


32.50 


| 


8.75 


948 


10.21 i 10.94 


11.67 


12.40 


13.13 


3.85 


35.00 


i! 


9.38 


10.16 


10.94 


11.72 


12.50 


13.28 


14.06 


4.84 


37.50 




10.00 


10.83 


11.67 


12.50 


13.33 


14.17 


15.00 


15.83 


40.00 


f& 


1063 


11.51 12.40 


13.28 


14.17- 


L5.05 


15.94 


6.8g 


42.50' 


** 


11.25 


12.19 


13.13 


14.06 15.00 


15.94 


10.88 


17.81 


45.00 




11.88 


12.86 


13.85 


14.84 15.83 


1&82 


17.81 


18.80 


47.50 


^ 


12.50 


13.54 


14.58 


15.63 


16.C7 


17.71 


18.75 


19.79 


50.00 




13.13 


14.22 


15.31 


15,41 


17.50 


18.59 


19.C9 


20.78 


52 oO 


j'a 


13.75 


1490 


16.04 


17.19 


18.33 


19.48 


20.63 


21.77 


65'.00 


1 T 7 5 


14.38 


15.57 


16.77 


17.97 


19.17 


20.36 


21.56 


22.76 


57.50 




15.00 


16.25 


17.50 


18.76 


20.00 


21.25 


22.50 


23.75 


60,00 


1 T V 


15.63 


16.93 


18.23 


19.53 


20.83 


22.14 


23.44 


24.74 


C2.50' 




16.25 


17.60 


18.96 


20.31 


21.67 


23.02 


24.33 


25.73 


65.00 


pi 


16.88 


18.28 


19.69 


21.09 


22.50 


23.91 


25.31 


26.72 


07.60 


i 


17.50 


18.95 


20.42 


21.88 


23.S3 


24.79 


26.25 


27.71 


70.00 





18.13 
18.75 
19.38 


19.C4 
20.31 
20.99 


21.15 
21.88 
22.60 


22.66 
23.44 

24.22 


4.17 
25.00 
25:83 


25.C8 
26.56 
27.45 


27.19 
28.13 
29.06 


23.70 

29.ca 

30.C3 


72.00 
75.00 
77.59 


2 


20.00 


21.67 


23.33 


25.00 J26.67 


28.33 


30.00 


01.07 


CO.OO 



WEIGHTS OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PER 
LINEAL FOOT. 

(CONTINUED.) 



thickness 

fc Inches, 


5" 


a*- 


w 


~~ 


G" 


HX" 


w 


12" 


A 


1.04 


1.09 


1.15 


1.20 


1.25 


1.30 


1.35 


1.41 


2.50 




2.08 


2.19 


2.29 


2.40 


2.50 


2.60 


2.71 


2.81 


5.00 


I*? 


3.13 


3.28 


3.44 


3.59 


3.75 


8.9i 


4.06 


4.22 


7.50 


\ 


4.17 


4.38 


4.58 


4.79 


5.00 


5.21 


5.42 


5.63 


10.00 


^ 


5.21 


5.47 


573 


599 


6.25 


6.51 


6.77 


7.03 


12.50 


Y 


6.25 


6.56 


6.88 


7.19 


7.50 


7.81 


8.13 


8.44 


15.00 




7.29 


7.66 


8.02 


8.39 


8.75 


9.11 


9.48 


9.84 


17.50 


y 


8.33 


8.75 


9.17 


9.58 


10.00 


10.42 


10.83 


11.25 


20.00 


A 


9.38 


9.84 


10.31 


1078 


11.25 


11.72 


12.19 


12.66 


22.50 




10.42 


10.94 


11.46 


1198 


12.50 


13.02 


13.54 


14.06 


25.00 


H 


11.46 


12.03 


12.60 


1318 


13.75 


14.32 


14.90 


15.47 


27.50 


4 


12.50 


13.13 


13.75 


14.38 


15.00 


15.63 


16.25 


16.88 


30.00 


H 


13.54 


14.22 


1490 


15.57 


16.25 


16.93 


17.60 


18.28 


32.50 




14.58 


1531 


16.04 


16.77 


17.50 


18.23 


18.96 


19.69 


35.00 


H 


15.63 


16.41 


17.19 


17.97 


18.75 


19.53 


20.31 


21.09 


37.50 




16.67 


17.50 


1833 


1917 


20.00 


20.83 


21.67 


22.50 


4000 




















1 


i A 


17.71 


18.59 


19.48 


20.36 


21.25 


22.14 


23.02 


23.91 


42.50 




18.75 


19.69 


20.63 


21.56 


22.50 


23.44 


24.38 


25.31 


45.00 


i^ 


19.79 


20.78 


2177 


22.76 


23.75 


24.74 


25.73 


26.72 


47.50 


1 i 


20.83 


21.88 


22.92 


23.96 


25.00 


26.04 


27.08 


28.13 


50.00 


l 


21.88 


22.97 


24.06 


25.16 


26.25 


27.34 


28.44 


29.53 


52.50 


^ ! 


22.92 


24.06 


25.21 


26.35 


27.50 


28.65 


29.79 


30.94 


55.00 


!A 


23.96 


25.16 


26.35 


27.55 


28.75 


29.95 


31.15 


82.34 


57.50 




25.00 


26.25 


27.50 


28.75 


30.00 


31.25 


32.50 


83.75 


60.00 


IT'* 


26.04 


27.34 


28.65 


29.95 


31.25 


32.55 


33.85 


35.16 


62.50 


M 


27.08 


28.44 


29.79 


31.15 


32.50 


83.85 


35J21 


36.56 


65.00 




28.13 


29.53 


30.94 


32.34 


83.75 


35.16 


86.56 


37.97 


67.50 


if 


29.17 


30.63 


32.08 


83.54 


35.00 


36.46 


37.92 


39.38 


70..00 


HI 


30.21 


31.72 


33.23 


34.74 


36.25 


3776 


39.27 


40.78 


72.50 




31.25 


32.81 


34.38 


35.94 


37.50 


39.06 


40.63 


42.19 


76.00 


*tt 


32.29 


83.91 


35.52 


37.14 


3875 


40.36 


41.98 


43.59 


77.50 


e 


33.33 


35.00 36.67 j 38.83 j 40.00 


41.67 


43.33 


45.00 


80.00 



WEIGHTS OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PER 
LINEAL FOOT. 

(CONTINUED.) 



Thickness 
ID laches. 


1" 


7K" 


7* 


7%<< 






, 








U> 4 


b> 2 


u; 4 




As 


1.46 


1.51 


1.56 


1.61 


167 


1.72 


1.77 


1.82 


250 


1 


2.92 


302 


313 


3.23 


3.33 


3.44 


3.54 


365 


60C 


A 


4.38. 


4.53 


4.69 


4.84 


6.00 


516 


631 


6.47 


7.oO 


Y 


5.83 


6.04 


6.25 


6.46 


6.67 


688 


708 


7.29 


10.00 


IV 


7.29 


7.55 


7.81 


8.07 


8.33 


8.59 


8.85 


9.11 


12.50 




8.75 


906 


9.38 


9.69 


10.00 


10.31 


1063 


10.94 


1500 


ll 


10.21 


10.67 


10.94 


11.30 


11.67 


12.03 


12.40 


1276 


1750 




1167 


12.08 


12.50 


12.92 


13.33 


1375 


1417 


1458 


2000 


I\ 


1313 


1359 


14.06 


14.53 


1500 


1547 


1594 


16.41 


2250 


1 


14.58 


1510 15.63 


16.15 


1667 


1719 


1771 


18.23 


2500 


4 


16.04 


16.61 


1719 


1776 


18.33 


1891 


1948 


20.05 


27.50 




17.60 


1813 


1875 


1938 


2000 


20.63 


21.25 


21.88 


30.00 


H 


1896 


1964 2031 


2099 


2167 


22.34 


23.02 


23.70 


3250 


1 


2042 


21 15 21 88 22.60 


23.33 


24.06 


24.79 


2552 


35.00 


H 


2188 
2333 


22.66 
2417 


23.44 
25.00 


24.22 
25.83 


25.00 
26.67 


25.78 
27.50 


26.56 27.34 
28.3312917 


37.50 
4000 


,r 


2479 


2568 


26.56 


27.45 


28.33 


29.22 


30.10 


3099 


4250 


I | 


26.25 


2719 


28.13 


29.06 


30.00 


30.94 


3188 


32.81 


45.00 


J 8 


27.71 


28.70 


29.69 


30.68 


81.67 


32.66 


33.65 


3464 


47.50 


1 1 


29.17 


30.21 


31.25 


32.29 


33.38 


34.38 


3542 


36.4C 


6000 


irV" 


30.62 


3172 


32.81 


33.91 


35.00 


36.09 


3719 


38.28 


68.50 


If* 


32.08 


33.23 


34,38 


35.52 


36.67 


37.81 


38.96 


4010 


55.00 


4 


33.54 


34.74 


35.94 


37.14 


38.33 


39.53 


4073 


4193 


57.50 




35.00 


36.25 


37.50 


38.75 


40.00 


41.25 


42.50 


43.75 


60.00 


IT'S 


36.46 


3776 


39.06 


40.36 


41.67 


42.97 


44.27 


45.57 


6250 


l| 


3792 


39.27 


40.63 


41.98 


43.33 


44.69 


46.04 


47.40 


6500 


Ifl 


39.38 


40.78 


42.19 


43.59 


45.00 


4641 


47.81 


49.22 


67.50 




'40.33 


42.29 


43.75 


45.21 


46.67 


48.13 


49.58 


51.04 


70.00 


HI 


42.29 


43.80 


45.31 


46.82 


48.33 


49.84 


51.35 


52.86 


>^50 


H 


43.75 


45.31 


46.88 


48.44 


50.00 


51 56 


53.13 


54.69 


75^00 


HI - 


45.21 


46.82 


48.44 


50.05 


51.67 


53.28 [ 54.90 


56.51 


77.50 


& 


46.67 


48.33 


50.00 1 51.67 j 53.33 


55.00 56.67 1 58.33 


80.00 



WEIGHTS OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PER 
LINEAL FOOT. 

(CONTINUED.) 



inlMfra. 


9" 


9tf< 


9V 


9*" 


10" 


UH 


UH" 


10|" 


12" 


A 


1.88 


1.93 


1.98 


2.03 


2.08 


2.14 


2.19 


254 


2.50 


i 


S.75 


3.85 


8.96 


4.06 


4.17 


4.27 


4.38 


4.48 


6.00 


* 


6.63 


6.78 


6.94 


6.09 


6.25 


6.41 


6.56 


6.72 


7.50 


1 


7.60 


7.71 


7.92 


8.13 


8.33 


8.54 


8.75 


8.96 


10.00 


A 


0.38 


9.64 


9.90 


10.16 


10.42 


10.68 


10.94 


1150 


12.50 


r*t 


1156 


11.56 


11.88 


12.19 


12.60 


12.81 


13.13 


13.44 


15.00 


A 


13.13 


13.49 


13.86 


1452 


14.68 


14.95 


15.31 


15.68^ 


-17.50 




16.00 


15.42 


15.83 


1655 


16.67 


17.08 


17.50 


17.92 


20.00 


A 


16.88 


17.34 


17.81 


1858 


18.75 


1952 


19.69 


20.16 


22.50 




18.75 


19.27 


19.79 


20.31 


20.83 


21.35 


21.88 


22.40 


26.00 


'i* 


20.63 


2150 


21.77 


22.34 


22.92 


23.49 


24.06 


24.64 


27.60 


i 


22.60 


23.13 


23.75 


24.38 


25.00 


25.62 


2655 


26.88 


30.08 1 


if 


24.38 


25.05 


25.73 


26.41 


27.08 


27.76 


28.44 


29.fl 


32.50 


i 


2655' 


26.98 


27.71 


28.44 


29.17 


29.90 


30.63 


31.36 


35.00 


ft 


28.1ft 


28.91 


29.69 


80.47 


31.25 


32.03 


32.81 


33.59 


37.50 


\ v 


30.00 


30.83 


31.67 


32.60 


33.33 


34.17 


35.00 


35.83 


40.00 




31.88 


82.76 


33.65 


34.53 


35.42 


36.30 


37.19 


38.07 


42.50 


11 


33.75 
35.63 


34.69 
36.61 


35.63 
37.60 


36.56 
38.59 


87.50 
89.68 


88.44 

40.57 


39.38 
41.56 


40.31 
42.55 


45.00 
47.50 




87.50 


88.54 


39.58 


40.63 


41.67 


42.71 


43.75 


44.79 


60.00 


1 


39.38 


40.47 


41.56 


42.66 


43.75 


44.84 


45.94 


47.03 


62.50 


11 


41.25 


42.40 


43.54 


44.69 


45.83 


46.98 


48.13 


4957 


65.00 


fi 


43.13 


44.32 


45.52 


46.72 


47.92 


49.11 


60.31 


51.51 


57,50 


M 


45.00 


4655 


47.60 


48.75 


60.00 


6155 


52.60 


53.75 


60.00 


a A 


46.88 


48.18 


49.48 


50.78 


62.08 


53.39 


54.69 


55.99 


62.50 


if 


48.75 


60.10 


51.46 


62.81 


54.17 


55.52 


66.88 


5853 


65.00 




50.63 


52.03 


53.44 


64.84 


5655 


57.66 


59.06 


60.47 


7.50 


i } ** 


52.50 


53.96 


65.42 


56.88 


58.33 


59.79 


6155 


62.71 


70.00 


4 H 


54.38 


65.89 


57.40 


58.91 


60.42 


61.93 


63.44 


64.95 


72.50 


1 1 


6655 


67.81 


59.38 


60.94 


62.50 


64.06 


65.63 


67.19 


75.CO 


Ul 


58.13 


59.74 


C1.35 


62.97 


64.58 


6650 


67.81 


69.43 


77.50 


2 


60.00 


61.67 


63.33 


65.00 


66.67. 


68.33. 


70.00 


71.G7 


80.00 



WEIGHTS OF FLAT ROLLED IRON PER 
LINEAL FOOT. 

(CONTINUED.) 



Tinckiees 
n f jc'hcs. 


m 


1H" 


11 r 


III" 


12" 


2i" 


12*" 


122" 


T: 


2.29 


2.34 


2.40 


2.45 


2.50 


2.55 


2.60 


2.66 


| 


4.58 


4.69 


4.79 


490 


5.00 


5.10 


5.21 


5.31 


J 9 


6.88 


7.03 


7.19 


7.34 


7.50 


7.66 


7.81 


7.97 


i 


9.17 


9.38 


9.58 


9.79. 


10.00 


10.21 


10.42 


10.63 


j 


11.46 


11.72 


11.98 


12.24 


12.50 


12.76 


13.02 


13.28 


i 

3 


13.75 


14.03 


14.38 


14.69 


15.00 


15.31 


15.63 


15.94 


A 


10.04 


16.41 


16.77 


17.14 


17.50 


17.86 


18.23 


18.59 


1 


18.33 


18.75 


19.17 


19.58 


20.00 


20.42 


20.83 


2155 


T 9 5 


2063 


21.09 


21.56 


22.03 


22.50 


22.97 


23.44 


23.91 


| 


22.92 


23.44 


23.96 


24.48 


25.00 


25.52 


26.04 


26.56 


U 


25.21 


25.78 


26.35 


26.93 


27.50 


28.07 


28.65 


2952 


V , 


27.50 


28.13 


28.75 


29.38 


30.00 


30.63 


31.25 


31.88 


















9 


41 


2979 


30.47 


31.15 


31.82 


32.50 


33.18 


33.85 


34.53 


f 


32.08 


32.81 


33.54 


34.27 


35.00 


35.73 


36.46 


37.19 


H 


34.38 


35.16 


35.94 


36.72 


37.50 


38.28 


39.06 


39.84 




38.67 


37.50 


38.33 


39.17 


40.00 


40.83 


4167 


42.50 


1-rV 


38.96 


39.84 


40.73 


41.61 


42.50 


43.39 


4457 


45.16 


(I? 


41.25 


42.19 


43.13 


44.06 


45.00 


45.94 


46.88 


47.81 


4 


43.54 


44.53 


45.52 


46.51 


47.50 


48.49 


49.48 


50.47 


1? 


45.83 


46.88 


47.92 


48.96 


50.00 


51.04 


52.08 


63.13 


t& 


48.13 


4952 


50.31 


51.41 


52.50 


53.59 


54.69 


65.78 


if 


50.42 


51.58 


52.71 


53.85 


55.00 


56.15 


5759 


68.44 


i.A 


52.71 


53.91 


55.10 


56.30 


57.50 


58.70 


59.90 


61.09 


IT 


55.00 


56.25 


5750 


58.75 


60.00 


61.25 


62.50 


63.75 


IT'* 


5759 


68.59 


59.90 


6150 


62.60 


63:80 


65.10 


&S.41 


H 


59.58 


60.94 


6259 


63.65 


65.00 


66.35 


67.71 


69.08 


JH 


61.88 


63.28 


64.69 


66.09 


67.50 


68.9 


70.31 


71.72 


i? 


64.17 


65.63 


67.08 


68.54 


70.00 


71.46 


72.92 


74.38 


Ht 


66.46 


67.97 


69.48 


70.99 


72.50 


74.0 


75.52 


77.03 


if 


68.75 


70.31 


7188 


73.44 


75.00 


76.56 


78.13 


79.6? 


w 


71.04 


72.66 


7487 


75.89 


7/.50 


79.1 


80.73 


82.34 


e - 


73.33 


75.00 


76.67 


78.33 


80.00 


81.67 


83.33 


85.00 










1 









204 



Weight of Rivets, and Round Headed Bolts 
Without Nuts, Per 100. 

Length from under head. One cubic foot weighing 480 Ibs. 



rngii. 
iches. 


K" 
Dia. 


K 


%" 
Dia. 


DUL 


%" 
Dia. 


1" 
Dia. 


Dia. 


Dia. 


Vi 


5.4 


12.6 


21.5 


28.7 


43.1 


65.3 


91.5 


123. 


\% 


6.2 


13.9 


23.7 


318 


47.3 


70.7 


98.4 


133. 


1% 


6.9 


153 


25.8 


34.9 


51.4 


76.2 


105. 


142. 


2 


7.7 


16.6 


27.9 


87.9 


55.6 


81.6 


112. 


150. 


% 


8.5 


18.0 


30.0 


41.0 


59.8 


87.1 


119. 


159. 


2M 


9.2 


19.4 


32.2 


441 


63.0 


925 


126. 


167. 


2% 


10.0 


20.7 


34.3 


47.1 


68.1 


98.0 


133. 


176. 


U 


10.8 


22.1 


36.4 


50.2 


72.3 


103. 


140. 


184 
















'* 




3^ 


11.5 


23.5 


88.6 


533 


765 


109 


147. 


193. 


8) 


12.3 


24.8 


407 


564 


807 


114. 


154. 


201. 


3% 


13.1 


26.2 


428 


594 


84.8 i 120. 


161. 


210. 


4 


13.8 


27.5 


45.0 


62.5 


800 


125. 


167. 


218. 




14.6 


28.9 


47.1 


65.6 


932 


131. 


174 


227. 


4} 


15.4 


30.3 


49.2 


68.6 


974 


136. 


181. 


236. 


43/ 


16.2 


81.6 


51.4 


717 


102 


142. 


188. 


244. 


6 ^ 


16.9 


33.0 


53.5 


74.8 


106. 


147. 


195. 


253. 


% 


17.7 


34.4 


556 


77.8 


110. 


153. 


202. 


261. 


5^ 


18.4 


85.7 


57.7 


80.9 


114. 


158. 


209. 


270 


65.4 


19.2 


37.1 


59.9 


' 84 


118 


163. 


216. 


278. 


6 


20.0 


38.5 


62.0 


87.0 


122. 


169 


223. 


287. 


6M 


21.5 


41.2 


66.3 


93.2 


131 


180* 


236. 


304 ' 


7 


230 


43.9 


70.5 


993 


139. 


191. 


250 


821. 


7K 


24.6 


46.6 


74.8 


106. 


147. 


202. * 


264. 


888. 


8 


26.1 


49.4 


79.0 


112. 


156. 


213. 


278. 


855. 


/ 












4 






8^ 


27.6 


52.1 


83.3 


118. 


164. 


223 


292 i 37 f , 


9 


292 


54.8 


876 


124. 


173 


234. 


30C 


389. 


9K 


80.7 


67.6 


91.8 


130. 


18! 


245. 


319. 


406. 


10 


32.2 


60.3 


96.1 


136. 


189. 


256. 


333. 


423. 


10> 


83.8 


63.0 


101. 


142. 


198 


267. 


347. 


440/ 


11 


35.3 


65.7 


105. 


148. 


206. 


278. 


361. 


457. 


UK 


86.3 


685 


149. 


155. 


214. 


289 


375. 


474. 


1? c* 


38.4 


71.2 


113. 


161. 


223.^ 


300. 


388. 


491. 

<* 


leads. 


1.8 


5.7 


10.9 


13.4 


22.2 


88.0 


57.0 





205 

WEIGHT OP CAST IRON PER LINEAL FOOT. Example: What Is 
weight of a cast iron plate 2" x 14" x one foot long? Ans. The 
thickness multiplied by width equals 28" of sectional area. 

In the sixth column, we find that 87^ Ibs. is the weight of a piece 
with a sectional area of 28" and one foot long. 



Area! 


Area T Hfl 
Inches.; Lb8 ' 


Area 

Inches 


Lbs. 


Area' T h _ 
Inches. Lb9 ' 


Area 
Inches 


Lbs. 


1 


i 












1 


















If 


.20 


6 


18.75 


21 V 


67.19 


48 


194.38 


69 


215.63 


fc 


.39 


6'4 


19.53 


22 


68.75 


43$ 135.94 


70 


218.75 


j\ 


.69 


6$ 


20.31 


22V 


70.31 


44 137.5 


71 


221.88 


v 


.78 


6* 


21.09 


23 


71.88 


4 4 $[1*9.04 


72 


225.0 


I 5 ? 


.98 


7 


1 21.88 


28V 


73.44 


45 


140.63 


73 


228.13 


2 


1.17 


7 1 '4 


' 22.66 


24 


75.00 


45$ 


142.19 


74 


231.25 


A 


1.37 


iy 


23.44 


24?xJ 


76.56 


46 


148.76 


75 


234.38 


y* 


t.56 


7%. 


24.22 


26 


78.13 


46$ 145.31 


76 


237.6 


A 


1.76 


8 


25.00 


25 y 2 


79.69 


47 1146.87 


77 


240.63 


/M 


1.95 


8'4 


26.78 


26 


81.25 


47J4, ; 1 48.44 


78 


243.75 


H 


2.15 




26.56 


26^ 


82.81 


48 150.00 


79 


249.87 


3 


2.34 


83K 


27.34 


27 


84.38 


48$ 151.56 


80 


250.00 


H 


2.54 


9 


28.13 


27$ 


85.94 


49 


163.12 


81 


253.12 


? 'H 


2.78 


9V* 


28.91 


28 


87.5 


49$ 


154.69 


82 


256.25 


it 


2.93 


9!^ 


29.69 


28V 


89.06 


50 


156.25 


83 


259.38 


i 


3.125 


ft if 


80.47 


29 


90.63 


60$ 


167.81 


84 


262.5 


IVa 


3.51 


10 


31.25 


29$ 


92.19 


51 


159.38 


85 


265.63 


IVi 


3.91 


lOVi 


82.03 


30 


93.75 


61V 


160.94 


86 


268.75 


1% 


4.30 


ioV 


32.81 


30$ 


95.31 


52 


162.5 


87 


271.88 


j 1$ 


4.69 


10?4 


33.59 


31 


96.87 


52$ 


164.06 


^88 


275.00 


5 


5.08 


11 


34.38 


31$ 


98.44 


53 


165.63 


89 


278.13 


1% 


6.47 


n i /i 


35.16 


32 


100.00 


63^ 


167.19 


90 


281.25 


>'< 


5.86 


1 " /2 


35.94 


32^ 


101.56 


54 


168.75 


91 


284.38 




6.25 


11% 


36.72 


33 


103.12 


W6 


170.31 


92 


287.6 J 


2Vs 


6.64 


12 


37.6 


33$ 


104.69 


65 


171.88 


93 


290.66 


2 1^ 


7.03 


ISVJj 


39.06 


34 


106.25 


W4 


173.44 


94 


293.76 


2% 


7.42 


13 


40.63 


84$ 


107.81 


56 


175.00 


95 


296.87 


2% 


7.81 


13$ 


42.19 


85 


109.38 


66$ 


176.56 


96 


300.00 


2% 


8.20 


14 


43.75 


35$ 


110.94 


57 


178.13 


97 


303.13 




8.59 


14$ 


45.31 


36 


112.5 


57^ 


179.69 


98 


306.25 


2% 


8.98 


15 


46.87 


36$ 


114.06 


58 


181.26 


99 


309.38 


8 


9.88 


15Va 


48.44 


37 


115.63 


68$ 


182.81 


100 


312.5 


3 l / 


10.16 


16 


50.00 


87$ 


117.19 


59 


184.38 


101 


315.63 


4 


10.94 
11.72 
12 5 


17 

17V; 


51.56 
53.12 
54.69 


38 
88 J4 
39 


118.75 
120.31 
121.88 


59$ 
60 

61 


185.94 
187.5 
190.63 


102 
103 
104 
105 


318.75 
822.88 
325.00 
328.13 


4'/4 


13.28 


18 56.25 


39V 


123.44 


62 


193.75 


106 


331.25 


4$ 


14.06 


18H 57.81 


40 


25.00 


63 


196.87 


107 


334.88 


4* 


14.84 


19 69.88 


4 OX> 


26.56 


64 


200.00 


108 


837.5 


6 4ft 


lo.G3 


19$] 60.94 


41 


1-28.13 


65 


203.125 


109 


340.63 


& ^ 


16.41 


JO 62.5 


41$ 129.69 


C -206.25 


110 


343.75 


&$ 


17. 19 


20? .j 64.06 


4'J ! 131. 2 5 


1-209.38 


111 


346.87 












112 


350. OQ 



206 



ftlNEAR EXPANSION OP SUBSTANCES 
BY HEAT. 

To find the increase in the length of a bar of any material due 
to an increase of temperature, multiply the number of degrees 
of increase of temperature by the coefficient for 100 degrees and 
by the length of the bar, and divide by 100. 



NAME OF SUBSTANCE. 


Coefficient for 100 c 
Fakrenheit. 


Coefficient for 180 
Fahrenheit, or IOC 1 
CenUgradt 


Baywood, (in the direction of the J 


.00026 

TO 


.00046 

TO 


grain, dry,) 


I 


.O0031 


00057 


Brass, (cast,) - 


. 


.O01O4 


00188 


" (wire,) 


f 


.00107 


.00193 


Brick, (fire,) . 


*, 


.0003 


.0005 


Cement, (Roman,) - ^ 


/ ^ 


.0008 


.0014 


Copper, - * * 


'. 


.0009 


.0017 


Deal, (in the direction of the grain, J 


'.00024 


.00044 


dry,) - 








Glass, (English flint,) - v * 


s. 


.00045 


.00081 


" (French white lead,) 


T' ^ 


.00048 


.00087 


Gold, . - . v -U > 


-."* ^ 


.0008 


.0015 


Granite, (average,) - * > 




.00047 


.OOO85 


Iron, (cast,) - % ^ J 


^ 


.0006 


.0011 


" (soft forged,) * 




.0007 


.0012 


" (wire,) - :"V A ^ 


"* * ' 


.0008 


.0014 


T A ""* 




0016 


OO9ft 


Marble, (Carrara,) - x * ^ 


V 


.00036 

TO 

.0006 


.00065 

to 
.0011 


Mercury, - x ,'*?.* 


^^ 


.0033 


.0060 


Platinum, - * v ' 


'. 


.0005 


.0009 




f 


.0005 


.0009 


Sandstone, - 




TO 


TO 




1 


.0007 


.0012 


Silver, , < ,^ 


Jf 


.0011 


.002 


Slate, (Wales,) .'fC; . 




.0006 


.001 


Water, (varies considerably 
the temperature,) 


with ] 


.0086 ', 


.O155 



207 
Weight of Bolts per 100, Including Nuts. 



1 

5 

I 

2 


DIAMETER. 


i 


A ' 





r 7 * 


1 


*' 


1 


I 


1 


4. 

4.36 
4.75 


7. 
7.60 

8. 


10.60 
11.25 
12. 


1520 
16.30 
17.40 


22.50 
23.82 
26.16 


39.60 
41.62 
48.75 














69. 


. ...... 




*i 


6.15 


8.50 


12.75 


18.60 


26.47 


45.88 


72. 


.....'.-. 




*4 


6.60 


9. 


13.60 


19.60 


27.80 


48.' 


75. 


116.60 


1 


2J 


6.75 


9.60 


14.25 


20.70 


29.12 


60.12 


78. 


121.75 




i* 


.*5 


10. 


16. 


31.80 


8Q.45 


52,25 


81. 


126. 




*i 


*7. 


11. 


16.50 


24. 


33.10 


56.50 


87. 


134.85 






7.76 


12. 


9 ,f 


26.20 


36.76 


60 75 


93.10 


142.60 


207 


4* 


8.60 


13. 


19.60 


28.40 


38.40 


66. 


99.0^ 


151. 


219 


6 


9.26 


14. 


21. 


80.60 


41.06 


69.26 


105.20 


169.66 


22t 


6i 


10. 


16. 


22.60 


32.80 


43.70 


73.50 


111.26 


168.^ 


240 




]( .5 


16. 


24. 


35. 


46.35 


77.75 


117.30 


176.60 


251 


J; 






25.60 

27. 
28.60 


87.20 
39.40 
41.60 


49. 
51.65 
54.30 


82. 
86.25 
90.60 


128.35 
129.40 
135. 


185. 
198.65 
202. 


261 
27S 

284 






8 






80. 


48.80 


59.60 


94.75 


141.50 


210.70 


295 


10 
11 








46. 
48.20 
60.40 


64.90 
70.20 
75.50 


103.25 
111.75 

1 20.26 


153.60 
166 70 
177.80 


227.75 
244.80 
261.&6 


317 
839 
360 







../v. 


12 




.. ' 


.. * N . 


52.60 


80 8Q 


128.75 


189.90 


278.90 


382 


13 




.'. 






8&10 


137 25 


202 


29595 


404 


14 




. : ... 




91.40 


115.75 


214.10 


3 1 3.' 


426 


15 
16 
17 
18 
19 




' i 

Y" 
.... ....... 


_: 


96 70 
102. 


154 25 
162. 70 


226.20 
238.30 
250.40 
262.60 
274.70 


33005 
347.10 
364.15 
381 20 

398.25 


44 
470 
492 
614 
636 


........ 


i; 1 




107.30 
1 12.60 
117. HO 


179.50 

188. 






r ._ 


' 1 




80 


> ' 1 . . 

j 




188.20 


200 50 


286.80 


415.30 


55J 



208 
TENSILE STRENGTH OF COMMON WOODS. 

The strongest wood which grows within the confines of the 
United States is that known as "nutmeg" hickory, which, 
grows in the valley of the lower Arkansas river. The most 
elastic is tamarack. The wood with the least elasticity and 
lowest specific gravity is the Picus aurea. The wood having 
the highest specific gravity is the blue wood of Texas and 
Mexico. 

The heaviest of foreign woods are the pomegranate and 
the lignum vitas; the lightest is cork, which, however, is a 
bark, not solid wood. The tensile strength of the best known 
woods is set forth in the following schedule: 



WOOD. POUNDS. 

Ash 14,000 

B3ech 11,500 

Cedar 11.400 

Chestnut 10.500 

Cypress 6,000 

Elm 13.400 

Fir 12.000 

Maple 10.500 

White Oak 11.500 

Pear 9,800 

Pitch Pine 12,000 



WOOD. POUNDS. 

Larch 9,500 

Poplar , .. 7,000 

Spruce 10,290 

Teak 14,000 

Walnut 7,800 

Lance 23.000 

Locust 20,500 

Mahogany 21.000 

Willow 13,000 

Lignum Vitse 11,800 



Pour hundred and thirteen different species of trees grow 
in the various states and territories, and of this number 10, 
when perfectly seasonable, will sink in water. 

TEMPEEING STEEL PUNCHES. 

Heat your steel to cherry-red, dress out the punch, cut 
off the point the size of a horseshoe nail, then heat to a 
cherry-red, immerse it a half inch perpendicularly in the 
water, then take it out and stand it up perpendicular, clean 
the end with a piece of grinding stone. When you see the 
first blue pass over the point, dip it in the water the same 
depth as before. Clean it again with the stone, and on the 
appearance of the blue again, cool it off. The second blue 
is to make the punch tough. The reason for keeping the 
punch perpendicular is to allow the atmosphere and the 
water to cool all sides equally, and to have it cool straight 
and true. 

HOW TO MAKE TRACING PAPER. 
Take some good thin printing paper, and brush it over on 
one side with a solution consisting of one part, by measure, 
of castor oil in two parts of meth. spjrit ; blot off and hang up 
to dry. You can trace by pencil or ink on this. I have tried 
it and done it. 



209 

IN THE SHOP TURNING A BALL. 
To make a ball as nearly perfect as a billiard ball is made, 
is not a piece of work that often falls to the lot of the 
machinist or pattern-maker ; but occasionally arises the 
necessity for such work. 

In pumping where chips, sawdust, or dust is very liable to 
lodge on the seat under the valve, ball valves are sometimes 
used, because their rolling motion has a tendency to remove 
the obstruction, and let the valve seat fairly again. Some of 
the old-style locomotive pumps had ball valves ; and, in 
tannery work, when small pieces of bark are liable to be ir 
the liquid, ball valves can be used to advantage. 

I have some such valves, four or five inches in diameter, 
for tanner's use. They were of brass, cast hollow, with the 
core holes in the shell plugged. 

I have seen some costly machines which were made for the 
purpose of turning balls; but I have never seen any better 
work done by them than can be done in a common lathe. 

To make the pattern of a ball, first turn the piece on 
centers, using the calipers to get it approximately near the 
shape, and then cut off the centers. Next make a chuck- 
block of hardwood, A, as shown in the cut, Fig. I. Make 
a cup. in the block to receive a small section of the ball, as 
also indicated. A blunt, wood center is sometimes used 
instead of the steel center with a concave piece of copper, as 
represented in cut. Either way will do for making the 
pattern. Put the work in the chuck so as to take the first cut 
around it in the direction of its former centers, or axis. 

Cut lightly, and do not try 
to make a wide space let it 
be only a narrow ribbon or 
turning but get it round 
in the direction of present 
revolution ; then change the 
chuck so as to make another 
ribbon at right angles to the 
first, the first tool marks 
being the guide for the depth 
of the second cutting. Next 
change the work so as to get 
a ribbon between the other cuts, and continuing this process of 
changing and turning over the whole surface, thus making the 
axis of the pattern oY equal length in all directions, and then 
the pattern will be round it will be a ball. At first it might 
seern as if some laying off were needed to get {he " ribbons," 




as I have called them, at right angles to each other, but there 
is no need of that ; by the eye is enough. 

When the machinist comes to finish up the casting, he 
can bolt the chuck-block to his face plate, and use his steel 
center and a concave piece of copper as represented in the 
cut. He will have to use a hand tool, or a scraper, after 
getting under the scale. 

If the ball becomes too small for the cup in the block, it 
is an easy matter to make a new fit by cutting deeper into the 
chuck -block. 

THE ACTION OF SEA-WATKR ON CAST-IRON 

PILES. 

Indiana Engineering notes the results of some observa- 
tions made by the chief engineer of the B. B. and C. I. 
Railway on the cast-iron piles forming the piers of the South 
Bassien bridge. The piles were put down in 1862. Two 
were found almost as fresh in appearance as when sunk, and 
showed no corrosions in specimens cut from the metal. The 
deepest corrosion found on any pile was ^ inch ; and this 
corrosion was the greatest near low-water mark. The pile 
bolts were all in excellent condition. All of these piles have 
been exposed to the action of sea-water for about twenty- 
five years, and the examination was made to set aside a current 
suspicion that they were deteriorating under the action of the 
water. 

JAPANESE WATER PIPES. 

The water supply of Tokio, Japan, is by the wooden water 
pipe system, which has been in existence over two hundred 
years, furnishing at present a daily supply of from twenty-five 
to thirty million gallons. There are several types of water 
pipes in use, the principal class being built up with plank, 
square, and secured together by frames surrounding them at 
close intervals. The pipes, less than six inch, consist of bored 
logs, and somewhat larger ones are made by placing a cap on 
the top of a log in which a very large groove has been cut. 
All the connections are made by chamfered joints, and cracks 
are calked with an inner fibrous bark. Square boxes are 
used in various places to regulate the uniformity of the flow 
of the water, which is rather rapid, for the purpose of pre- 
venting aquatic growth. TI.c water is not delivered to the 
houses, but into reservoirs oa the sides of the streets, nearly 
1 5, ooo in number. 



THE HEATING POWER OF FUEL. 

The heating power of fuel is ascertained by the foil, T ing 
process, which consists in burning one gramme of the o 1 or 
fuel in a small platinum crucible, supported on the bow f>f a 
tobacco pipe, and covered by an inverted glass test 4i ,be, 
through which is passed a stream of oxygen, while the i pie 
is placed under water in a glass vessel. The oxygen i fed 
into the test tube by a movable copper tube, which ma^ ^e 
pushed into the test tube so as to come immediately over tJiC. 
crucible. The coals burn away in a few minutes with very 
intense heat, and the hot gases escape through the water, the 
bubbles being broken up by pissing through sheets of wire 
gauze which stretch between the test tube and the walls of 
the vessel containing the water in which it is placed. The 
temperature of the water is taken before and after the 
experiment, and, from the figures thus obtained, the heating 
power of the coal is calculated. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRICITY. 

There are now about $6,000,000 invested in the manufac- 
ture of electric motors in the United States, and this large 
investment has nearly all been made within the last three or 
four years. It represents either the independent invest- 
ment of companies engaged in the exclusive manufacture 
of motors, or an increase in the capitalization of companies 
that manufacture electric appl'ances, and find the construc- 
tion of electric motors a good auxiliary industry. Some 
of these companies employ many hundred men, some- 
times approaching a thousand, and they turn out motors 
almost innumerable each year. These motors are of all sizes, 
from one-ha'f horse power, for driving sewing machines and 
such other light work, up to several hundred horse power for 
heavy work. They are becoming a driving force in almost 
every industry, and can be utilized in localities where the cost 
of obtaining fuel would almost equal their open ting expenses. 
The chief secret of the rapid advance of this new mechanical 
agent is found in the flexibility of its resources. Electricity is 
not the generator of power, but only the agency for its trans- 
mission and distribution, as it is an agent for the transmission 
of the human voice over the telephone wire. Through its 
resources, power can be distributed to any point, and in 
quantities to suit the customer. Steam, water, nir, caloric, or 
any known agency for generating power, is either stationary 
or' it demands stationary appliances; but electricity is its 
messenger boy, its " Puck," who will consent to do its errands 



invisibly, and never ask a clay off or the grant of liberty. 
Does a lady want an infinitesimal bit of electrical energy to 
relieve her boot on the treadle of her sewing machine, it can 
be delivered in her room through an iron box not much bigger 
than her reticule. Is the restaurant keeper plagued by an 
invasion of flies that expel all but the most hungry and least 
profitable customers, they can be gently \vafted to the door 
by a multitude of revolving fans, and turned out either into 
the bright sunlight or the refreshing shower. Everywhere, 
anywhere, without a particle of dust, offensive odor or dis- 
agreeable noise, the electric motor can be set to work, and, 
tvhile it will bring the substance of the thing wanted, it will 
leave behind everything that can give offense. The electric 
motor has passed its experimental stages, and the day seems 
to be rapidly approaching when every house will find sorae- 
thing for it to do in lifting burdens from floor to floor, and 
performing every possible labor that can be done by machinery. 
Manufacturers have not yet begun to construct motors orna 
mented with gold leaf, mother of pearl, and precious stones, 
to rock cradles in the nurseries, but these requirements will 
come in time. 

CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL TESTS FOR STEEL. 

Captain Jones, of the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, 
Pittsburg, was in Edinburgh at the meeting of the Union and 
Steel Institute, and, when invited to speak, said he could not 
let what Mr. Clark had said about the practice of punching 
steel plates in America pass without comment. Punching 
steel plates was a relic of barbarism, and there was an appro- 
priateness about the president's suggestion, to " punch a man 
who punched a plate." As to the relative cost of punching 
and drilling, he had long since made up his mind about that, 
for many years ago, in constructing a roof, he had drilled all 
the holes and found it cheaper than punching. With regard 
to the use of steel in America, they found boiler-makers, 
bridge-makers and many others using it largely. They had 
started with physical tests, not chemical analysis, but they 
had come to the conclusion that physical tests could be met, 
andl yet the metal not be what it should be. The test foi 
boiler plates at the Edgar Thomson Works was higher than 
thai demanded for the boiler plates of the United States 
cruiyts, the limit for phosphorus being .035, and manganese, 
.350 jier cent, He had seen steel made in America, where 
the heftt had been blown for eight minutes, the manganese 
being put in cold, and he was of opinion that the reaction 
had not taVen place up to the time of sinking. With regard 



213 

to steel for bridge construction, he considered that not more 
than .065 per cent, of phosphorus should be present, and the 
manganese should be kept low, as that was the great oxidiz- 
ing agent. He would like to see these conditions enforced 
by law. In conclusion he wished to impress on his hearers 
the necessity for judging steel by chemical tests first, and let- 
ting the physical tests be subsidiary to them. 

SUGGESTIONS TO STEEL WORKERS. 

Messrs. Miller, Metcalf Parkin, of Pittsburgh, have 
issued a pamphlet on this subject. They draw attention to 
the following points : 

Annealing There is nothing gained by heating n. piece 
of steel hotter than a bright cherry-red heat ; on the contrary, 
a higher heat may render the steel harder on cooling than 
would be the case with the heat just mentioned. Besides 
this, the scale formed would be granular, and would spoil the 
tools to be used in working the metal, and the metal itself 
Would change its structure, and become brittle. 

Steel should never be left in a hot furnace over night, as 
the metal becomes too hot, and is spoilt for after treatment. 

Forge Steel The difficulty experienced in the forge fire is 
usually due more to uneven heat than to a high temperature. 
If heated too rapidly, the outside of the bar becomes soft, 
while the inside is still hard, and at too low a temperature for 
treatment. 

In some cases a high heat is more desirable to save heavy 
labor ; but in every case where a fine steel is to be used for 
cutting purposes, it must be borne in mind that every heavy 
forging refines the bars as they slowly cool, and, if the smith 
heats such refined bars until they are soft, he raises the grain, 
makes them coarse, and he cannot get them fine again, unless 
he has a very heavy steam hammer at command, and knows 
how to use it well. 

When the steel is hot through, it should be taken from 
the fire immediately, and forged as quickly as possible. 
w Soaking " in the fire causes steel to become " dry " and 
brittle, and does it very great injury. 

Temper The word " temper," as used by the steelmaker t 
indicates the amount of carbon in steel ; thus, steel of high 
temper, is steel containing much carbon ; steel of low temper, 
is steel containing little carbon ; steel of medium temper is 
steel containing carbon between these limits. Between the 
highest and the lowest, there are some twenty divisions, each 
representing a definite percentage of carbon. 

The act of tempering steel is the act of giving to a piece 



214 

of Steel, after it has been shaped, the hardness necessary for 
the work it has to do. This is done by first hardening the 
piece generally a good deal harder than is necessary and 
then toughening it by slow heating and gradual softening until 
it is just right for work. 

A piece of steel, properly tempered, should always be 
finer in grain than the bar from which it is made. If it is 
necessary, in order to make the piece as hard as is required, 
to heat it so hot that after being hardened it will be as coarse 
or coarser in grain than the bar, then the steel itself is of too 
low a temper for the desired purpose. In a case of this kind, 
the steelmaker should at once be notified of the fact, and 
could immediately correct the trouble by furnishing higher 
steel. 

Heating There are three distinct stages or times of 
heating : 

First, for forging ; second, for hardening ; third, for 
tempering. 

The first requisite for a good heat for forging is a clean 
fire, and plenty of fuel, so that jets of hot air will not strike 
the corners of the piece ; next, the fire should be regular, and 
give a good uniform heat to the whole part to be forged. It 



should be keen enough to heat the piece as rapidly as possible, 
and allow it to be thoroughly heated through, without being 
so fierce as to overheat the corners. Steel should not bj left 



in fire any longer than is necessary to heat it through ; and, 
on the other hand, it is necessary that it should be hot through 
to prevent surface cracks, which are caused by the reduced 
cohesion of the overheated parts which overlie the colder 
central portion of an irregularly heated piece. 

By observing these precautions, a piece of steel may 
always be heated safely up to even a bright yellow heat when 
there is much forging to be done on it, and at this heat it will 
weld well. The best and most economical of welding fluxes 
is clean, crude borax, which should be first throughly melted, 
and then ground to fine powder. Borax, prepared, in this 
way, will not froth on the steel, and one-half of the usual 
quantity will do the work as well as the whole quantity 
un melted. 

After the steel is properly heated, it should be forged to 
shape as quickly as possible ; and, just as the red heat is 
leaving the parts intended for cutting edges, these parts 
should be refined by rapid, light blows, continued until.the red 
disappears. 

t r or the second stnge of heating, for hr.rdenin^;, great 
care should be used, first, to protect. the cutting edges and 



215 

working parts from heating more rapidly than the body of 
the piece ; next, that the whole part to be hardened he heated 
uniformly through without any part becoming visibly hotter 
than the other. A uniform heat, as low as will give the 
required hardness, is the best for hardening. For every 
variation of heat which is great enough to be seen, there will 
result a variation in grain, which may be seen by breaking 
the piece ; and for every variation in temperature, a crack is 
likely to be produced. Many a costly tool is ruined by 
inattention to this point. The effect of too high a heat is to 
open the grain to make the steel coarse. The effect of an 
irregular heat is to cause irregular grain, irregular strains and 
cracks. 

As soon as the piece is properly heated for hardening, it 
should be promptly and thoroughly quenched in plenty of the 
cooling medium water, brine, or oil, as the case maybe. 
An abundance of the cooling bath, to do the work quickly 
and uniformly all over, is very necessary to good and safe 
work ; and to harden a large piece safely, a running stream 
should be used. Much uneven hardening is caused by the use 
of too small baths. 

For the third stage of heating, to temper, the first 
important requisite is again uniformity ; the next is time. 
The more slowly a piece is brought down to its temper, the 
better and safer is the operation. When expensive tools, 
such as taps, rose cutters, etc., are to be made, it is a wise 
precaution, and one easily taken, to try small pieces of the 
steel at different temperatures, so as to find, out how low a 
heat will give the necessary hardness. The lowest heat is the 
best for any steel ; the test costs nothing, takes very little 
time, and very often saves considerable loss. 

SUCCESSFUL TESTS OF SHEFFIELD STEEL 
ARMOR PLATES. 

The fourth of a series of trials of steel plates took place 
on board the Nettle, at Portsmouth, England, last week. 
The plate, which was manufactured by Messrs. Vickers, Sons 
& Company, Limited, River Don Works, Brightside, Shef- 
field, was of the dimensions and thickness prescribed for 
these tests, viz., 8 feet by 6, and 1O)4 inches thick. It was 
fired at by a six-inch diameter breech-loading gun, with a 
charge of 48 Tbs. of powder and 100 Ibs. shot. The first 
shot was a Holtzer hardened steel shot, the point of which 
penetrated as far as the wood backing, and was driven out 
again by the elasticity of the steel with such force that the 



216 

shot stuck the bulkhead through which the gun was fired 
Only slight cracks were made round the hole made by the 
projectile. The second shot, also a Holtzer, did not pene- 
trate to the backing, as far as could be seen. It rebounded 
in the same way as the first one, and caused a slight crack 
at the top end of the plate. The third and fourth Palliser, 
98 lb. cast-iron chilled shot, which went to pieces against 
the plate, only causing an extension of the crack made by 
the second shot ; and the fifth shot, another Holtzer, was 
also sent back to the front, after making a slight penetration 
in the wood backing. These results are considered as very 
Satisfactory by those who witnessed them, the target having 
resisted all the shots fired at it, and looking quite able to 
resist still further trial. The shot appeared to be of unusually 
good steel , as only one seemed seriously distorted by the 
work. 

WATCH AND LEARN. 

This is an excellent motto for every young man to adopt, 
and, by a close observance of it, it will prove of great value, 
even after he becomes grown up and starts out in business 
for himself. There is no surer way of gaining knowledge 
than by a careful an I understanding watchfulness of others 
in the sani^ Iiii3 of business as yourself. As an apprentice, 
you cannot expect to know everything, and the best way to 
gain information from others is to show a willingness to 
learn ; then they will take an interest in teaching. But if, 
as is too often the case, a young man, after he lias been a few 
months in a place, pretends to know as much, and sometimes 
more, than those much older and more experienced than him- 
self, he will not get much information from his fellow work- 
men ; neither will he retain their good will for any length of 
time, and may expect to have all manner of practical jokes 
played upon him. As a journeyman, if you are intelligent, 
you will very often have occasion to believe that you do not 
know it all, and, in fact, the longer you live and the more 
you learn, the more you will find that there is to be learned. 
The egotistical and loud man is seldom a perfect man, and is 
generally very far from being as near perfection as he would 
have others think him. The person who, on a first acquaint- 
ance, is anxious to tell you what he knows, and is very free 
in givingadvice and information without the asking, generally 
exhausts the supply before very long. He who is willing to 
listen is generally the one whose source of information is 
"broader and of a more durable, valuable and substantial 
ki*?d An example may prove the idea to be conveyed more 



217 

clearly. An employer was in want of a good, practical and 
experienced man for a certain class of work. A young 
man applied for the position, who was very certain that he 
" knew all about the machine," and he was engaged. It was 
not long before every man in the shop knew all that he did, 
and one very valuable thing that he did not, and that was 
that he did not know all that he pretended to. His manner 
and braggadacio very soon got most of the men down on 
him. They were not disappointed. The new machine 
arrived, and was set up ready for operation. The young 
man was given a job to be worked ofif, and began operation? 
with that self-conscious air of superiority that is generally 
apparent in characters of this description. One whole day 
he worked at the job, and it was not then in a condition to be 
run. Not only that, but he had shown to the men, who, of 
course, were secretly watching him, that he knew practically 
nothing of the machine. Then he begoi to lay the blame 
for the trouble upon others, and asked assistance and 
" points " from some of the other workmen. This of course 
he did not get, and finally another man was put on the job, 
and he was discharged amid the taunts and ridicule of the 
others. If the young man had shown good sense when he 
first came into the shop ; not been quite so free to tell all he 
knew, and had shown a willingness to learn, there was not a 
man in the place that would not have gladly assisted him, and 
he might have remained in a good position. It sometimes 
pays to be ignorant, at least a little modesty is a good thing 
to take with you on going to a new place. If you know more 
than you pretend, it will soon be found out, and you will be 
the gainer; but, if you fail to make good your pretensions, not 
only your employer but all your fellow workmen will be 
"down on you," and things will be correspondingly 
unpleasant. 

DEOXIDIZED COPPER. 

The advantages to be obtained by the use of copper as 
nearly chemically pure as possible, are generally admitted, 
whether the metal be used as copper, or in the form of brass, 
bronze, or the many other alloys into which it enters. The 
Deoxidized Metal Company, of Bridgeport, Conn., claims 
that the desired result is secured by the process which is used 
in its works. The castings of brass, bronze, etc. , made under 
this process, are most excellent, while the sheet copper and 
brass, and the wire made, when submitted to careful tests, 
show an unusually high degree of strength, copper wire hav- 
ing been tested up to 70,000 Ibs. per square inch, tensile 



218 

strength. The deoxidized metal also possesses the property 
of great resistance to acids, so that it can be used for many 
purposes where ordinary metal is soon destroyed by the 
chemical action. Journal-bearings made from this .metal 
have also been tested with very favorable results, while for 
bells it is claimed that the tone and quality is much superior 
to ordinary brass. 

MAKING JAPANNED LEATHER 

Japanned leather, generally called patent leather, was first 
made in America. A smooth, glazed surface is first given to 
calfskin in France. The leather is curried expressly for this 
purpose, and parcicular care is taken to keep as free as pos- 
sible from grease; the skins are then tacked on frames and 
coated with a composition of linseed oil and umber in the 
proportion of 18 gallons of oil to 5 of umber boiled until 
nearly solid, and then mixed with spirits of turpentine to its 
proper consistency. Lampblack is also added when the com- 
position is applied, in order to give color and body. From 
three to four coats are necessary to form a substance to re- 
ceive the varnish. They are laid on with a knife or scraper. 
To render the goods soft and pliant each coat must be very 
light and thoroughly dried after each application. 

A thin coat is afterward applied of the same composition, 
of proper consistency, to be put on with a brush, and with 
sufficient lampblack boiled in it to make a perfect black. 
When thoroughly dry it is cut down with a scraper aaving 
turned edges. It is then ready to varnish. The principal 
varnish used is made of linseed oil and Russian blue boiled 
to the thickness of printers' ink. It is reduced with spirits 
of turpentine to a suitable consistency to work with a brush 
and then applied in two or three separate coats, which are 
scraped and pumiced until the leather is perfectly filled and 
smooth. 

The finishing coat is put on with special care in a room 
kept closed and with the floor wet to prevent dust. The 
frames are then run into an oven heated to about 175 de- 
gress. In preparing this kind of leather the manufacturer 
must give the skin as high a heat as it can bear, in order to 
dry the composition on the surface as rapidly as possible 
without absorption, and cautiously, so as not to injure the 
fibre of the leather. It is well nigh impossible to guarantee 
the permanency of patent leather, no matter how expensive 
or how careful be the preparation, for it has a sad trick of 
cracking without any justifiable provocation. 



219 
HOW TO LACQUER BRASS. 

It is strange that not one druggist out of ten knows how- 
to compound and put up a first-class lacquer, but depends 
entirely on the manufacturer, who, owing to the general lack 
of knowledge regarding the matter, often imposes upon their 
customers, sending a vastly inferior article. Again, not one 
customer in ten knows how to apply lacquer, and the drug- 
gist is blamed, when the user's ignorance is the cause of 
failure. Let both the dealer and the consumer keep the fol- 
lowing constantly in mind when selling or using lacquer : 

Remove the last vestige of oil or grease from the goods 
to be lacquered, and do not touch the work with the fingers. 
A pair of spring tongs or a taper stick in some of the holes 
is the best way of holding. 

Heat the work sufficiently hot to cause the brush to 
smoke when applied, but do not make hot enough to harm 
the lacquer. 

Fasten a small wire across the lacquer cup from side to 
side to scrape the brush on ; the latter should have the ends 
of the hairs trimmed exactly even with a pair of sharp 
scissors. 

Scrape the brush as dry as possible on the wire, making a 
flat, smooth point at the same time. 

Use the very tip of the brush to lacquer with, go very 
slow, and carry a steady hand. 

Put on two coats at least. In order to make a very dura- 
ble coat, blaze off with a spirit lamp or Bunsen burner, taking 
special pains not to burn the lacquer. 

If the work looks gummy, the lacquer is too thick ; if 
prismatic colors show themselves, the lacquer is too thin. In 
the former case, add a little alcohol ; in the latter, place over 
the lamp, and evaporate to the desired consistency. 

If the work is cheap, like lamp-burners, curtain fixtures, 
etc., the goods may be dipped. For this purpose use a bath 
of nitric acid, equal parts, plunge the goods in, hung on wire, 
for a moment, take out and rinse in cold water thoroughly, 
dip in hot water, the hotter the better, remove and put in alco- 
hol, rinse thoroughly, and dip in lacquer, leaving in but a few 
minutes ; shake vigorously to throw off all surplus lacquer, 
and lay in a warm place ; a warm metal plate is the best to 
dry. Do not touch till cool, and the job is done. Lac- 
quered work should not be touched till cold; it spoils the 
polish. 

Sometimes drops will stand on the work, leaving a spot. 



These drops are merely little globules of air, and can be 
avoided by shaking when taken out. 

The best lacquer for brass is bleached shellac and alco- 
hol ; simply this, and nothing more. 

In the preparation of goods for lacquering, care should be 
taken to polish gradually, /'. <?., carefully graduate the fine- 
ness of materials until the last or finest finish. Then, when 
the final surface is attained, there will be no deep scratches, 
for, of all things to be avoided in fine work, are deep scratches 
beneath a high polish. 

THE REAL INVENTOR OF THE BESSEMER PRO- 
CESS. 

William C. Kelly, inventor of the Bessemer process of 
making steel, and who died recently in Louisville, Ky., was 
years ago, the proprietor of the Suanee Iron Works and 
Union Forge, in Lyon County, Ky. The metal produced at 
these works was taken from the furnace to the forge, where 
it was converted into charcoal blooms. These blooms had a 
great reputation for durability and quality, and were used 
principally for boiler plates and metal. It was while making 
the blooms at this place that Mr. Kelly made his great inven- 
tion of converting iron into Bessemer steel, which Judge 
Kelly of Pennsylvania, at the Masonic Temple Theater last 
fall, termed the greatest invention of the age. The old pro- 
cess of making blooms was very expensive, owing to the 
great amount of charcoal required in its transformation, and 
Mr. Kelly conceived the idea of converting the metal into char- 
coal blooms without the use of fuel, by simply forcing powerful 
blasts of atmosphere up through the molten metal. His idea 
was that the oxygen of the air would unite with the carbon 
in the metal and thus produce combustion, refine the metal, 
and, by eliminating the carbon, wrought-iron or steel would 
be produced. When he announced his theory to his friends 
and to skilled iron workers, they scoffed, and were struck with 
astonishment that a man of Mr. Kelly's learning and practical 
iron-making knowledge would suggest such an idea as boiling 
metal without the use of fuel, and by simply blowing air 
through it. 

His friends thought him demented, and discouraged him 
from wasting his time and money upon any such visionary 
scheme. Mr. Kelly was confident that his idea was a good 
one, and began making experiments, which he kept up with 
varying success for ten years, but the blooms were manufac- 
tured without the aid of fuel. It was generally known ae 



221 

" "Kelly's air boiling process," and was in daily use convert- 
ing iron into blooms at his forge. Mr. Kelly's customers 
learned finally of the process, and, not understanding it, they 
advised him that they would not buy blooms made by any 
but the old and established method. This was the first diffi- 
culty placed in Mr. Kelly's way, and he was consequently 
compelled to carry on his work secretly, which subjected him 
to many disadvantages. Some English skilled workmen in 
Mr. Kelly's employ were familiar with his non-fuel process, 
and went back to England, taking the secret with them. 
Shortly after their arrival in Liverpool, Henry Bessemer, an 
English ironmaster, startled the iron world by announcing 
the discovery of the same process as Mr. Kelly's, and applied 
for patents in Great Britain and in the United States. Mr. 
Kelly at once made his application for a patent, and was 
granted one over Bessemer, the decision being that he was the 
first inventor and was entitled to the patent by priority. 

The history of this remarkable invention is a lengthy one, 
and it is generally admitted by persons cognizant of the facts 
in the case that Bessemer' s idea was secured from the English 
ironworkers employed by Mr. Kelly. Certain it is, however, 
that Mr. Kelly's invention and patents have heaped honors 
and wealth upon Bessemer, and he has been regarded as 
the greatest inventor of the nineteenth century, and the 
proper credit was always accorded him. Mr. Kelly's process 
was but barely successful until after it was perfected by Rob- 
ert Musshult, a prominent English iron worker. Concern- 
ing the claims of the different persons, a prominent iron and 
steel manufacturer, the late James Park, of Pittsburg, once 
said: " The world will some day learn the truth, and in ages 
to come a wreath of fame will crown William Kelly, the true 
inventor, and that truth will never be effaced by time." 

A NOVEL PLANING MACHINE. 

A machine for planing the curved surfaces of propeller 
blades, so as to render them of uniform thickness and pitch, 
has been invented in England, and is herewith described. 
The principal feature is guiding and controlling the tool to 
travel on the curved surfaces, by a cast-iron former. 

The machine is provided with two tables, which can be 
rotated through a given range by a worm-wheel and worm, 
so that the inclinations of both tables can be simultaneously 
varied, and to an equal degree. One of the tables carries a 
cast-iron copy of the back or front of the blade it is desired 
to produce, whilst on the other table the actual propeller is 



222 

secure^ one of its blades occupying a similar position on tfcij 
table to that of the copy on the other. 

To4r*ure the rigidity of the work, the table on which the 
propeller is fixed has its upper surface shaped to correspond 
with thh form of the blade on it, and is finally brought to the 
exact sh*ipe necessary by a coating of Portland cement. A 
cut y% i'i; deep can be taken without springing the blade. 
The propeller is also held by being mounted on a duplicate 
of the }>ropeller shaft, which is secured to the table. The 
cutting iV; done by a tool of the ordinary type, work being 
commence) at the top of the blade, and a self-acting 
traverse fo \sed to feed the tool toward the boss. 

The tool-holder is connected by a system of levers with a 
similar holder at the other end of the slide, carrying a 
follower, which moves over the copy, and thus guides the 
cutting tool. As the boss is approached, the inclination of 
the two tables to the horizontal is altered by the worm gear, 
so as to limit the necessary vertical motion of the tool. In 
this way all the blades of the propeller may be successfully 
machined, back and front, and will then be of identical form 
and thickness, and set at the same angle to the propeller 
shaft. 

One of the propellers lately turned out by this machine 
was 6 ft. \p. diameter, with an increasing pitch, the mean of 
which was 7 ft. 9 in., the thickness in the center of the blades 
varying from l /% in. at the top to I in. at the boss. The 
breadth was 21 in., and the widest part and the cross section 
showed a regular taper from the center line to a knife-edge. 

The importance of accuracy and uniformity in the shape 
of the blades of propellers for high-speed vessels is now 
generally acknowledged, and the machine we have described 
promises to form a very useful addition to the plant of a 
modern marine engineering establishment. 

HOW TO REMOVE RUST FROM IRON. 
A method of removing rust from iron consists in im- 
mersing the articles in a bath consisting of a nearly saturated 
solution of chloride of tin. The length of time during which 
the objects are allowed to remain in the bath, depends on 
the thickness of the coating of rust ; but in ordinary cases 
twelve to twenty-four hours is sufficient. The solution 
ought .not to contain a great excess of acid if the iron itself 
is not to be attacked. On taking them from the bath, th? 
articles are rinsed in water and afterward in ammonia. The 
iron, when thus treated, has the appearance of dull silver ; 
i>ut a simple polishing will give it its n r.nal appearance. 



HOW TO ANNEAL STEEL. 

Owing to the fact that the operations of rolling or ham- 
mering steel make it very hard, it is frequently necessary 
that the steel should be annealed before it can be conven- 
iently cut into the required shapes for tools. 

Annealing or softening is accomplished by heating steel 
to a red heat, and then cooling it very slowly, to prevent it 
from getting hard again 

The higher the degree of heat the more will steel be 
softened, until the limit of softness is reached, when the steel 
is melted. 

It does not follow that the higher a piece of steel is 
heated the softer it will be when cooled, no matter how 
slowly it may be cooled ; this is proved by the fact that an 
ingot is always harder than a rolled or hammered bar made 
from it. 

Therefore, there is nothing gained by heating a piece of 
steel hotter than a good bright cherry red ; on the contrary, 
a higher heat has several disadvantages : if carried too far, 
it may leave the steel actually harder than a good red heat 
would leave it. If a scale is raised on the steel, this scale 
will be harsh, granular oxide of iron, and will spoil the tools 
used to cut it. It often occurs that steel is scaled in this way, 
and then, because it does not cut well, it is customary to heat 
it again, and hotter still, to overcome the trouble, while the 
fact is, that the more this operation is repeated, the harder 
the steel will work, because of the hard scale and the harsh 
grain underneath. A high scaling heat, continued for a 
little time, changes the structure of the steel, destroys its 
crystalline property, makes it brittle, liable to crack in hard- 
ening, and impossible to refine. 

Again, it is a common practice to put steel into a hot fur- 
nace at the close of a day's work, and leave it there all night. 
This method always gets the steel too hot, always raises a 
scale on it, and, worse than either, it leaves it soaking in the 
fire too long, and this is more injurious to steel than any other 
operation to which it can be subjected. 

A good illustration of the destruction of crystalline struc- 
ture by long-continued heating may be had by operating on 
chilled cast-iron. 

If a chill be heated red hot and removed from the fire as 
soon as it is hot, it will, when cold, retain its peculiar crystal- 
line structure; if now it be heated red hot, and left at a 
moderate red for several hours; in short, if it be treated as 
Steel often is, and be left in a furnace over night, it will be 



224 

found, when cold, to have a perfect amorphous structure, 
every trace of chill crystals will be gone, and the whole piece 
be non-crystalline gray cast-iron. If this is the effect upon 
coarse cast -irons, what better is to be expected from fine cast- 
steel ? 

A piece of fine tap steel, after having been in a furnace 
over night, will act as fallows: 

It will be harsh in the lathe and spoil the cutting tools. 

When hardened, it will almost certainly crack; if it does 
not crack, it will have been a remarkably good steel to begin 
with. When the temper is drawn to the proper color and the 
tap is put into use, the teeth will either crumble off or crush 
down like so much lead. 

Upon breaking the tap, the grain will be coarse and the 
steel brittle. 

To anneal any piece of steel, heat it red hot; heat it uni- 
formly and heat it through, taking care not to let the ends 
and corners get too hot. 

As soon as it is hot, take it out of the fire, the sooner the 
better, and cool it as slowly as possible. A good rule for 
heating is to heat it at so low a red that, when the piece is 
cold, it will still show the blue gloss of the oxide that was put 
there by the hammer or rolls. 

Steel annealed in this way will cut very soft; it will harden 
very hard, without cracking, and, when tempered, it will be 
very strong, nicely refined, and will hold a keen, strong edge. 

THE BURSTING AND COLLAPSING PRESSURE 
OF SOLID DRAWN TUBES. 

The following table gives the bursting and collapsing 
pressure of solid drawn tubes: 

Collapsing 

Difference. 
1500 
1350 
1000 

1700 
1400 
1400 

IOOO 

1600 

In this table it will be noticed that the bursting strength 
exceeds the collapsing strength, and that the difference in- 
creases with the diameter, as shown in the last column. 



Diameter. 

-<i/ 


Bursting 
Pressure. 
4800 


Collapsing 
Pressure. 
33OO 


3/+ ' 
31/6 


d^OO 


31 SO 


3 


45OO 


35 


ix 


S2OO 


3 CQO 


2*4 


5OOO 


3600 


a#., 


tjQOO 


4.SOO 


2 


5900 


4900 


I*. 


s6oo 


40CO 



225 

MINERAL WOOL. 

Mineral wool is the name of an artificial product now 
used for a great variety of purposes, chiefly, however, as a 
non-conductor for covering steam surfaces of whatever char- 
acter. It is largely used for this, and the underground steam 
pipes of the New York Steam Company are insulated with it. 

Mineral wool is made by converting vitreous substances 
into a fibrous state. The slag of blast furnaces affords a 
large supply of material suitable for this purpose. The 
product thus obtained is known as slag wool. For the 
reason that slag is seldom free from compounds of sulphur, 
which are objectionable in the fiber, a cinder is prepared 
from which is made rock wool. These products comprise 
the two kinds of mineral wool; they are not to be dis- 
tinguished from it, but from each other. 

The resemblance of the fibers to those of wool and 
cotton has given the names of mineial M^OO! and silicate 
cotton to the material, but the similarity in looks is as far as 
the comparison can be followed. The hollow and joined 
structure of the organic fiber, which gives it flexibility 
and capillary properties, is wanting in the mineral fibre. 
The latter is simply finely-spun glass of irregular thickness, 
without elasticity or any such appendages as spicules, which 
would be necessary for weaving purposes. The rough sur- 
faces and markings of the fiber can only be detected under a 
strong magnifying glass. 

Aside from its uses as covering for hot surfaces, it is also 
largely employed for buildings. A filling of mineral wool in 
the ground floor, say two inches thick, protects against the 
dampness of cellar ; in the outside walls, from foundation to 
peak, between the studding, it will prevent the radiation of 
the warmth of interior, and will destroy the force of winds, 
which penetrate and cause draughts; in the roof it will re- 
tain the heat which rises through stair-wells, bringing about 
regularity of temperature in cold weather ; the upper rooms 
will not receive the heat of the summer sun, and store it up 
for the occupants during the night, but remain as cool as 
those on the floor below ; the water fixtures in bath-rooms, 
closets and pantries will not be exposed to extremes of heat 
and cold. 

Analysis of mineral wool shows it to be a silicate of 
magnesia, lime, alumina, potash and soda. The slag-wool 
contains also some sulphur compounds. There is nothing 
organic in the material to decay or to furnish food and com- 
fort to insects and vermin ; on the other hand, the fine fibers 



226 

of glass are irritating to anything which attempts to burrow 
in them. New houses lined with mineral wool will not be- 
come infested with animal life, and old walls may be ridden 
of their tenants by the introduction of it. 

Mineral wool is largely used for car linings, in which 
service it reduces the noise of travel greatly. Aside from 
those mentioned, it can be applied generally in the arts for 
all purposes where a non-conductor or a shield is required, 
and ihe experience of several years show that it is both 
serviceable and cheap. 

NICKEL PLATING SOLUTION. 

, According to the Bulletin Internationale de F Electricite % 
the following solution is employed for nickel plating by sev- 
eral firms in Hainault. It is said to give a thick coating of 
nickel firmly and rapidly deposited. The composition of the 
bath is as follows: 

Sulphate of nickel ; I Ib. 

Neutral tartrate of ammonia 1 1 . 6 oz. 

Tannic acid with ether 08 oz. 

Water 16 pints. 

The natural tartrate of ammonia is obtained by saturat- 
ing tartaric acid solution with ammonia. The nickel sul- 
phate to be added must be carefully neutralized. This hav- 
ing been done, the whole is dissolved in rather more than 
three pints of water, and boiled for about a quarter of an 
hour. Sufficient water is then added to make about sixteen 
pints of solution, and the whole is finally filtered. The 
deposit obtained is said to be white, soft and homogeneous. 
It has no roughness of surface, and will not scale off, pro- 
vided the plates have been thoroughly cleaned. By this 
method good nickel deposits can be obtained on either the 
rough or prepared casting, and at a net cost which, we are 
told, barely exceeds that of copper plating. 

A NEW ALLOY. 

An alloy, the electrical resistance of which diminishes 
with an increase of temperature, has recently been discovered 
by Mr. Edward Weston. It is composed of copper, man- 
ganese and nickel. Another alloy, due to the same investi- 
gator, the resistance of which is practically independent of the 
temperature, consists of seventy parts of copper, combined 
with thirty of ferro-manganese. 



227 

PROOF OK THE EARTH'S MOTION. 

Any one can prove the rotary motion of the earth on its 
axis by a simple experiment. 

Take a good-sized bowl, fill it nearly full of water and 
place it upon the floor of a room which is not exposed to 
shaking or jarring from the street. 

Sprinkle over the surface of the water a coating of lyco- 
podium powder, a white substance which is sometimes used 
for the purposes of the toilet, and which can be obtained at 
almost any apothecary's. Then, upon the surface of this 
coating of powder, make with powdered charcoal a straight 
black line, say an inch or two inches in length. 

Having made this little black mark with the charcoal 
powder on the surface of the contents of the bowl, lay down 
upon the floor, close to the bowl, a stick or some other 
straight object, so that it shall be exactly parallel with a 
crack in the floor, or with any stationary object in the room 
that will serve as well. 

Leave the bowl undisturbed for a iew hours, and then 
observe the position of the black mark with reference to the 
object it was parallel with. 

It will be found to have moved about, and tohavemoved 
from east to west, that is to say, in that direction opposite 
to that of the movement of the earth on its axis. 

The earth, in simply revolving, has carried the water and 
everything else in the bowl around with it, but the powder 
on the surface has been left behind a little. The line will 
always be found to have moved from east to west, which is 
perfectly good proof that everything else has moved the 
other way. 

WHY THE COMPASS VARIES. 

The compass, upon which the sailor has to depend, is 
subject to many errors, the chief of which are variation and 
deviation ; that is, the magnetic needle rarely points to the 
true north, but in a direction to the right or left of north, 
according to its error at the time and place. The deviation 
of the compass comprises those errors which are local in 
their character ; that is, due to the effect of immediately 
surrounding objects, such as the magnetism of the ship itself; 
this is sometimes very great in an iron ship. 

The variation of the compass varies with the position of 
the ship, as shown by these curves of variation. Thus, from 
Cape Race to New York the variation of the compass changes 
from 30 W. to less than 10 W. ; and from Cape Race to 



22S 

New Orleans from 30 W. to more than 5 E., the line of 
no variation being indicated by the heavier double line 
stretching from the coast near Charleston down through 
Puerto Rico and the Windward Islands to the northeastern 
coast of South America. 

To illustrate these variation curves more clearly, a chart 
has been made ujxm which variation curves are plotted for 
.each degree. This illustrates very strikingly the positions 
of the magnetic poles of the earth, which do not by any 
means coincide with the geographic poles. On the contrary, 
there are two northern magnetic poles and two southern; up 
north of Hudson's Bay, at the point where these curves 
converge, there is one magnetic pole, and another to the 
northward of Siberia. Similarly, there are two in the south- 
ern hemisphere, an I these four poles of this great magnet, 
the earth, are constantly but slowly shifting their positions, 
and just so constantly and surely does the magnetic needle 
c>bey these varying, but ever-present forces, seldom pointing 
toward the pole which man has marked off on his artificial 
globe, but always true to the great natural laws to which 
alone it owes allegiance. The small figures with plus and 
minus signs at various places on this chart indicate the yearly 
rate of change of variation, and this rate varies at different 
positions on the chart. Thus, near the Cape Verde Islands 
it is p'us j 9 ; here the variation increases ^ of a minute a 
year; farther to the southward, near the South American 
coast, it is plus 7^,, an I to the northward, near the Irish 
Channel, it is minus 7,*,,-. Fortunately, however, these 
changes are STiall and comparatively regu'ar, and their 
cumulative effect can be allowed for, when large enough to 
make it necessary to do so 

COST OF ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAYS. 

One of the street railways in New York is about running 
its cars to Harlem by an electric motor. Experts engaged 
in perfecting the scheme have made an exhibit, showing that 
it can be done at a cost of about two-thirds of the amount 
required to run over the sane route with horses or cable. 
There will be sixteen batteries inclosed in one wagon, which 



will furnish sufficient power for two round trips. Sixty 

w in operation in the 
States. Of the ultimate success, there can be but little 



. 
electric street railways are now in operation in the United 



doubt ; the one question of any special importance upon 
which the experts differ is the superiority of any particular 
system. 



229 

KEEPING TOOLS. 

Keep your tools handy and in good condition. This applies 
everywhere and in every place, from the smallest shop to the 
greatest mechanical establishment in the world. Every tool 
should have its exact place, and should always be kept there 
when not in use. 

Having a chest or any receptacle with a lot of tools thrown 
into it promiscuously, is just as bad as putting the notes into 
an organ without regard to their proper place. If a man 
wants a wrench, chisel or hammer, it's somewhere in the box 
or chest, or somewhere else, and the search begins. Some- 
times it is found perhaps sharp, perhaps dull, maybe 
broken; and by the time it is found he has spent time enough 
to pay for several tools of the kind wanted. 

The habit of throwing every tool down, anyhow, and in 
any way, or any place, is one of the most detestable habits a 
man can possibly get into. It is only a matter of habit to 
correct this. Make an inflexible end of your life to "have a 
place for everything and everything in its place. " 

It may take a moment more to lay a tool up carefully 
after using, but the time is more than equalized when you 
want to use it again, and so it is time saved. Habits, either 
good or bad, go a long ways in their influence on men's 
lives, and it is far better to establish and firmly maintain a 
good habit, even though that haoit has no special bearing 
on the moral character, yet all habits have their influence. 

Keeping tool? in good order, and ready to use, is as neces- 
sary as keeping them in the proper place. To take up a dull 
*aw, or a dull chisel, and try to do any kind of work with it, 
is worse than pulling a boat with a broom, and it all comes 
from just the same source as throwing down tools carelessly 
habit, nothing more or less. To say you have no time to 
sharpen is worse than outright lying, for, if you have time to 
use a dull tool, you have time to put it in good order. 

AN IMPROVED SCREW-DRIVER. 
A screw-driver has been made in Philadelphia with the 
handle in two parts, said parts being capable of rotating one 
upon the other. A stop-pin and pawl limit the movement of 
the shank in one direction, while the top of the handle will 
move backward without turning the shank. The mechanism 
appears to be very similar to the principle of a stem-winding 
watch. 



23 

THE EFFECT OF MAGNETISM ON WATCHES, 

At a meeting of the Western Railway Club, Mr. E. M. 
Herr, superintendent of telegraph of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad, read the following paper : 

A magnet is a body, usually of steel, having the property, 
when delicately poised and free to turn, of pointing toward 
the north, and of attracting and causing to adhere to its 
ends or poles, pieces of iron, steel, and some other substances. 
Materials which are attracted by a magnet are called mag- 
netic, and it is because the rapidly moving parts of a watch 
are in general, made, in part at least, of magnetic material, 
that these timepieces are affected by that peculiar force 
magnetism. 

Were magnetic substances only affected while a magnet 
is near them, there would be little difficulty as far as 
watches are concerned. Such, unfortunately, is not the 
case, as certain materials, steel more than any other, are 
not only attracted by a magnet, but become themselves per- 
manent magnets when brought into contact with or even in 
the vicinity of a magnetized body. It is to the latter prop- 
erty of steel, namely, becoming permanently magnetized by 
the approach of a magnet without coming in contact in any 
way with it, that causes trouble with watches. 

Again, a small piece of steel is much more easily mag- 
netized than a large one; consequently, the small and deli- 
cate parts of a watch are most likely to be affected. These are 
found in the balance wheel and staff, hair spring, fork and 
escape wheel, and are the very ones in which magnetism 
causes trouble on account of the extreme accuracy and reg- 
ularity with which they must perform their movements. It 
is, in fact, upon the uniformity in the motion of the balance 
wheel, that the timekeeping qualities of the watch depend. 

In a magnetized watch this wheel, as well as all other 
steel parts, become permanent magnets, each tending to place 
itself in a north and south line, and also to attract and to be 
attracted by the others; all of which, it is hardly nece sary 
to add, tends to affect its reliability as a timepiece. How 
small a variation in each vibration of the balance wheel will 
cause a serious error in the daily rate of a watch, is easily 
realized when attention is given for a moment to the number 
of double vibrations this wheel makes in 24 hours. 

This varies in different watches from 174.000 to 216,000, 
and the variation of a single vibration in this number will 
cause a greater error than is sometimes found in the best 
watch movements. It is therefore true that the variation in 



each vibration of the balance wheel of 1-200,000 part of 
thetimeof such vibration, or in actual time about the 1-500,- 
ooo part of a second, will prevent the watch rating as a 
strictly first-class time piece. 

I wish to state, however, that there are very few watches 
made of ordinary materials which are absolutely free from 
magnetism. This may seem like a sweeping statement, but, 
after taking considerable pains to verify or disprove of it, I 
am convinced that it is substantially correct. 

Why this should be so becomes evident when we consider 
that a few sharp blows upon a piece of steel held in the di- 
rection of a dipping needle suffice to sensibly magnetize it, and 
then think of the numerous mechanical operations that have 
to be performed upon each small piece of steel in the moving 
parts of a watch before it becomes a finished product. 

In order to determine, if possible, to what extent 
magnetism prevails in watches, I have examined and tested 
for magnetism 28 watches carried by persons other than train 
or engineer men, with the following result : Three were very 
seriously magnetized ; one to such an extent that it could not 
be regulated closely ; twenty barely perceptibly affected, 
possibly, but the normal amount due to the process of 
manufacture, and in but four could no magnetism be 
detected. 

On account of the steel parts of a locomotive being 
magnetized during the process of construction, and by severe 
usage in a similar manner to those of a watch, it has been 
claimed that the watches of engineers are constantly subjected 
to the action of the magnetic forces, and cannot therefore 
keep as good time as other watches. 

I have examined for magnetism the different parts of a 
number of locomotives in actual service, and, although they 
were in general found to be magnetic, they are so slightly 
charged as to render it almost certain they could have no 
influence upon the rate of a watch, and would surely produce 
less effect upon it than the originally slightly magnetized 
parts of the watch itself. That this amounts to practically 
nothing, is proven by the large number of finely rated 
watches now in use in which magnetism is apparent. 

As proof of the statement that engine-men's watches are 
not, as a rule, more highly charged with magnetism than 
those of men engaged in other occupations, the watches of 
twenty locomotive engineers were tested. Of these none 
were found heavily charged with magnetism; but two more 
than normal; twelve with a barely perceptible charge, and 
in six none could be detected, showing actually less magnet- 



232 

ism in these than in the twenty-eight watches previously 
examined, none of which were carried on a locomotive, a 
result probably due to the fact that engineers, as a rule, are 
very careful of their watches, and are less apt to bring them 
in dangerous proximity to a dynamo than those not con- 
cerned in running trains, and in whom a well-regulated watch 
is less important. This, I take it, would surely be the case 
did they all understand that a watch is likely to be entirely 
disabled by bringing it near a dynamo or motor in opera- 
tion. It therefore seems important that all to whom Accu- 
rate time is a necessity, should be carefully instructed as to 
where the danger lies. 

So much has recently been written about the magnetiz- 
ing of watches that many persons approach any kind of elec- 
trical apparatus with caution. Even a battery of ordinary 
gravity, or LeClanche cells, is regarded with suspicion, 
while a storage battery is thought almost as dangerous as a 
dynamo. 

Others, on the other hand, do not even know that a 
dynamo is dangerous to watches. It should be borne in 
mind that it is not electricity which affects watches, but 
magnetism, and that magnets are the seats of danger. It is 
the powerful electro-magnets in dynamos and motors that 
magnetize watches, and not the strong currents of electricity 
generated or consumed by them. True, there is a mag- 
netic field about every current of electricity, but it is so 
very slight that no effect is produced on watches worn in the 
pocket. 

Having spoken of the evils of magnetism in watches, it 
is, perhaps, proper to add a few words regarding its preven- 
tion. The best and most certain way to prevent a watch 
becoming magnetized is to never allow it to come near a 
magnet. Unfortunately, in the present age, this is a diffi- 
cult matter, as no one can say how soon they may find it 
necessary to be in the vicinity of a dynamo in operation or 
be seated in a car propelled by an electro-motor. 

The only practical protection to watches from magnetism 
of which I have been able to learn consists essentially of a 
cup-like casing of very pure soft iron surrounding the works 
of the watch, which is known as the anti-magnetic shield. 
That this device is a protection from the effects of magnet- 
ism upon watches, there can be no doubt, but that it pre- 
vents magnetizing under all circumstances, even its inventor, 
I believe, does not claim. 

It therefore becomes important to know how far our 
watches are safe when supplied with this protection, and 



23} 

wnere to draw the danger line for the protected, as well as 
the unprotected watch. In order to throw some light upon 
this question, the following tests were made: 

First, to disc >ver to whit extent magnetic bodies placed 
within the shield were protected from external magnetic 
forces ;' second, in how strong a magnetic field it was neces- 
sary to place a watch protected by this device to effect its 
rate by magnetization. 

While no pretense of scientific accuracy or precision was 
made in these tests, it is believed they are sufficiently accu- 
rate for scientific purposes. 

The first test was made by filling an inverted shield half 
fall of water, on the surface of which a very light magnetized 
steel needle was caused to float. In a similarly shaped cup, 
made of porcelain, another needle, in all respects like the 
first, was also floated. A horseshoe magnet was then 
brought near each, and found to affect each needle equally, 
at the following distances : in shield, 6 in. ; in porcelain cup, 
13^2 in. 

Distance below a 3 /^-in. wooden board, upon which shield 
and cup were placed, at which needles could be just reversed 
by magnet- in shield, 3^ in. ; in porcelain cup, %% in. 
With just enough water to cover the bottom of shield, the 
following distances for equal effects were observed : first 
'exposure in shield, 8 in. : first exposure in porcelain cup, 
20 in. ; second exposure in shield, 12 in. : second exposure 
in porcelain cup, 30 inches. 

Since the intensity of a magnetic force varies inversely as 
the square of the distance, the above results indicate that to 
produce like effects, at equal distances, magnetic forces from 
five to six times as strong would be required, with bodies 
inclosed within the shield, than with those not so protected. 

The second test was made with watches of different 
makes, all furnished with the shield. Space will not permit 
my going into the details of these tests, which extended over 
several months. I will only say that they in general con- 
sisted in obta' ling the rating and perfoimance of the watch 
before and afttr it was exposed to magnetic influences. The 
exposure consisted in placing it nearer and nearer to the pole 
pieces of a powerful arc light dynamo and bbserving the 
rate before and after each exposure. After many tests of 
this kind, the conclusion wr.s reached that a watch carefully 
and properly shielded could be safely placed not nearer than 
4 in. to the pole pieces of a 23 arc light Ball dynamo. 
When brought nearer they were without exception magnet- 



234 

ized to a greater or less degree, the amount depending 
largely upon the time of such exposure. 

Watches are now being made, however, which it is 
claimed are entirely non-magnetic and unaffected by the 
strongest magnetic fields met with in practice. -Several 
such watches were also examined and tested. They were 
furnished with a balance-wheel, hair-spring, fork and escape 
wheel made of an alloy of non-magnetic metals in which 
palladium is the principal component. The first of these 
watches tested was furnished only with a non-magnetic bal- 
ance and hair-spring, and had a steel fork and escape wheel. 
This watch is instantly stopped when brought near a power- 
ful dynamo. 

Other movements were then tried, in which all of the 
rapidly moving parts were of non-magnetic material. These 
could not be stopped by the field magnets of the most 
powerful arc light dynamos, although when placed in actual 
contact with the pole piece the balance-wheel was seen to 
vibrate less freely, probably due to the attraction of the 
staff and pivots, which were of steel. The rate of the 
watch was not, however, altered by this test. 

A hair-spring made of this non-magnetic alloy was als 
delicately suspended in still air and subjected to the- action 
of a powerful horseshoe magnet without developing the 
slightest observable magnetic effect. 

One of our best -known American watch manufacturing 
firms is now making a non-magnetic watch on a plan similar 
to that just described ; others will probably soon follow, 
hastening the day when a watch thoroughly protected or 
inherently insensible to magnetism will be as common, and 
considered as necessary to the successful keeping of correct 
time as 'he adjustment for temperature and position is 
already. 

HOW BARRELS ARE MADE. 

Barrels are now being made of hard and soft wood, each 
alternate stave being of the soft variety, and slightly thicker 
than the hard-wood stave. The edges of the staves are cut 
square, and, when placed together to form the barrel, the out- 
sides are even, and there is a V-shaped crack between each 
stave from top to bottom. In this arrangement the operation 
of driving the hoops forces the edges of the hard stave into 
the soft ones, until the cracks are closed, and the extra thick- 
ness of the latter causes the inner edges to lap over those of 
of tin- 1 h..rd-wood staves, thus making the joints dorbly 



FACTS ABOUT IRON CASTINGS. 

Some experience of the changes of shape which castings 
undergo by reason of shrinkage strains is necessary, in order 
to proportion them correctly. I have seen numerous massive 
and very strong looking castings fracture during cooling, or a 
long time afterward while lying in the yard untouched, or 
while being machined ; the reason being that excessive con- 
traction in one portion had put adjacent parts into a condition 
of great tension. By putting an excess of metal into some 
vulnerable point of a casting, is introduced an element of 
weakness, and almost a certainty of its breaking by reason of 
the internal shrinkage strains. It is not the excess of metal 
in itself which gives rise to these strains, but the position in 
which it is placed relatively to other sections. Thus a lump 
of metal cast in juxtaposition to a thinner portion will not 
break the latter, so long as it is able to shrink freely upon 
itself. But if placed between two thinner portions, it may 
fracture them by its shrinkage. Hence the great aim is to so 
design castings that all portions thereof thall cool down with 
approximate uniformity. A founder learns much from the 
behavior of cast-iron pulleys and light wheels. As they are 
so light and weak, proportioning must be correctly observed, 
and when customers ask fora " good, strong boss" or " strong 
arms," the request is one which, if complied with in the 
manner described ; that is, by unduly increasing the metal, 
will either fracture the pulley or wheel, or bring it near 
to breaking limit. In alt castings "strong'* is a relative 
term, that form or size being strongest which harmonizes 
as regards general proportions. In a light pulley, three 
different conditions may exist: i. All parts may cool 
down alike, or nearly so ; 2. The rim may cool long before 
the arms and boss; 3. The arms and boss may cool before 
the rim. in the first case, the pulley will be strong and safe. 
In the second, the rim, in cooling, will set rigidly, but the 
arms and boss will continue shrinking, each arm exerting an 
inward pull on the rim, and various results may follow. 
First, the strain may simply cause the arm to straighten; 
or, in less favorable conditions, and especially if straight 
arms, or arms but slightly curved, be used, the arms may 
fracture near the rim, but seldom near the boss. Or, if the 
rim be weaker than the arm, fracture will take place, or the 
pulley may be turned, and then break. , In the third case, the 
arms and boss cooling before the rim, they are compressed 
by the shrinkage of the latter, and the arms may then become 
fractured, if curved; or, if straight, may prevent the rim from 



2 3 6 

coming inward, and S3 break it. Tn mo"t cases, fracture 
occurs from the mass of metal in the boss. Asa single instruct- 
live example out of many, I may quote that of a pair of 
2ft. 6 in. pulleys, fast and loose, which had been running for 
several years, the fast pulley had a boss 6 in. in diameter, the 
loose pulley one of 5 in. only, and both were bored to 3 in. 
By the accidental falling of a bar of iron, both were broken. 
The rim of the fast pulley was at once pulled in, while the 
loose pulley remained level at the point of fracture. This 
illustrates the presence of tension in the rim, due to the 
larger bcss, and this tension had been present, since the pulley 
was made. The pulley with the 5 in. boss was probably 
much stronger than that with the six in. boss. Tn fast pul- 
leys, and in wheels keyed on, the necessary strength around 
the key way may be obtained by the use of key way bosses, 
without increasing the entire diameter Where large bosses 
are unavoidable, as in some deep, double-armed pulleys, or 
in spur wheels keyed onto large shafts, shrinkage is assisted 
by opening out the mold around the bosses, and removing 
the central core, thereby accelerating the radiation of heat, 
and further by cooling them with water from a swab brush 
when at a low red or black heat. Many a casting is saved 
in this way J Vnother method is to split the boss with plates, 
and bond or oolt it together afterward. When casting fly- 
wheels with wrought-iron arms, the rim is first cast around 
the arms and allowed to cool nearly down before the boss is 
poured. If the latter were cast at the same time as the rim, 
it would set first, and, by preventing the arms from coming 
inward, would put tension upon the rim. 

Whe.tf aggregations of metal occur in castings, they may, 
if the castings be too strong to fracture, cause an evil of 
a secondary character, known as " drawing;" in other words, 
the metal is put into a condition of internal stress, and 
becomes open and spongy in consequence. " Feeding " tends 
to diminish this evil; but much can often be done by light- 
ening the metal with cores, chambering out, or reducing the 
metal massed in certain places by other means. There is a 
difference in the behavior of cast-iron and of gun metal, of 
which advantage may be taken in small, light castings. 
Designs which will not stand in cast-iron or steel will stand 
t\ gun metal, hence the latter may be useful in cases of diffi- 
culty. 

Sharp angles very often lead to fracture. When brackets, 
ribs, slugs, etc., are cast on work, the corners should never 
be left square or angular, for, if there be much disproportion 



237 

of metal, fracture will almost certainly commence in the 
angles. 

I have already alluded to the " straining " which large 
plated and heavy castings undergo, so that the sides and 
faces increase in dimensions, becoming more or less rounded. 
The main reason is, I think, that the metal round the 
central portions does not cool so rapidly as that at the 
sides. The outsides radiate heat quickly, and shrink to 
their full extent; but the middle rib or ribs, and the cen- 
tral portions of the plate, retain their heat longer, and 
hold the sides in a condition of tension, thus forcing them to 
bulge or become round. When the central portions cool, 
the outsides are too rigid to yield to the inward pull. This 
refers to framed hollow work. When plates " gather " or 
increase in thickness, it is due mainly to the lifting of the 
cope, from insufficient weighting. When a cubical mass of 
metal shows no shrinkage, this is due to the pressure of the 
entire mass compressing the sand on every side. 

Briefly stated, then, in deciding the proper contraction 
allowance for a pattern, I should take into consideration its 
mass, the manner in which it is molded and cast, the presence 
or absence of cores, and the nature of the same, its general 
outline, and the character of the metal. For a heavy solid 
casting in iron, I should allow considerably less than t!\e 
normal contraction for iron ; for a similar casting in stee], 
more than the normal contraction for steel ; for a heavy 
casting in gun metal, less than the normal contraction for 
gun metal. The precise allowance in any case must be 
regulated by circumstances. For the vertical depth of a 
shallow casting, very little shrinkage, if any, should be 
allowed; for a deep casting, the full amount. Then, again, 
a mold, with dry sand cores of moderate or large size, will 
not allow the casting to shrink so much as if the cores were 
of green sand, or were altogether absent. For hard and 
chilled iron, the shrinkage will be at its maximum ; for 
strong mottled iron, at its maximum ; and for common gray 
metal, at about the average. 

FLEXIBLE GLASS. 

An article called flexible glass is now made by soaking 
paper of proper thickness in copal varnish, thus making it 
transparent, polishing it when dry, and rubbing it with pumice 
stone. A layer of soluble glass is then applied and rubbed 
with salt. The surface thus produced is said to be as perfect 
as ordinary srlass 



SOME ELECTRIC LIGHT FIGURES. 

Now that modern improvements in the methods of dis- 
tributing electricity for incandescent lighting have rendered it 
practicable to establish and maintain central station plants 
at a profit, even in towns of not more than 4,000 inhabitants^ 
it has become possible to ascertain, with some approach to 
accuracy, the dimensions of the field which is open to be oc- 
cupied by this incomparable illuminant. 

Experience shows, that, when house-to-house lighting has 
been thoroughly worked up in any town, the capacity of the 
central station plant will need to be equal to an average of 
about one-sixteenth candle-power lamp for each inhabitant. 

According to the census of 1880 of the 50,000,000 
inhabitants of the United States, 13,000,000, or 26 percent., 
resided in 580 towns and cities having a population in excess 
of 4,000 each. 

At the normal rate of increase, we shall have, in five years 
from the present writing, a population of nearly 70,000,000, 
of whom some 18,000,000 will be gathered within the limits 
of towns of 4,000 inhabitants, and upward. Each of these 
individuals will represent one incandescent lamp, and the 
necessary power for operating the same. Even after deduct- 
ing the lamps which have already been installed, there will be 
required a total output of more than u,oco lamps, and over 
I,ooo horse-power each of steam engines, boilers and 
dynamos, every working day for the next five years, to 
supply the demand which, from all present appearances, will 
inevitably arise. This is entirely aside from the additional 
number of lamps which will be required for renewals itself 
an enormous item. The change from gas to electricity, 
which is now going on in connection with domestic lighting, 
will be not a little accelerated by the action of the gas 
companies, who are everywhere evincing an increasing dis- 
position to take up electric lighting themselves ; and a very 
sagacious policy it is too, in view of the present outlook for 
gas illumination. 

TO CLEAN RUSTY STEEL. 

Mix ten parts of tin putty, eight parts of prepared buck's 
horn, and twenty-five parts of spirit of wine to a paste. 
Cleanse the steel with this preparation, a. d finally rub off 
with soft blotting paper. 



239 
HINTS ON PATTERN-MAKING. 

The pattern shop is one of the most important depart- 
ments in a plant for the manufacture of machinery. It is 
here that the plans of the mechanical engineer are first 
developed, and upon the skillful manner in w'lich the pat- 
terns are constructed and those plans faithfully carried out, 
depends much of the future success in the manufacture of the 
machine. The skillful pattern-maker, by accurate calcula- 
tions for shrinkage, finishing and the contingencies of the 
foundry, may save a great amount of labor and annoyance in 
the machine shop. It is unreasonable to expect perfect cast- 
ings from imperfect patterns, and the molder is often blamed 
for imperfections of the castings when the fault may be traced 
to an imperfect pattern. Holders as a class have sins 
enough of their own to answer for without the addition of 
the sins of the pattern-maker. Patterns are as a rule neces- 
sarily expensive, and should be carefully constructed, so that 
they will retain their shape and proportions for future use, 
and to this end the selection of materials and the manner of 
joining the several parts together becomes an important item. 
For all ordinary purposes, especially for patterns of consider- 
able size, good, clear, well-seasoned white pine is the best, 
and to obtain the best results it should be seasoned in the 
open air in the natural way. The sap of all the woods con- 
tains a k.rge percentage of water, and to get rid of 
this is the object in seasoning. Pine wood, besides 
water, 'contains a large percentage of turpentine in 
the sap, and in seasoning it, it is desirable to retain 
as much of this as possible, as it dries to a hard substance 
when seasoned in the open air, and helps in a measure to fill 
up the pores of the wood, and renders it close and more 
impervious to water, and less liable to be affected by damp- 
ness. Kiln-dried lumber, although extensively used at the 
present time, is not as good for this purpose. The heat and 
moisture used for this purpose expels, not only the water, 
but other ingredients, which leaves the grain open and brash, 
and patterns made from such materials are more liable to 
absorb dampness and warp than otherwise. In constructing 
patterns, especially those of considerable size, it is cus- 
tomary to build them up of several pieces glued together; 
this makes more reliable work, provided good glue is used 
and proper care manifested in the manner of putting 
them together. No two pieces should be glued together 
with grain crossing at right angles, for, no matter how dry 
the lumber may be, there will always be soma shrinkage, 



240 

and, as lumber shrinks, almost entirely, in its transverse sec- 
tion, it is sure to warp, unless the glue gives way so as to 
allow each part to shrink in its natural direction. In either 
case the pattern will be unfit for further use until it is 
repaired. It is not good practice either, to glue up stuff for 
patterns with the grain of each piece running parallel with 
the other, as such patterns are deficient in strength, and are 
liable to split. The most practical way is to arrange the 
several pieces so that, when put together, the grain will run 
diagonally across each piece, at an angle of about twenty- 
five or thirty degrees. Pattern stuff prepared in this man- 
ner will have sufficient strength to prevent splitting by use 
and handling, and the tendency for warping will, to a great 
extent, be avoided. In building up circles, the cants should 
be short, and cut lengthwise of the grain as far as possible, 
so that the grain of each course as it is laid together to 
break points, may cross each other diagonally. It is cus- 
tomary with some pattern-makers to use nails or birds in 
each course as it is laid up, but pegs made of maple 
or hickory are much better, and, when the stuff is suffi- 
ciently thin to admit of it, the common pegs used in shoe 
shops are very cheap and convenient. The advantage of 
using pegs instead of brads or nails i-, that, being driven 
in glue, they hold better, and the cants are not as liable to 
spring apart when exposed to the warm, damp sand in the 
foundry; besides, they never give the workman any trouble 
when turning it; and experience has demonstrated that pat- 
terns put together in this manner are much more durable 
than otherwise. Some pattern-makers use but little judg- 
ment in the use of glue, and seem to have an idea that the 
more glue they can get between two surfaces the better; yet, 
every experienced mechanic knows that exactly the reverse 
is the case. With a good joint and clear, fresh, thin glue, 
the least that is retained between the two surfaces the bet- 
ter and stronger will be the joint. In hot weather glue soon 
sours, turns black and becomes rancid; when in this condi- 
tion, its strength is impaired and it is unfit for use. Alco- 
hol mixed with it will prevent souring, but, as soon as it is 
healed up, the alcohol evaporates, and its effects are lost. 
The most effective preventive is sulphuric acid, but the 
acid should not be applied clear. For an ordinary glue-pot 
about fifteen drops of the acid mixed w r ith a couple of 
spoonfuls of water may be applied; while this in no way 
impairs the strength of the glue, it will effectually prevent 
souring, and keep it fresh and clear. 

For small gear patterns that are to be in constant use, cut 



patterns of iron or brass are no doubt the best and cheapest 
in the end; but, if wood patterns are required, they should be 
made of some harder wood than pine ; mahogany or cherry 
is considered the best for such work. After the hub is turned 
to the proper size and width of face, the blanks for the teeth 
may be glued on and dressed in their places.. With large, 
wide-faced gears, it is not convenient to do so ; the blanks 
for the cogs are usually glued to dovetailed slips, or the 
dovetailed formed on the under side of the blank so that r 
when fitted to the rim, or dressed off, and laid out, they max 
be removed for the convenience of finish ing them. The 
dove-tails should be a perfect fit, and the blank well fitted 
to the rim; otherwise they will vary the pitch when dressed 
and replaced again. In constructing patterns for heavy 
castings, such as lathe and engine beds, the careful and evei? 
distribution of metal in each part is an important considers 
tion, and, in order to give some particular part the requisite 
strength to withstand a heavy strain, it is sometimes necessary 
to put more metal in some other part where it is not needed 
in order to prevent the casting from being distorted in shape 
or cracked by the unequal construction caused by one part 
cooling faster than another. With the framework for lighter 
machinery the same allowanc * for shrinkage must be provided 
for. But where a frame is composed of several parts, some 
of which are much lighter than others and yet it is necessary 
that the whole should be cast together, it is well to make 
the lighter portions in curves as far as the nature of the work 
will permit. Shurp edges and square corners should also be 
avoided as far as possible. A small cove in each corner will 
add much to the convenience of molding, besides adding to 
the strength of the casting and insure it against cracks, which 
are liable to open at these points by shrinkage in cooling. 

The pattern-maker should also exercise good judgment 
in making provision for withdrawing the pattern from the 
sand; but, as no two patterns are just alike in this respect, no 
definite rule can be followed. In intricate patterns, which 
require considerable skill and care on the part of the molder 
in withdrawing them from the sand, if the nature of the 
work will admit of it, considerable more draft should be 
allowed for this reason. But plain patterns may be nearly 
straight, provided their surface is perfectly smooth. For 
much draft, especially with gearing, is very objectionable, 
for it is impossible for such gearing to run together 
accurately, and bear the whole length of the tooth or 
cog, unless they are either chipped and filled, Dr planed 
straight. If gear patterns are made accurate and true, 



and the face of the cogs perfectly smooth, there will be 
no difficulty in molding them if they are nearly or quite 
straight. All patterns before being used should be well 
covered with at least two coats of pure shellac varnish. 
After applying the first coat, and when it is perfectly dry, 
the surface should be well rubbed down with fine sandpaper, 
and all imperfections, such as nail holes and sharp corners, 
not already provided for, should be carefully filled with bees- 
wax and rubbed off smooth before the second coat of var- 
nish is applied. After a pattern has once been used, it is 
good practice to again rub it off with very fine sandpaper, 
and apply another coat of varnish. Many well-made pat- 
terns are ruined in the foundry by not being provided with 
the proper facilities for rapping and drawing. The molder 
Jnust have some means for attaching his appliances for lift- 
ing it out, and, if suitable provision is not made for this pur- 
pose, he will screw his lifter in any part of the pattern that 
is most convenient, and the chances are, that it will split the 
first time it is used, or badly marred up. Iron plates should 
be let into all patterns with holes threaded to suit his lifters, 
and well secured either by screws or rivets, and, if a sufficient 
number are attached, the molder will respect the pattern and 
use them. Wood patterns should never be allowed to 
remain in the foundry; as soon as they are used, they should 
be taken to the pattern-room, brushed off and placed in such 
a* position for future use that they will not become warped 
or sprung. 

ELECTRIC HAND LANTERN. 

A German patent has been granted to A. Friedlander 
for an electric hand lantern. This consists of a box of hard 
rubber carrying a small three-candle power incandescent 
light, together with a reflector and glass protector. The 
elements in the box, carbon and zinc, produce the current 
necessary to feed the light. The box is divided into five 
compartments holding the liquid, and the electrodes are 
placed in such position that r,o decomposition occurs when 
the lantern is not in u c e, The < irciiit is closed when the 
electrodes are dipped in the liquid; the current is stronger 
and the li^ht brighter if tlvj electrodes are dipped deeper in 
the liquid ; this depth ard consequently the brightness of the 
light can be regulated by means of a button on the outside. 
The liquid is a combined solution of chloride of zinc, bichro- 
mate of soda in wa'er and acid, and the lantern can hold a 
sufficient supply of th s solution t^ last for about three hours. 



243 

TABLES OF GEARS FOR CUTTING STANDARD 
SCREW-THREADS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

It may, perhaps, be necessary to state that these tables 
are the fruit of much experience, and a deep-seated convic- 
tion that their want is sorely felt by many. Notwithstanding 
the vast improvements of modern screw-cutting machinery, 
much time is still wasted by the most experienced workmen 
in endeavoring to find wheels to but any particular pitch o, 
screw, or broken number, in consequence of the various 
changes to be obtained from the usual set of screw-cutting 
wheels, most of which begin with a 2O-teeth, 25, 30, 35, 40, 

45> 5 55 6o 6 5 7 75 8o 8 5> 9> 95> I00 > no, I20 > i3 
140 and 150. This may be considered a full set, inasmuch as 
any screw may be cut with it Supposing the ao-wheel to 
be put on the mandrel, for single changes, without the pinion, 
the first figure up to 95 will give the number of threads to 
the inch. A 20 and A 25 will cut 2^ ; 20 and 30, 3 to the 
inch, and so on in like ratio. When three figures are on the 
wheels, however, the first two will indicate the number to 
the inch ; as, 20 and 100 will cut 10 ; 20 and no will cut n; 
etc. For many common numbers this will save the trouble 
of looking to the tables, if a f, ^, or other coarse pitch. 
If the book be referred to for the decimal of the ratios 
required, against it will be found the wheels that will cat it. 
If the number be required to the foot, then multiply by tv/elve. 

These tables are calculated on the assumption that a pin- 
ion of twenty teeth is used, and a driving-screw of two 
threads to the inch. 

Wheels, when affixed to the mandrel, are r Olcu maadrel- 
wheels ; those on the screw, screw-wheels ; ar d those inter- 
vening, intermediate-wheels. When the may drel and screw- 
wheels are connected by one or more whe .Is directly, they 
are termed simple wheels. When attach? ( by means of a 
pinion joined to the intermediate wheeJ ' = ^ey are calledcom* 
pound wheels. 

io. I, is a table of sim^i wneels. The mandrel- wheels 
are in the first perpendicular column; and the screw-wheels 
in the top horizontal column. In the spaces where the per- 
pendicular intersects the horizontal, will be found the pitch of 
the thread which any two wheels will cut. 

The remaining tables are of compound wheels. The 
mandrel-wheels will be found in the first perpendicular column, 
the intermediate-wheels in the top horizontal column, and 
the screw-wheels in the bottom column. The pitch of thread 



244 

to be cut having been found in the tables, on the left hand 
the mandrel- wheel will be found, on the top the intermediate 
wheel, and at the bottom the screw-wheel. 

All lathes have not a twenty-teeth pinion, in which case, 
the following rule will be of use as applying to any other 
pinion : 

Multiply the pitch of thread intended to be cut, by the 
new pinion, and divide by twenty. Find the wheels in the 
tables corresponding with the quotient, and use the new pin- 
ion instead of the twenty. 

In some lathes the mandrel-wheel is a fixture. In these 
instances, suppose the mandrel-wheel to be the pinion, and 
attach the mandrel-wheel found in the table to the interme- 
diate-wheel. 

To ascertain the ratio of any series of wheels, multiply 
the whole of the driven wheels together, which will give the 
total number of teeth in the series. Then divide the result 
by the driving wheels multiplied into each other. The quo- 
tient will be the number of times the first wheel will revolve 
to the last. Suppose a wheel of twentv teeth to be driving 
a. wheel of 100 teeth, to which is attached a wheel of thirty 
teeth driving a wheel of 150 teeth, and the ratio be required 
loo X 150 

=25 revolutions. 

20 X 30 

To find the number of threads a set of wheels will cut, multiply the 
ratio of the wheels by the pitch of the driving-screw. 

To cut double or more threads, divide the mandrel-wheel in as 
many parts as you require threads, and, as you cut the screw, shift the 
mandrel-wheel a division, while the screw-wheel remains stationary. 
This plan will insure equal division and regularity of cutting. In all 
lathes where the leading screw is two to the inch, and an equal number 
of threads being cut, if the saddled clutch be thrown out of gear, it will 
always fall into the right place. If an odd number of threads are being 
cut, it will fall right every other one. By attending to this rule, run- 
ning the lathe backward will be avoided, and a screw cut in about half 
the time. 

A difficulty frequently arises in finding the number of threads to the 
li.ch or foot when a particular pitch or fractional number has to be 
matched. This can easily be ascertained J)y measuring onward, for, if 
it do not come right in one inch, notice how many there are between 
any division of rule. In measuring a screw, you discover there are 
twenty-eight threads in three inches. Consequently, if twenty-eight be 
divided by three, it gives 9. 333 as the pitch. Against that number in 
the table will be found the wheels to cut it. Suppose a coarse pitch be 
required, say one thread in 1^3 inch, the wheels may be found thus: 
when there is less than one thread to the inch, see how many there are 
in twelve inches: as, 1.615 in - pitch into 12 in. is 7.384101116 foot. If 
divided by twelve, we have the dec. .615, against which in th<* table 
will be found the wheels. 



245 



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CO H 10 IOVO (p io ^? S to C? O^oo'vo' V) fO.N OO ^ 


<o 

VO 




H a ts<a IQ 10 <-^ ro *> cn.^ .i et -i. i H M 




(0 


vo 10-* -*roo\ VOWMNOO t^--^- 

lO VO N * IOOO VO >OVCOOMt>.OCj ^-00 
NOOw M^O\rt-Ot^OMOOOt^iO-*MOOO 


P 




N ONOO txVO iO^"^'^-rO frv fOmM M N M M N M 




ro 


10 N ro M ir,cx3 H oo vo m uvo t^ ^ 

O >O VOfOtOt^t^roiO OOOOHVONOOOO'-i 

M 10 r^ \r> irjoo Ntmot^iONOC?i r^vo fO M 


10 




roOCOt-voxo.n^^romrocoNNNNNN 




>o 


fO M M\Ot^ ro M-Mt^ iororo 
ro N O\vO O ro ^H^- -^-roio 
N <"0 MVOOMDro t>.iow- o\oo 10 ro M 


o 




M- H ONOO t>\O l OO'^-''f-^'fO r )r')tr)N N N N N 




10 


to VO tx H OVX tx VC 00 ID M 'O * <^OO 
t^ M COMlOOlOt^ IOVO M O fO t>. O t^OO 






y H 0,00 r^vo to * * * ro ro co co ro e. e, e. ei 




10 


m hx vo r--oo in r^ 10 ro 

tO t^ CSiO''*' roto M IOVO N N 
t^vo 10 OO f^txlNOOlON^t>.lOro>-( 00 VO -<f 


o 


to 

m 


O M ON t~ c^vo ioiO'4-'^-'^-rororomrOM ri N 

10 fi N 00 10 H 00 fOVO M <* 10 N O> 
N OO wQOtO'J-'*-MtorO>OMC>v N N r>. IO 

vo ro O "^ m rovO O to M t>. ^- M ^vo to ro t^ ""> 


JQ 




VOCO M ^OO vo ^^^. nroror . Jf)i) 




ir, 


vo t^ ("^ ro M- vo to t^.00 * HI vo N 
VO >O t> vo rOOO vot^MOOOO OO ON 


8 




-...;... r ...'.... T-r-7-r-7- 


_ _ 




O to 10 O "i l ^ to ir > ir > C O 

N N ro ro -^- TJ- 10 IOVO O t-x 1^00 00 C> O O [-4 C-l < 





*S133HA\ 13HQNV1M 



263 
PINION 20. 



K 
W 

ffi 



HI CN ro^O ( 

> N co >o ro M oo' i 



-t- 10 10 Or 

10 M oo >o cs r 
**- vo M t-% 10 r 



W 
h 






'-O Hi 10 ro ro \C 

M -^-roio vo 

D'O tOMCOiOrOw. OO 



M 

I 

M 
(* 

1 



264 

PINION 20. 



w 
w 
a 



w 



<O * * ro ro 04 ( 



M mvO O N I 
1^-roNNO 0>| ^. 



T in t^ (N 0000 
- V 



w t* ""^OO 

N >0 N <N r> 
<* ro N HI f, 



1-vO 00 m ro I 



MCMVO in 



N O\ M l^> * \O ^~ 

t^vor^ inn os moo 















m m N -<f co rooo in N v 
M \o M O\'O ^-i-' oovOmr^MC 



* O ^.1 O v. ' ) w. "1 O m O 10 O 
( c<) c^ to f> <* ij- m mo vo t^ t>oo oo o> o> O M N rn 



2 6 5 



TABLE FOR MAKING THE UNIVERSAL TAPS, 
WITH THE MOST SUITABLE PROPORTIONS 
REQUISITE FOR GOOD WORKING TAPS 
USED BY HAND. 

From /4 to j^- the head is turned the same sire as the 
screw; the ^j, and all above, to pass through the holes 
screwed. As the same table shows the size of tap and bol^- 
torn of screw, the workman will be enabled to make the 
tapping holes a size that will insure a full thread. The bat- 
torn of screw will give the size for drills, bits, etc. 



rt S J^ : ^ : 


- 




o 


Wheels fcj cutting 
the screws. 


*- r t/) | 'O o 

^.S -5 v- ^ 


GJO oJ 


*0 S, 










> 'cL "So o "^ ; 


t 


tH trt 


r ; 


i 






p 0- C ~ 
o rt <u ~ ' 

i 2 T ~ ^ 


i =3 

r- ^ 

rt 


1 


1 


5 .2j 

g.sa 


C 

.2 


i 


.S : "c o "3 ! S 






5- 


rt 




.S 


o 


G . PQ ^ h-! 


S 




^ 


^ 


^ 





CO 


1 


n-i 




20 


40 


So 20 


IOO 


-j% X 2 /^i I i & e 


TO 




1,8 


40 80 


20 


90 


^ V an( ^ 64 2 ^4 l %, 


"ft 


io 


45 & 


20 


90 








Simple wheels. 


~ \ ] i i o T 3/ 
10- 3_^ ' J / 


H 


H 


20 






140 








I 2 


20 






1 20 


72 .< / ^^ A ""' 5 

IB , ":{"> : : ^5/4 ~ _^ i^:? 




20 




. 


120 










2O ! 


110 


{'5 " ',j "| V Ti; ^ ;{, 


j j 






I IO 


in 1 (.' L . <5 ! ^ -r " 4 




IOO 


ft . , ^ n 4 _ -_s -'4 am 
^ iftaucl (; 'i 5 2 :^ % 


g 


20 ... J. ... C)0 


i - 4 aiul ^,1 ; ^ 3 ; 4 "s 


& 


~ J ' ^ 


1 V J an< ^- {?<! ^ ' 2 : ?4 i l 


; 


20 70 


I,H #;. ^ 7 1 4X1 ' ' 




..... 00 



2 66 



TABLE FOR MAKING THE UNIVERSAL TAPS - (Continued.) 






T3 <L> i CH 

' <3 "o rt - " ? . 

2 ^ i . o 




-= Wheels 
.E for cut ting the 


Si 


5 IB "o 6 u- 


cj screws. 


5 


Tl t 


c " 

^ ^ 


1 | ! -o 


"5 ? 




rt 


2 t ; 5 I "|> " ! | a 1 | 


J 


(U 


5 


PQ 


fe ! ^ ; s x 


S 


o 


T# 


lA 


7 1/ 1 4 "^ j^ 1 6 


20 


60 


i^ 


iil 9 i 5,^ ' >s 5 


20 50 


i^ 


ii 7 6 and CM 9/2 5 3 4 ; ^s I 5 


20 i 50 


ij^ 


is* 


10 6>4 >4 


^ 


/4 40 90 


2 


i^ and -J.j 


ii 


63^ 


V 2 


^| 


^ 40 


90 


2 /^ 


i % and 3 3 * 


1 1^ 


?x 


'y 2 


4 


l /z 40 


90 


2 X 


\y% and 1 1 <; - 


12 


7& 


H 


4 


40 


So 


2^ 


2,/4 ; i2 } /2 


8^ 


H 


4 


40 


So 


2/^ 


2,^5 : 13 


IO^/ 


H 


4 


40 


So 


2^ 


2/V I 3 " 


9X 


Ji 


4 


40 


So 


2^ 


2/8 


13/4 


9^4 


H 


3 


l /2 ! 40 


70 


2,% 


2^ 


I 3/^ 


10 


1^4 


3 


K ! 40 


70 


3 


2^ 


H 


10 


2 


3 


K 40 


70 


UNIVERSAL GAS-PIPE THREADS. 



WHEELS FOR CUTTING, ETC. 



DIAMETER. 


Man- 
drel. 


Interme- 
diate. 


Pinion. 


Screw. 


Pitch. 


I# find all above 
i . . . 


85 
20 


So 


20 


120 
IAO 


11.294 


$ 


20 






IAO 


id. 




^o 


6c 


20 


8c 


18 412 


Small brass tube . . 


3o 


60 


20 


120 


24. 



HOW PUMICE STONE IS MADE. 
Pumice stone is now prepared by molding and baking a 
mixture of white feldspar and fire-clay. This product is said 
to have superseded the natural stone in Germany and 
Austria. 



26; 
NOTES ON THE WORKING OF STEEL. 

1. Good soft heat is safe to use if steel be immediately 
and thoroughly worked. 

It is a fact that good steel will endure more pounding than 
any iron. 

2. If steel be left long in the fire it will lose its steely na- 
ture and grain, and partake of the nature of cast iron. 

Steel should never be kept hot any longer than is necessary 
to the work to be done. 

3. Steel is entirely mercurial under the action of heat, 
and a careful study of the tables will show that there must of 
necessity be an injurious internal strain created, whenever 
two or more parts of the same piece are subjected to dif- 
ferent temperatures. 

4. It follows that when steel has been subjected to heat 
not absolutely uniform over the whole mass, careful anneal- 
ing should be resorted to. 

5". As the change of volume due to a degree of heat in- 
creases directly and rapidly with the quantity of carbon 
present, therefore high steel is more liable to dangerous in- 
ternal strain than low steel, and great care should be exer- 
cised in the use of high steel. 

6. Hot steel should always be put in a perfectly dry jilace 
of even temperature while cooling. A wet place in the floor 
might be sufficient to cause serious injury. 

7. Never let any one fool you with the statement that his 
iteel possesses a peculiar property which enables it to be 
" restored " after being " burned;" no more should you waste 
any money on nostrums for restoring burned steel. 

We have shown how to restore " overheated " steel. 

For " burned " steel, which is oxidized steel, there is only 
one way of restoration, and that is through the knobbling fire 
or the blast furnace. 

" Overheating " and " restoring " should only be allowable 
for purposes of experiment. The process is one of disintegra- 
tion, and is always injurious. 

8. Be careful not to overdo the annealing process; if car- 
ried too far it does great harm, and it is one of the commonest 
modes of destruction which the steelmaker meets in his daily 
troubles. 

It is hard to induce the average worker in steel to believe 
that very little annealing is necessary, and that a very little 
is really more efficacious than a great deal. 



268 

WEIGHT AND NUMBER OF SQUARE NUTS IN A 
BOX OR KEG OF 200 POUNDS. 



Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Hole. 


Size of 
Bolt. 


No. in 
200 Ibs. 


Weight 
of Nut. 


y z 


X 


7-3^ 


X 


14,844 


Ibs. 


e/ 


5-16 


Q-^2 




7,'88o 




V 




11-^2 


M? 


4,440 




*A 


7*16 


o** 

I 3-32 


7-16 


2,772 




s 


/ 


7-16 


/ * 


5 / d 

2,45 





1 


i/ 


7-16 


c /* 


1,816 




Jl/ 


y 


/ 


Q- 16 


1,^00 




* 1 A 


X 


7 9-i6 


| c/ 


13 j 
M74 


*7 


*X 


H 


9-16 


j- /8 


898 


23 


\$ 


X 


21-32 


I v 


662 


3 




H 


21-32 


i M 


538 


37 


1$ 


7 A 


25-32 


1 


392 


.51 


i% 


7 A 


25-32 


C / 


326 


.61 


1$. 


i 


X 




3<>4 


.66 


2 


i 


y% 


r* 


224 


.89 


2 


i/^ 


15-16 




214 


93 


*X 


\ 1 A 


15-16 


r 1% 


152 


1-32 


2X 


\% 


1-16 


1 I/ 


143 


1.4 


9.Yz 


l % 


1-16 


y J /4 


108 


1.85 


*X 


ift 


3-16 


*H 


83 


2.41 


3^ 


i/4 


5-16 


I / / 2 


65 






iH 


7-16 


1^4 




4- 


3% 


* 


9-16 


i% 


42 


4-8 


3/4 




11-16 


ij4 


32 


6-3 


4 


2 


13-16 


2 


27 


7-4 




2 V$2 


i ^ 


2 1 A 




7 3xf 


A 1 / 


2 y 


2 


t'/O 




gl/ 


A\/ 


2 y 




2*A 




8^/ 


4/4 
AJ4 


I/ 


2.V 


2 1 A 




io3/ 


<f/Z 


2 y 


2 7-l6 


fif. 

2*2 




j^i/ 


5 


3 


/ * 
2 II-I6 


*v* 

3 




14 



AMOUNT OF HEAT REQUIRED TO MELT 
WROUGHT IRON. 

The temperature necessary to melt wrought iron lies 
between 4,000 and 5,000 F., and evm at that tremendous 
heat, wrought iron is only rendered fluid by the addition of a 
small amount of aluminum. 



269 

WEIGHT AND NUMBER OF HEXAGON NUTS 
A KEG OR BOX OF 200 POUNDS. 



Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Hole. 


Size of 
Bolt. 


No. in 
200 Ibs. 


Weight 

of Nut. 


X 


X 


7-32 


X 


17,332 


IbflL 


5^ 


C- 16 


Q-^2 


K - 16 


8,964 




v 


li 




y 


5,016 




7 A 


7 / 
7-16 


I V^2 


7-16 


2,988 




7 A 




7-16 


1 


2,674 




if 9 


/! 


' - 
7-16 


c 


' 4T 

2,160 


>0 


I/. 


9-16 




Q-l6 


I.44.C 




J 




9-16 


j ' 

^x 


* J^Tj 
I ',028 


'? 


X 


^ 


9-16 


\ 


920 


.22 


!i 8 





21-32 
21-32 


\ y * 


752 
510 


:S 


i^ 


$ 


25-32 


} 7/ 


450 


44 


ij^ 




25-32 


\ ' 8 


428 


47 


iS 


# 


I 


}' 


37| 
336 


:l 4 


2 


^ 


15-16 


/^ 


211 


95 


2# 


Xs 

" 


1-16 


X 


159 


1.26 


2^ 




3-16 


^ 


119 


1.68 






5-16 


l /z 


88 


2.27 


3 


^ 


7-16 


y% 


69 


2.9 




1^ 


9-l6 


i^ 


56 


3-6 


3K 


2 


11-16 


\y% 


44 


46 


3^ 


2 


13-16 


u 


43 


4-7 


4 


2 


13-16 


i 2 


29 


6.9 


l3a 


2 V^ 


~/K 


2 V^ 




c % 


'y 


2\A. 


2 


2 y 




/ 


4. 






234 




6y 


.y 


2*/ 2 


2 I/ 


2 i/ 




~i/ 


4 1 A 


2*2 


2 7-16 


2X 




gL/ 


/ 


*/* 

3 




3 




I! 5_ 



HOW TO PREVENT GEAR TEETH FROM BREAKING. 

Gear teeth generally have one corner broken off first, after 
which they rapidly go to pieces. This may be avoided and 
the teeth made much stronger by thinning down the edges 
with a file, thereby bringing the whole strain along the centre 
of the tooth. jear teeth fixed this way will not break unless 
the strain be sufficient to br-sak off the whole tooth. 



2JO 

NUMBER OF LIGHTS OF WINDOW GLASS IN A 
BOX OF 50 FEET. 



Size. 


No. 
Lights. 


Size. 


No. 
Lights. 


Size. 


No. 

Lights. 


6x 8 


I50 


28 


16 


5 


5 


7x 9 
Sxio 


90 


30 
18x22 


18 


30x38 
40 


I 


II 


82 


24 


17 


42 


6 


12 


75 


26 


16 


44 


6 


13 


69 


28 


H 


46 


5 


14 


64 


3 




48 


5 


9x12 


67 


32 


13 


50 


5 


13 


62 


20x26 


H 


52 


5 


H 


57 


28 


13 


54 


4 


15 


53 


30 


12 


32x40 


6 


10x13 


56 


32 


II 


42 




H 


52 


34 


II 


32x44 


5 


15 


48 


36 


10 


46 


s 


16 


45 


22x28 


12 


48 




11x14 


47 


30 


II 


5 


5 


15 


44 


32 


10 


52 


4 


16 


41 


34 


10 


54 


4 


18 


39 


36 


9 


56 


4 


12x15 


40 


38 


9 


34x44 


5 


16 


38 


24x30 


10 


46 


5 


18 


34 


32 


10 


48 


5 


20 


3 


24x34 


9 


5 


4 


13x16 


35 


36 


9 


5 2 


4 


18 


3 1 


38 


8 


54 


4 


20 


28 


40 


8 


56 


4 


22 
14X18 


25 
29 


26x32 
.34 


I 





4 
4 


20 


26 




8 


36x46 


4 


22 


24 


38 


7 


4 8 


4 


24 


22 


40 


7 


50 


4 


ISXI8 


27 


42 


7 


52 


4 


2O 


24 


44 


6 


54 


4 


12 


22 


28x36 


7 


56 


4 


24 
26 


20 
19 


38 
40 


7 

7 


58 
36x60 


3 
3 


16x20 


23 


42 


6 


62 


3 


22 


21 


44 


6 


64 


3 


24 


19 


^46 


6 


38x46 


4 


26 


17 


48 


5 


48 


4 



NUMBER OF LIGHTS OF WINDOW GLASS IN A 
BOX OF 50 FEET.-Continued. 



Size. 


No. 
Lights. 


Size. 


No. 
Lights. 


Size. 


Na 
Lights 


5 


4 


60 


3 


66 


3 


52 


4 


40x62 


3 


68 




54 


4 


64 


3 


70 


a 


Co 


3 


66 


3 


44*54 


3 


58 


3 


40x68 


3 


5 S 


3 


60 

62 


3 

3 


70 
42x50 


3 
3 


II 


3 
3 


64 


3 


52 


3 


62 


3 


66 


3 


54 


3 


64 


3 


40x48 


4 


56 


3 


66 


2 


50 


4 


58 


3 


68 


2 


52 


3 


60 


3 


70 


2 


54 


3 


62 


3 


72 


2 


56 


3 


64 


3 







COMBUSTIBILITY OF IRON PROVED. 

Combustion is not generally considered one of the prop- 
erties of iron, yet that metal will, under proper conditions, 
burn readily. The late Professor Magnus, of Berlin, Ger 
many, devised the following method of showing the combus- 
tibility of iron : A mass of iron filings is approached by a 
magnet of considerable power, and a quantity thereof is per- 
mitted to adhere to it. This loose, spongy tuft of iron pow- 
der contains a large quantity of air imprisoned between its 
particles, and is, therefore, and because of its extremely com- 
minuted condition, well adapted to manifest its combustibil- 
ity. The flame of an ordinary spirit lamp or Bunsen burner 
readily sets fire to the finely divided iron, which continues to 
burn brilliantly and freely. By waving the magnet to and 
fro, the showers of sparks sent off produce a striking and 
brilliant effect. 

The assertion that iron is more combustible than gun- 
powder, has its origin in the following experiment, which is 
also a very striking one: A little alcohol is poured into a 
saucer and ignited. A mixture of gunpowder and iron filings 
is allowed to fall in small quantities at a time into the flame 
of the burning alcohol, when it will be observed that the iron 
will take fire in its passage through the flame, while the gun- 



272 

powder wPl fall through it and collect beneath the liquid 
alcohol below unconsumed. This, however, is a scientific 
trick, and the experiment hardly justifies the sweeping asser- 
tion that iron is more combustible than gunpowder. The 
ignition of the iron under the foregoing circumstances is clue 
to the fact that the metal particle- being admirable con- 
ductors of heat, are able to absorb *,<_" x-nt heat in their 
passage through the flame brief as this K. -mid they are 
consequently raised to the ignition point. The 'nicies of 
the gunpowder, however, are very poor conductors ^. '-eat, 
comparatively speaking, and, during the exceedingly brief 
time consumed in their passage through the flame, they do 
not become heated appreciably, or certainly not to their point 
of ignition. Under ordinary circumstances, gunpowder is 
vastly more inflammable than iron. 

Another method of exhibiting the combustibility of iron, 
which would appear to justify the assert ion that it is really 
more combustible than gunpowder, is the following: Place 
in a refractory tube of Bohemian glass a quantity of 
dry, freshly-precipitated ferric exide. Heat this oxide to 
bright redness, and pass a current of hydrogen through the 
tube. The hydrogen will deprive the oxide of its oxygen, 
and reduce the mass to the metallic state. If, when the 
reduction appears to be finished, the tube is removed frcin 
the flame, and its contents permitted to fall out into th~ air 
it will take fire spontaneously and burn to oxide again. 
This experiment indicates that pure iron, in a state of the ex- 
tremest subdivision, is one of the most combustible sub- 
stances known more so, even, than gunpowder and other 
explosive substances which require the application of con- 
siderable heat, or a spark, to ignite them. 

HOW IRON BREAKS. 

Hundreds of existing railway bridges which carry twenty 
trains a day with perfect safety would break down quickly 
with under twenty trains an hour, writes a British civil en- 
gineer. This fact was forced on my attention nearly twenty 
years ago, by the fracture of a number of iron girders of 
ordinary strength under a five-minute train service. Simi- 
larly, when in New York last year, I noticed, in the case of 
some hundreds of girders on the elevated railway, that the 
alternate thrust and pull on the central diagonals from trains 
passing every two or three minutes had developed a weak- 
ness which necessitated the bars being replaced by stronger 
ones, after a very short service. Somewhat the same thing 



273 

I ':. tc be done recently with a bridge over th^ river Trent, 
but, the train service being small, the life of the bars was 
measured by years instead of months. Jf ships were always 
among great waves the number going to the bottom would 
be largely increased. It appears natural enough to every one 
that a piece, even of the toughest wire, should be quickly 
broken if bent back and forward to a sharp angle; but, per- 
haps, only to locomotive and marine engineers does this ap- 
pear equally natural that the same results would follow in 
time if the bending were so small as to be quite imperceptible 
to the eye. A locomotive crank axle bends but one eighty- 
fourth of an inch, a straight driving-axle a still sn.aller 
amount, under the heaviest bending stresses to which they 
a: e subject, and yet their life is limited. During the year 
1883 one iron axle broke in running, and one in fifteen was 
renewed in consequence of defects. Taking iron and steel 
axles together, the number then in use on the railways of the 
United Kingdom was 14,847, and of these 911 required 
renewal during the year. Similarly, during the past 
three years, no less than 228 ocean steamers were disabled 
by broken shafts, the average safe life of which is said to be 
about three or four years. Experience has proved that a 
very moderate stress, alternating from tension to compres- 
sion, if repeated about 100,000,000 times, will cause a frac- 
ture as surely as bending to an angle only ten times. 

VALUE OF EMERY WHEELS. 

The increased quantity and quality of work that goes on* 
of the modern machine shop is clue to the skillful use of solid 
emery wheels. A grain of sand from the common grind- 
stone, magnified, would look like a cobble stone, a fracture 
of which shows an obtuse angle, wnereas a grain of corun- 
dum or emery would look lik^ a rhomboid, always break- 
ing with a square or concave fracture. No matter how much 
it is worn down in use, it does not lo.se its sharpness ; hence 
it is evident that the grindstone rubs or grinds and heats 
the work brought in contact with it, while the corundum, or 
emery wheel, *"ith its sharp, angular grit, cuts like a file or 
angular saw. 

There are two general classes of emery wheels in the 
market one class of wheels has the grains of emery joined 
and consolidated by a pitchy material, as rubber, linseed oil, 
shellac, etc. These must run at a high speed to burn out the 
cementing material by friction, loosening the worn-out grains, 
and thus revealing new cutting nnirk-s. The>e ar.; non-i - n its 



274 

wheels. Truing up this class of wheels is done with a dla 
moml tool. 

The other class consists of two kinds, one made by mix- 
ing the emery with a mineral cement and water into a paste, 
whit h will harden and bind the grains together ; the other 
kind, by mixing the emery with a mineral flux or clay, mold- 
ing into shape, and burning in a muffle at a high tempera- 
ture. These are porous wheels, in which the grains of emery 
are held together by matter having affinity therefor. This 
class of wheels, unlike the grindstone, has sharp grains of 
emery bedded together among matter which, in some cases, 
is as hard and sharp as the emery itself. Such wheels cut 
very greedily, and do not need to be run at any particular 
speed. 

The dresser, made of hardened steel picks, is the proper 
tool for truing up this class of wheels. 

Manufacturers in metal goods aiming at reducing the cost 
of production, would do well to look into the adaptability of 
the solid emery wheels or rotary file, and other labor-saving 
machinery, before deciding on reducing labor wages. 

THE SECRET OF CAST STEEL. 

The history of cast steel, remarks a contemporary, pre- 
sents a curious instance of a manufacturing secret stealthily 
obtained under the cloak of an appeal to philanthropy. The 
main distinction between iron and steel, as most people know, 
is that the latter contains carbon. The one is converted into 
the other by being heated for a considerable time in contact 
with powdered charcoal in an iron box. Now, steel thus 
made is unequal. The middle of a bar is more carbonized 
than the ends, and the surface more than the center. It is, 
therefore, unreliable. Nevertheless, before the invention of 
cast steel, there was nothing better. In 1760 there lived at 
Attercliffe, near Sheffield, a watchmaker named Huntsman. 
He became dissatisfied with the watch-spring in use, and set 
himself to the task of making them homogeneous. "If," 
thought he, " I can melt a piece of steel and cast it into an 
ingot, its composition should be the same throughout." He 
succeeded. His steel soon became famous. Huntsman's 
ingots for fine work were in universal demand. He did not 
call them cast steel. That was his secret. About 1780 a 
large manufactory of this peculiar steel was established afc 
Attercliffe. The process was wrapped in secrecy by every 
means within reach. One midwinter night, as the tall chim. 
nevs of the Attercliffe steel works belched forth their sir.oke 



275 

a traveler knocked at the gate. It was bitterly colcl, and the 
snow fell fast, and the wind howled across the moat. The 
stranger, apparently a plowman or agricultural laborer seek- 
ing shelter from the storm, awakened no suspicion. Scan- 
ning the wayfarer closely, and moved by motives of humanity, 
the foreman granted his request, and let him in. Feigning 
to be worn out with cold and fatigue, the old fellow sank 
upon the floor, and soon appeared to sleep. That, however, 
was far from his intention. He closed his eyes apparently 
only. He saw workmen cut bars of steel into bits, place 
them in crucibles, and thrust the crucibles into a furnace. 
The fire was urged to its extreme power until the steel was 
melted. Clothed in wet rags to protect themselves from the 
beat, the workmen drew out the glowing crucibles and 
poured their contents into a mold. Mr. Huntsman's factory 
had nothing more to disclose. The secret of making cast 
Steel had been discovered. 

IRON AND STEEL MAKING IN INDIA. 

Indian Engineering, in a recent issue, gives a most 
interesting account of the manufacture of iron and steel in 
India, which we reproduce below: 

Notwithstanding the simplicity of their processes, the 
iron turned out by the natives is of superior quality, and is 
selling very cheaply; so, for instance, a mound of horseshoes 
sells at Rs. seven, and of clamp iron Rs. six-eighths. These 
low prices are accounted for by cheap fuel, the rich ores, the 
miserably cheap labor, and the absence of managing expenses. 

There are reasons to believe that "Wootz" (Indian 
cast steel) has been exported to Asia Minor more than 2,000 
years ago; how long, however, its manufacture has been 
commenced, cannot be traced. 

The following is a description of the method for making 
" Wootz" employed by the natives at Hyderabad. 

The minute grains or scales of iron are diffused in a 
sandstone-like gneiss or mica schisti passing into a horn- 
blende slate. These rocks are excavated with crowbars, and 
then crushed between stones; if hard, this is done after prelim- 
inary roasting. 

The ore is then separated from the powdered rock by 
washing. This was at a village called Dundurti, but the pro- 
cess of manufacture was ths same as that at Kona Samun- 
drum, twelve miles south of the Godavari, and twenty-five 
from Nirmal, which has been described by Dr. Voysey. The 
furnace was made of a refractory clay, derived from deccm- 



2 7 6 

posed granite, and the crucibles are made of the same, ground 
t a powdei together with fragments of old furnace and 
broken crucibles kneaded up with rice, chaff and oil. He 
states that no charcoal was put into the crucible, but some 
fragments of old glass slag were. A perforation was made 
^n the luted cover. Two kinds of iron, one from Mirtapalli 
and the other from Kondaporc, were used in the manufacture 
of the steel. The former was made from magnetic sand, 
and the latter from an ore found in the iron clay (? laterite) 
twenty miles distant; the proportions used of each were 

3 to 2. 

This mixture being put into, the crucible in small pieces, 
the fire was kept up at a very high heat for twenty-four hours 
by means of four bellows, and was then allowed to cool 
down. Cakes of steel of great hardness, and weighing on the 
average i% Ibs., were taken from each crucible. They were 
then covered with clay and annealed in the furnace for twelve to 
sixteen hours; then cooled, and, if necessary, the annealing was 
repeated till the requisite degree of malleability had been 
obtained. The Telinga name for thi> steel was " Wootz," 
and " Kurs" or cake of it, weighing 1 10 rupees, was sold on 
the spot for eight annas. The daily produce of a furnace 
was 50 seers, or in value Rs. 37. 

Also Mysore is a country where the manufacture of iron 
and steel by the natives was of great importance owing to the 
excellent quality of its produce. 

_ The iron was made from black sand, which the torrents, 
formed in the rainy season, brought down, from the rocks. 
The furnaces in the Chin-Narayan Durga taluk were on a 
small scale", the charge of ore being 42^ pounds, from which 
about 47 per cent, of the metal was obtained. Work was 
carried on for only four months, the smelters taking to culti- 
vation du- ing the remainder of the year. The stone ore was 
smelted in the same way as the iron sand, but the latter, it is 
said, was alone fit for manufacturing into steel. There were 
in this vicinity five steel forges, four in the above taluk, and 
ODe at Devaraya, Durga. 

The furnace, of which a figure is given by Buchanan, con- 
sisted of a horizontal ash-pit and a vertical fire-place, both 
sunk below the level of the ground. The ash-pit was about 
three-fourths of a cubit in width and height, and was con- 
nected with a refuse pit into which the ashes could be drawn. 
The fire-place was a circular pit, a cubit in width, which was 
connected with the a>h-pit, being from (he surface of the 
ground to the bottom two cubits in depth. A screen or mud- 
wall five feet high, protected the bellows-man from heat and 



277 

sparks. The bellows were of the ordinary form, a conical 
leather sack with a ring at the top, through which the opera- 
tor passed his arm. 

The crucibles, made of unbaked clay, were conical in form, 
and of about one pint capacity. Into each a wedge of iron 
and three rupees' weight of the stem of the Cassia Auricu- 
la ta and two green leaves of a species of convolvulus or Jpo~ 
maia were put. The mouths of the crucibles were then 
covered with round caps of unbaked clay, and the junctures 
well luted. 

They were then dried near the fire, and were ready for the 
furnace. A row of them was first laid round the sloping 
mouth jof the furnace; within these another row was placeci. 
and the center of the dome, so formed, was occupied by * 
single crucible, making nfteef. \\\ ic!l 

The crucible opposite the bellows was then withdrawn, 
and its place occupied by an empty one, which could be 
withdrawn in order to supply fuel below. The furnace, being 
filled with charcoal, and the crucibles covered with the same, 
the bellows were plied for four hours, after which the opera- 
tion was completed. When the crucibles were opened, the 
steel was found melted into a button with n sort of crystalline 
structure on its surface, which showed that complete fusion 
had taken place. These buttons weighed about twenty-four 
rupees. There were thirteen men to each furnace, a head 
man to make and fill the crucibles, and four relays of three 
men each, one to attend the furnace, and two for the bel- 
lows. 

Each furnace manufactured forty-five pagodas' worth of 
1, 800 wedges of iron into steel. The net profit was stated 
to be 1,253 fanams, but into the further details as to cost it 
is not, perhaps, necessary to enter. The total production of 
steel in this vicinity was estimated to be 152 cwt., or about 
,300 per annum. 

The principal sources of the ores were the magnetic sand 
found in rivers, and the richer portion of the laterite. 

THE SWISS PATENT LAW. 

The Republic of Switzerland has passed a law for the pro- 
tection of inventions, thus following in th<? wake of other' 
nations. The final disposition of the question, however, as to 
whether the law shall be operative or not, %vill first require the 
petitions of 30,000 voters asking its submission to the people. 
That point gained, the law must then be submitted to a vote 
and be approved by a riajoritv Tf, is not stated whether the 



2 7 8 

Swiss Government has a patent on this method of giving a law 
force. It will take three months to carry out this rigmarole. 
Material objects, and not processes, are protected. It is said 
that " this feature is due to the efforts of the manufacturers of 
aniline colors and chemicals, whose interests would be inju- 
riously effected by a law as comprehensive as that of the United 
States, which protects 'useful arts' and ' compositions of mat- 
ter,' as well as tools and machines." 

HOW BREAKS IN SUBMARINE CABLES ARE 
DETECTED AND REPAIRED. 

The following is an account of how submarine cables are 
found and repaired at an immense depth: 

The break, which the " Minia " was sent to repair, 
occurred early last summer. The officers of the company 
first located the distance of the break from the stations on 
shore, on each side of t:\e ocean. The details of the instru- 
ment by which this is done nre not easily described, though 
easily understood in principle. The machine consists of a 
series of coils of wire, which offr a known resistance to the 
electric current. Enough of the coils are connected to make 
a resistance equal to the resistance offered by the entire cable 
when it is in work ing order, and thus, when the machine and " 
the cable are connected, a balance is effected. But, if the 
cable should break, the balance is destroyed, because that 
portion of the cable between the shore station and the break, 
wherever it may be, will offer less resistance to the electric 
current than the entire cable would do. Enough coils of wire 
are therefore disconnected from the machine to restore the 
balance. The resistance of the part of the cable that 
remains intact is thus accurately determined by the number 
of coils remaining connected with the machine. Having, 
when the cable was intact, learned the resistance which a 
mile of the cable offers, by dividing the entire resistance by 
the number of miles of cable, it is easy to find how many 
miles of cable are still in good order, by dividing the entire 
resistance of the piece by the known resistance of one mile 

Having determined how many miles from the shore 
station the break is, orders are sent to go to the place, pick up 
the ends, and splice them to new piece. Having received such 
an order and acted on it, Captain Trott found himself and 
his ship, on July 25th last, in latitude 42 30' north, and 
longitude 46 30' west, or just to the eastward of the Grand 
Banks of Newfoundland, with one of the hardest jobs 
before him that he had had in some time, for sounding 



showed that the water was about 13,000 feet, or a good deal 
more than two miles deep. He knew he was somewhere 
near the break in the cable, but he did not know absolutely 
within about three or four miles, because, while he had been 
able to determine his own position by repeated observations 
of the sun and stars, he could not tell how accurate the 
observations of the officers of the ship laying the cable ^ad 
been. 

The first work done was to get a scries of soundings over 
u patch of the sea aggregating twenty-five or thirty sd 1 "* 
miles. The sounding apparatus consisted of an oblong sncn 
of iron, weighing about thirty-two pounds, attached to a 
piano forte wire in such a way that, when lowered to the bottom, 
the shot would jab a small steel tube into the mud down 
there, and would then release itself from the wire, and allow 
the sailors' to draw up the tube with the mud in it. The 
moment the weight was released, the men on deck stopped 
paying out the wire, and thus, knowing how much wire had 
been run out, they were able to tell the depth. It is a fact 
that it took twenty-four minutes and ten seconds for the 
weight of the ounding apparatus to reach bottom in 2,097 
fathoms of water. 

The ship was now ready to begin the search proper for 
the cable. She was run off at right angles to the line of the 
cable for r. distance of five miles, and a buoy got down to 
mark the limits of the territory to be grappled ov-r in that 
direction. Buoys were afterward ret elsewhere to mark the 
other limits of the territory. The grappling iron was low- 
ered over 'he bows, the rope attached to it passing o.ver one 
of the three big grooved wheels that revolve where the bow- 
sprit of an ordinary vessel stands. 

The grappling iron used is the invention of Captain Trott. 
It looks something like a four-pronged anchor. It has a shaft 
four feet long, and four arms about a foot long, that are set 
at right angles to each other at the bottom of the shaft. 
Right in each crotch formed by the arms is a little button 
that has a spring behind it that may be regulated in strength. 
The button projects a third of an inch into the crotch. The 
angle of the arms with the shaft is so small that a rock could 
not get down in so far as to reach the button ; but, when the 
cable is caught by the hooks, it presses down against the but- 
ton, and thus closes an electrical circuit through a copper 
wire running through the grapnel's rope and the grapnel 
itself, and a bell is set ringing upon deck. But the experi- 
enced m n in charge of the grappling are generally able to 
telJ who ; the hook has hold of without the aid of the bell. 



2 So 

They judge by the strain on the rope, which is indicated by a 
dynamometer on deck. The ordinary strain on the dyna- 
mometer is from 3 to 3^ tons when the grapnel is dragging 
freely over a smooth bottom as the vessel forges slowly ahead. 
Sometimes a rock catches on the hooks. This frequently 
breaks off an arm, but sometimes it fetches clear, the strain 
indicated by the dynamometer informing the old sailor man 
in charge whether an accident has happened or not. 

It took two hours and twenty minutes to get the grap- 
pling iron from the bow of the ship down to the bottom of the 
sea, 13,000 feet below. The cable used to drag it with is the 
patent wire and hemp invention of the captain. The drag- 
ging began on July 25th, the clay of arrival, but they swept 
backward and forward over the territory for ten days without 
finding the broken telegraph cable. A good part of .the time 
they wt re steaming back and forth d.iy and night, and the 
only time when they were not doing so was when the weather 
was too bp'-l. On such occasions they went to the buoy at 
the supposed end of the broken cable, and hove to till the 
gale was ended. 

Finally, on August 5th, the bell rang, indicating that the 
grapnel had caught the cable. The grapnel drag rope was 
thereupon fastened to a buoy and thrown overboard. Then 
the steamer went off two miles toward the end of the broken 
cable and got out a cutting grapnel. This is like the other 
one, except that there are knives in the crotches. When 
these crotches catch the cable and strain comes on them, th_ 
cut the cable off clean. 

" Why did you cut off the cable there? " was asked. 

" Because, if we had tried to get up the bight of the cable 
where we first found it, the cable might have broken under 
the strain. That cable was laid in 1869, and is getting 
pretty well along in years. It would have been as apt to 
break on the shore side as the other, but, when we had only 
an end of two miles to deal with, we were sure of being able 
to get up without damage. We grappled European end first." 

Having cut off the cable, the vessel returned to the buoy 
on the grappling rope, and, getting the rope inboard again, 
led it to a drum six feet in diameter located on the uppel 
deck and operated by a steam engine. Then they began to 
wind in the grapnel rope and hoist the old cable to the bows. 
They started the drum at 1:20 in the afternoon of August 5, 
8x1 at 7:51 had the bight of it at the bow of the ship. Then 
the two miles and odd of end that was hanging down from 
the bow was fished up and stretched in lengths along the 
deck until the end was reached This was connected uirh a. 



28l 

very complete cable telegraph office located amidships, and 
a second later the operators who had been on watch for days 
in the British station awaiting this event saw the {lashes on a 
mirror in their fftce that told them all about it. 

Sometimes it happens that, when an end of the cable is 
picked up in this way, and an attempt is made to communi- 
cate with the shore, it is found that there is another break, 
and that they have only the end of an odd section lying 
loose. Then they have to drop that over, after testing it to 
see how long it is, and go on toward the shore and begin over 
again. In this case, however, they found that they had hold 
of a sound wire to Great Britain. Without any delay, the 
end of a new cable was spliced to the old end brought from 
the bottom. Two experts, one who is trained in splicing 
cores, and one who is trained in splicing the outside or 
sheathing, are employed in this work. 

When the splice was completed and tested, and found 
perfect, the cable was started, running out around drums 
and grooved wheels controlled by brakes, and over the stern, 
the old end having been led fair through these sheaves before 
the splicing was done. Then the ship headed for shoal water, 
and ran away at from three to four knots an hour until over 
a part of the banks where work could be done more easily 
than where the water was more than two miles deep. Of 
course this involved the abandonment of a good many miles 
of old cable, but the old cable wasn't of very much impor- 
tance anyhow. 

Arriving in shoal water, the end of the new piece was 
attached to a buoy and put overboard. Then the old cable 
was grappled and cut as before, and a new piece spliced to 
it. Then the ends of the two new pieces were spliced to- 
gether and the job was complete. It had taken nearly two 
months to do it, although in the meantime two easier jobs 
were attended to, and a trip to Halifax for provisions was 
made, not to mention the encountering of the storm that 
damaged the rudder. 

The " Minia " has a crew of ninety, all told, including the 
captain, three deck officers, a navigator, three expert elec- 
tricians, four engineers, a purser and a surgeon. A black- 
smith and a boiler maker, with their tools, are carried. There 
are three big, round tanks to ho'd the 600 miles of cable 
cariied, which includes sizes to fit ail the old cables under the 
charge of this shijj. There is a cell-room where the electricity 
for telegraphing is generated, and two dynamos with their 
engines, one to furnish electricity for a system of arc lights 
used wh^n at work at night, and the other for the incandes- 



282 

cent system that lights the ship below decks. The main 
saloon is large, and is comfortably and handsomely fitted. 
The captain has a cabin under the turtle-back aft, as fine as 
any captain could wish for, and the other officers have rooms 
below that are as well fitted as those usually occupied by 
naval officers. The crew are all expert men, and get pay 
that averages a good deal better than ihe pay in the packet 
service between New York and Liverpool. The entire crew 
is kept under pay the year round, the ship making her head- 
quarters at Halifax when not engaged in repairing cables. 
They are as comfortable a lot of sailor men as one could find 
anywhere. 

Till'! LONGEST KLECTRIC RAILROAD IX THE 
COUNTRY. 

The longest electric railroad in this country is one under 
contract at Topeka, Kansas. The length of the road is to be 
fourteen miles and \vill require fifty cars. The Thomson- 
Houston system has been applied. 



The breaking strain on various metals is shown in the 
following table, the si/e of the rod tested being. in each case 
one inch square, and the number of pounds the actual break- 
ing strain : 

Pounds. 

Hard steel 150.000 

Soft steel 120,000 

Best Swedish iron . 84,000 

Ordinary bar iron 70,000 

Silver 41,000 

Copper 35>ooo 

Gold 22,000 

Tin 5,500 

Zinc '. 2,600 

Lead 860 

To make varnish adhere to metal, add five-hundredthsper 
cent, of boracic acid to the varnish. 

Machinery will do almost anything, and what machinery 
can't do a woman can with a hairpin. 

To find the weight of a cast-iron ball, Ilaswellsays Mul- 
tiply the cube of the diameter in inches by 1365, and the 
product is the weight in pounds. 



NUMBER OF REVOLUTIONS OF WATCH 

WHEELS. 

Very few who carry a watch ever think of the unceasing 
labor it performs under what would be considered shabby 
treatment for any other machinery. There are many who 
think a watch ought to run for years without cleaning, or a 
drop of oil. Read this and judge for yourself: The main 
wheel in an ordinary American watch makes 4 revolutions 
a day of 24 hours, or 1,460 in a year. Next, the center 
wheel, 24 revolutions in a day, or 8,760 in a year. The 
third wheel 192 in a clay, or 59,080 in a year. The fourth 
wheel, 2,440 in a day, or 545,600 in a year. The fifth, or 
'scape wheel, 12,960 in a day, or 4, 728,200 in a year. The 
ticks or beats are 388,800 in a day, or 141,882,000 in a year. 

A VALUABLE POINT FOR HOLDERS. 

It is claimed that a saving, as well as a better job, can be 
effected by the substitution of the following for the coal dust 
and charcoal used with green sand : Take one part common 
tar, and mix with 20 parts of green sand; use the same as 
ordinary facing. The castings are smooth and bright, as tar 
prevents metal from adhering to the sand, prevents formation 
of blisters, and helps the production of large castings by 
absorbing the humidity of the sand. 

METRICAL AND CENTIGRADE EQUIVALENTS. 

As much of the scientific literature of the steam engine, 
the metrical system of weights and measures and the centi- 
grade thermometrical scale are used, we publish the following 
equivalents, which may be of use to our readers in readily 
reducing them to British units : 

kilogrammetre. 7> 2 33 f ot pounds. 

foot pound 188 kilogrammetre. 

French horse power (chevelvapeur) 75 kilo- 

grammetres per second 9863 horse power. 

British horse power 1.0139 chevaux. 

kilogramme per cheval 2,239 pounds H. P. 

pound per horse power 447 kilo, per chevaJL 

caloric, or French heat unit 3.968 British unltS 

British thermal unit 252 caloric. 

French mechanical equivalent, 423.55 (usually 

called 424) kilogrammetres 3063. 5 ft. pounds. 

English mechanical equivalent, 772 footpounds 10.76 kilogrammetre 



284 

A NEW ALLOY. 

An alloy, the electrical resistance of which diminishes 
with increase of temperature, has recently been discovered. 
It is composed of copper, manganese and nickel. Another 
alloy, due to the same investigator, the resistance of which is 
practically independent .of the temperature, consists of 70 
parts of copper combined with 30 of ferro-manganese 

USE OF NATURAL GAS IN CUPOLAS. 

At Pittsburgh, Pa., natural gas has been utilized in 
cupolas for ordinary castings. The apparatus consists of a 
series of pipes, covered with fire-clay tiles, and, at the same 
time, ventilating the pipes with a current of air. A combus- 
tion chamber is necessarily connected with the furnace, to 
insure the required heat and prevent the chilling of the fur- 
nace. 

A NEW CEMENT. 

A cement called magnesium oxychloride, or white cement, 
has been discovered, and is now manufactured in California, 
as we learn from an exchange. It is composed of one-half 
( l / 2 ) magnesium oxide, which is obtained from the magnesite 
deposits in the Coast Range, and one-half (^) magnesium 
chloride, obtained from various sea-salt manufactories 
throughout the State. It may be used for sidewalks, and for 
interior decorating, and in appearance resembles pure white 
marble. It has a natural polish, and, above all, is much 
cheaper than any of the other substances now in use. 

HOW TO CAST A FACE. 

The person whose face is to be " taken " is placed flat 
upon his back, his hair smoothed back by pomatum to pre- 
vent it covering any part of the face, and a conical piece of 
paper or a straw, or a quill put in each nostril to breathe 
through. The eyes and mouth are then closed and the entire 
face completely and carefully covered with salad oil. The 
plaster, mixed to the proper consistency, is then poured in 
large spoonfuls to the thickness of one-quarter or one-half 
inch, in a few minutes this can be taken off as if it were a 
film. When a cast of the entire head or of the whole human 
figure is required, either a cast of the face is added to a mass 
of clay, which is to be modeled to the required figure, or the 
whole figure is modeled from drawings prepared for thai- 
purpose T ! > is the work of the sculptor. 



When the clay model is finished, a mold is made from it 
as in the former cases. If the model be a bust, a thin ridge 
of clay is laid along the figure from the head to the base, and 
the front is first completed up to the ridge by filling up the 
depressions two or three inches deep. The ridge of clay is 
now removed, the edges of the plaster are o'led, and the 
other half is clone in a similar way. The two halves are like- 
wise tied together with cords, and the plaster is poured in. 
In complicated figures, say a " Laocoon," the statue is oiled 
and covered with gelatine, which is cut off in sections by 
means of a thin, sharp knife, each piece serving as a Mold 
for its own part of the new statue. 

MELTING POINTS OF METALS. 



Metals. 


Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit. 


Aluminum 


deg 


rees 700 
425 

' 

264 

320 
,200 
,091 
,38l 
I 7 6 

530 

,200 
,400 

334 
235 
40 
i, 600 
62 
2,600 
1,040 
96 

235 
412 


deg 

< 

i 


rees 1,292 
797 
365 
507-2 
608 
' 2,192 
1,995.8 
< . 2,485. r * 
348.8 
2,786 
* 2,192 
2,552 
617 

455 
-40 
2,912 
143.6 
4,712 
1,904 
172.8 
455 
773- 6 


Antimony 


Arsenic 


Bismuth 


Cadmium 


Cobalt 


Copper 


Gold 


Indium 


Iron, wrought 


Iron, cast 


Iron, steel 


Lead 


Magnesium 


Mercury 


Nickel 


Potassium 


Platinum 


Silver 


Sodium 


Tin . . . 


Zinc 



According to experiments recently made at the Royal 
Polytechnic School at Munich, the strength of camel hair 
belting reaches 6,215 pounds per square inch, while that of 
ordinary belting ranges between 2,230 pounds and 5,260 
pounds per square inch. 



286 
WEIGHT AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF METAL. 



Metals. 


Wt. pr 
cubic ft. 


Wt. pr 

cubic ft. 


Specific 
grav. 


Aluminum. ... 


Lbs. 
1 66 
419 
613 

524 
534 
537 
555 
1208 
1106 
528 

450 
485 
708 
711 
849 
1344 
H3 6 
654 
644 
490 
455 
437 


Lbs. 
.096 
.242 
353 
3 
.308 

3i 
32 

.697 
.638 

304 
.26 
.28 
.408 
.j.i 
.489 

775 
.828 

377 
371 
.284 
.262 
.252 


2.67 
6.72 
9.822 
8.4 
8.561 
8.607 
8.9 
19.361 
17.724 

3-459 
7.21 
7.78 
11.36 
11.41 
I3-596 
21-531 
23- 
10.474 
10.312 
7-85 
7.29 

7- 


Antimony, cast 


Bismuth 


Brass, cast 


Bronze 


Copper, cast 


( ' wire 


Gold, 24 carat 


* ( standard 


Gun-metal 


Iron, cast . 


" wrought 


Lead, cast 


" rolled 


Mercury . 


Platinum 


sheet 


Silver, pure 


'* standard 


Steel. 


Tin, cast 


Zinc 



HOW TO MEND PATTERNS. 
For mending patterns needing temporary repairs,or for 
making additions where but one or two molds are to be 
made, the following material will be found very useful. 
Melt together I pound beeswax, i pound rosin and one 
pound paraffine wax. It is well to note here that the bees- 
wax intended is the wax made by the bees, and not the 
wax made by the wholesale dealers. The cheap wax sold 
to the shipping houses contains but a small portion of 
the article made by the bees, and a large proportion of 
soft paraffine wax. The result of using this compound wax 
instead of the genuine article, in any mixture, is to intro- 
duce too much paraffine and only a little beeswax. When 
the genuine article is used, this mixture will be found 
very useful for making addition to patterns, temporary 
patterns, and for a variety of purposes in pattern shop. 



28 7 

VALUE OF METALS. 
Gold by the pound avoirdupois. 

Vanadium (cryst. fused) $4,792.40 

Rubidium (wire) , 3,261 .60 

Calcium (electrolyctic) 2,446.20 

Tantalum (pure) 2,446.20 

Cerium (fused globules) 2,446.20 

Eithium (globules) 2,228. 79 

Lithium (wire) 2,935.44 

Lubium (fused) ,67 1 .57 

Didymium (fused) ,620.08 

Strontium (electrolyctic) ,576.44 

Indium (pure) ,522.08 

Ruthenium ,304.64 

Columbium (fused) ,250.28 

Rhodium ,032. 84 

parium (electrolyctic) 924. 12 

ralliu'H 73&39 

Osmium 652. 32 

Palladium 498.30 

Indium. 466. 59 

Uranium 434.88 

Gold 299.72 

Titanium (fused) 239.80 

Tellurium " 196.20 

Chromium " 196.20 

Platinum " 122.31 

Manganese " 108. 72 

Molydenum. 54-34 

Magnesium (wire and tube) 45-3 

Potassium (globules) 22.65 

Silver 18.60 

Aluminum (bar) 16.30 

Cobalt (cubes) 12.68 

Nickel 3.80 

Cadmium 5.26 

Sodium 3.26 

Bismuth (crude) 1-95 

Mercury. J .00 

Antimony .36 

Tin.....' .25 

Copper .22 

Arsenic .15 

Zinc .10 

Lead .06 

Iron.. .1% 



288 

LENGTH PER COIL AND WEIGHT OF ROPE PER 
HUNDRED FATHOMS. 



Manila and Sisal Rope. 


Tarred 
Cordage. 


Diameter in 
inches. 


Cir. in 
inches 


Le'gth 
in feet. 


Lbs. 
per 
lOoFa 


Le'gth 
in feet. 


Lbs. 
per 
loo Fa 


# or 6th. 


# 


1,300 


'12 


840 


18 


5-16 or Qth. 


15-16 


1,300 


17 


840 


29 


ft or I2th. 


iH 


1,200 


23 


840 


40 


15 thread. 


15 thread. 


1,200 


3 1 


840 


47 


I 8 thread. 


1 8 thread. 


1,100 


45 


840 


58 


21 thread. 


21 thread. 


I,IOO 


5 


840 


68 


# 


i# 


990 


' 52 


960 


64 


9-16 

# 


i# 

2 


990 

99 


7 
83 


960 
960 


79 
94 


*, 


2X 


990 


105 


960 


130 


% 


2^ 


99 


125 


960 


140 


15-16 


2^? 


990 


155 


960 


170 




3 , 


99 


175 


960 


207 


1-16 


3# 


99 


205 


960 


238 


3-16 


3X 


990 


255 


960 


272 


X 


3^ 


990 


280 


960 


300 


S-i6 


4 


960 


310 


960 


332 


n 


4* 


960 


355 


960 


376 


yt 


4^ 


960 


410 


9 6o 


440 


H 


4^ 


9 6o 


450 


960 


505 


11-16 


5 


960 


500 


960 


573 


iH 


sX 


960 


550 


960 


610 


1% 


5K 


960 


610 


960 


654 


I 15-16 


5 


960 


690 


960 


797 


2 


6 


960 


750 


960 


900 


2 3~l6 


6^ 


960 


845 


960 


1.057 


2*/S 


7 


960 


1,000 


960 


1,163 


2% 


rA 


960 


1,100 


960 


i>35^ 


2# 


8 


960 


1,270 


960 


1,613 


3 


9 


960 


i595 


960 


2,013 



HOW TO MAKE BRONZE MALLEABLE. 

Domier has discovered that bronze is rendered malleable 
by adding to it from one-half to two per cent, of mercury. 



289 
WHEN A DAY'S WORK BEGINS. 

The decision of the Supreme Court that a workman who 
has agreed to do work at a specified sum per hour, is not 
entitled to charge for the time spent in going to or returning 
from work, is one that equitably applies to some kind^of 
business, but not to others. Where house-building mechan- 
ics have several days' work to do at a building, and their 
tools and materials are on the spot, they are expected t > re- 
port at the building in time to do a full day's work. Where 
they are doing odd jobs and are obliged to siart from the 
shop in the morning, they do so at the regular hour for 
beginning work, thus reducing the hours of actual labor. 
But they must be paid for the whole day, and the person for 
whom the work is done must be charged for the time occu- 
pied in going to and from the job; otherwise, the " boss" 
would have to pay his journeymen, for say tea hours* \\ork. 
though accounting for only s.x hours work' in his bill to cus- 
tomers. In some. of the small trades a journeyman will go to 
half a doze.i houses in a day, doing an hour's work in, each, 
and spending the other four hours in passing from one job to 
another. In one way cr another he is bound to be paid for 
the whole time. If he can charge only for the actual work- 
ing time, then his rates will be increased so as to compensate 
him for the time spent in service that is not to be paid for. 
The decision shows the importance of making agreements of 
this kind specific, both as to the rate of wages and the hours 
and kind of service. 

CAMEL'S-HAIR BELTING. 

Camel's-hair belting has been recently the subject of 
experiments at the Polytechnic school, at Munich, from 
which it Dopears that the strength of camel's-hair belting 
reaches 6,315 pounds per square inch, whilst that of ordinary 
belting ranges between 2,230 pounds and 5,260 pounds per 
square inch. A contemporary says the camel's-hair belt is 
said to work smoothly and well, and it is unaffecte^ ty 
acids 

TO PERFORATE GLASS. 



In drilling glass, stick a piece of stiff clay or putty on tht 
part where you wish to make the hole. Make a hole in tte 
putty the size you want the hole, reaching to the glass, of 
course. Into this hole pour a little molten lead, when, 
unless it is very thick glass, the piece will immediately drop 



290 
HIGH SPEED GEARING. 

During the last few years, and particularly since the 
adoption of double-heliacal teeth, a great increase has been 
made in speed at which gearing is run, and, in many cases, 
there are now successfully adopted speeds which in former 
days would have been regarded as utterly impracticable. 
The most striking instances of this which we have come 
across, is in the case of a pair of double-heliacal wheels at 
the works of Messrs. R. Johnson & Nephew, the well known 
wire-drawers of Manchester. These wheels, which were cast 
by Messrs. Sharpies & Co., of Ramsbottom, Lancashire, are 
12 in. wide on the face, by 6 ft. 3 in. diameter, and they have 
now been running for over a year at 220 revolutions per 
minute, the pitch-line speed being thus 4,319 ft. per minuls. 
Notwithstanding this enormous speed, the wheels run with 
Scarcely any noise, and their working has been most satis- 
factory. This is the highest speed we have heard of for 
geared wheels, running iron to iron, and the fact that it ha 
been adopted with success, is a most interesting one. 

The large gear on the Corliss engine at the Centennial 
Exhibition was 30 feet in diameter, outside, and ran at 36 
revolutions per minute. It had a 24-in. face, and the speed 
of the pitch-line is about 3, 360 ft. per minute. This speed is 
exceeded by a similar gear, also made by Mr. Corliss, which 
is now running in a mill in Massachusetts. It is 30 ft. in 
outside diameter, and has a 3o-in. face. It makes 50 revolu- 
tions per minute, and the speed of the pitch-line is not far 
from .4,670 ft. per minute. This is probably the highest 
speed at which any gear has yet been run continuously. 

The Corliss gears are all accurately shaped by a revolving 
cutter: but it is probable that Messrs. Sharpies & Co.'s gears 
are not cut, but cast, and then finished up by hand. If that 
is the case, their performance is much more remarkable than 
that of the Corliss gears. 

THE WORLD'S STEAM ENGINES. 

According to the Berlin Bureau of Statistics, there is in 
the world the equivalent of 46,000,000 horse-power in steam 
engines, 3,000,000 being in locomotives. In engines other 
than locomotives, the United States comes first with 7,500,- 
<X>o horse power; England next with 7,000,000 horse power; 
Germany 4,500,000 horse-power; France 3,000,000 horse- 
pdwer, and Austria 1,500^000. Four-fifths of the si en in 
engines now in operation are said to have bee i built within 
the last twenty-five years 



291 
LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. 

Cotton-seed oil will take fire even when mixed with 
twenty-five pe/ cent, of petroleum oil ; but ten per cent, of 
mineral oil mixed with animal or vegetable oil, will go far to 
prevent combustion. 

Olive oij is combustible, and, mixed with rags, hay or 
sawdust, will produce spontaneous combustion. 

Coal dust, flour-dust, starch (especially rye flour), are all 
explosive when with certain proportions of air. 

New starch is highly explosive in its comminuted state, 
also sawdust in a very fine state, when confined in a close 
lhute, and water directed on it. Sawdust should never be 
used :xi oil shops or warehouses to collect drippings or leak- 
ages from casks. 

Dry vegetable or animal oil inevitably takes fire, when 
saturating cotton waste, at 1 80 F. Spontaneous combustion 
occurs most quickly when the cotton is soaked with its own 
weight of oil. The addition of forty per cent, of mineral oil 
(density .890) of great viscosity, and emitting no inflammable 
vapors, even in contact with an ignited body at any point 
below 338 F. , is sufficient to prevent spontaneous combustion, 
and the addition of twenty per cent, of the same mineral oil 
doubles time necessary to produce spontaneous combustion. 

Greasy rags from butter, and greasy ham bags. 

Bituminous coal in large heaps, refuse heaps of pit coal, 
hastened by wet, and especially when pyrites are present in 
the coal ; the larger the heaps the more liable. 

Timber dried by steam pipes or hot water, or hot air 
heating apparatus, owing to fine iron dust being thrown off, 
in close wood-casings, or boxings round the pipes, from the 
mere expansion and contraction of the pipes. 

Patent dryers from leakages into sawdust, etc., oily waste 
of any kind, or waste cloths of silk or cotton, saturated with, 
oil, varnish, turpentine. 

HOW COMBUSTION IN COAL IS PPODUCED. 

In a ton of anthracite coal, there is about 1,830 Ibs. of car-, 
bon, 70 Ibs. of hydrogen and 52 Ibs. of oxygen; while a ton 
of good bituminous coal is composed of 1, 600 Ibs. of carbon,, 
108 Ibs. of hydrogen and 32 Ibs. of oxygen. The combus- 
tion of coal proceeds from its combination with oxygen gas,, 
and, when fuel of any kind combines with oxygen, heat is pro* '. 
duced. All bodies, substances, gases and liquids, are com- 
posed of separate particles, often of molecules of inconceiv- 
able smp!1n;s>. These particles, it is scientifically conceded, 



292 

are in motion among themselves, and this motion constitutes 
feat, for heat is only a kind of motion. This internal vibra- 
tion of mfinitesirnal particles may be transmuted into a per- 
ceptible mechanical movement, or the mechanical movement 
may be converted into the invisible motion called heat. The 
oxygen combined with coal has a very considerable range of 
internal motion, and the combining process produces carbonic 
acid gas; and, the particles of this gas having a much smaller 
range of motion than the particles of the oxygen have, the 
difference appears in the form of heat. 

CAPACITY OF CYLINDRICAL CISTERNS. 

The following table shows the capacity in gallons for 
each foot in depth of cylindrical cisterns of any diameter: 
Diameter. Gallons. Diameter. Gallons. 

25 ft- 3.059 7 ft- 239 

20 ft. *>958 6^ ft. 206 

15 ft. 1,101 6 ft. 176 

14 ft. 959 5 ft. 122 

13 ft- ^27 4 # ft. 99 

12 ft. 705 4 ft. 78 

ii ft. 592 3 ft. 44 

10 ft. 489 2% ft. 30 

9 ft. 396 2 ft. 19 

8 ft. 313 

HOW TO SELECT A HAND SAW. 

A saw-maker has this advice to give to carpenters in the 
selection of a saw: 

"See that it 'hangs' right. Grasp it by the handle and hold 
it in position for working to see if the handle fits the hand 
properly. A handle should be symmetrical, and the lines 
perfect. Many handles are made of the green wood; they 
soon shrink and become loose, the screws standing above 
the wood. An unseasoned handle is liable to warp and throw 
the saw out of shape. Try the blade by springing it. seeing 
that- it bends evenly from point to butt i i proportion as the 
wLltli and gauge of the saw vary. The bl ide should not be 
too heavy in comparison to the teeth, as it will re-quire more 
labor to use it. The thinner you can get a stiff saw she bet- 
ter: it makes less 'kerf and takes less muscle to drive it. 

"See that the saw is well set and has a good crowning 
breast. Pluce ir, at a distance from you; .net a prpr light 
on it. and you can see if there has been any imperfections in 
grinding or hammering." 



FBOM ONE TON OF COAL. 

From one ton of ordinary gas coal may be produced 1,500 
pounds of coke 20 gallons of ammonia water and 140 pounds 
of coal tar. By destructive distillation the coal tar will 
yield 69.5 pounds of pitch. 17 pounds of creosote. 14 pounds 
of heavy oils. 9,5 pounds of naphtha yellow, 6.3 pounds <>f 
naphfha'in^. 4. 75 p Minds of iriphtix*!. 2 25 pounds of solvent 
na'.Ki'h.i. 1 5 pounds of i>hen<>!. 1.2 pounds of aurine, 1.1 
pounds of benzine, 1 1 pounds >f analine, 0.77 of a pound of 
loludine, 0.46 of a pound of anthracine and 0.9 of a pound of 
toulene. Prom the latter is obtained the new substance 
known as saccharine, which is 530 times as sweet as the best 
cane sugar, one part of it giving a vei y sweet taste to a thou- 
sand parts of water. 

HOW TO SELECT ROPE. 

A German paper, in an article on the present methods of 
rope manufacture from hemp, and the determination of the 
different qualities and the probable strength simply from the 
appearance, lays down the following rules: A good hemp 
rope i .; hard hut pliant, yellowish and greenish gray in color, 
with a certain .silvery or pearly Lister. A dark or blackish 
color indicates that the hemp has suffered from fermentation 
in the process of curing, and brown spots show that the rope 
was spun while the fibers were damp, and is consequently- 
weak and soft in those places. Again, sometimes a rope is 
made with inferior hemp on the inside, covered with yarns 
of good material a fraud, however, which may be detected 
by dissecting a portion of the rope, or, in practical hands, by 
its behavior in use ; other inferior ropes are made with short 
fibers, or with strands of unequal strength or unevenly spun 
the rope in the first case appearing wooly, on account ol 
the number of ends of fiber projecting, and, in the latter 
case, the irregularity of manufacture is evident on inspection 
by any good judge. 

THINGS THAT WILL NEVER BE SETTLED. 

Whether a long screw-driver is better than a short one 
of the same family. 

Whether water-wheels run faster at night than they do in 
the day time. 

The best way to harden steel. 

Which side of the belt should run next to the pulley. 

The proper speed of line shafts. 

The right way to lace belts. 

Whether compression is economical or the reverse. 

The principle of the steam injector. 



294 
THINGS WORTH KNOWING. 

Dominer has discovered that bronze is rendered malleable 
by adding to it from one-half to two per cent, of mercury. 

An " inch of rain " means a gallon of water spread over a 
surface of nearly two square feet, or a fall of about loo tons 
on an acre of ground.. 

A steam power plant is divided into five fundamental 
parts by a French author the boiler, motor, condenser, 
distributing mechanism, and mechanism of transmission. 

Turpentine and black varnish, put with any good stove 
polish, is the blackening used by hardware dealers for polish- 
ing heating stoves. If properly put on, it will last throughout 
the season. 

A workman in the Carson mint has discovered that drill 
points, heated to a cherry-red and tempered by being driven * 
into a bar of lead, will bore through the hardest steel or plate 
glass without perceptibly blunting. 

To harden copper, melt together, and stir till thoroughly 
incorporated, copper and from one to six per cent, of mand- 
ganese oxide. The other ingredients for bronze and other 
alloys may then be added. The copper becomes homogene- 
ous, harder and tougher. 

SIMPLE TESTS FOR WATER. 

Boiler-users who desire simple tests for the water they 
are using will find the following compilation of tests both 
useful and valuable : 

Test for Hard or Soft Water Dissolve a small piece 
of good soap in alcohol. Let a few drops of the solution 
fall into a glass of the water. If it turns milky, it is hard 
water; if it remains clear, it is soft water. 

Test for Earthy Matters or Alkali Take litmus-paper 
dipped in vinegar, and, if on immersion the paper returns 
to its true shade, the water does not contain earthy matter 
or alkali. If a few drops of syrup be added to a water con- 
taining an earthy matter, it will turn green. 

Test for Carbonic Acid Take equal parts of water 
and clear lime water. If combined or free carbonic acid is 
present, a precipitate is seen, to which, if a few drops of 
muriatic acid be added, effervescence commences. 

Test for Magnesia Boil the water to twentieth part of 
its weight, and then drop a few grains of neutral carbonate 
of ammonia into a glass of it and a few drops of phosphate 
oCsoda. If magnesia is present, it will fall to the bottom. 



Tist for Iron Boil a little nut-gall and add to the 
water. If it turns gray or slate-black, iron is present. 
Second: Dissolve a little prussiate of potash, and, if iron U 
present, it will turn blue. 

Test for Lime Into a glass of water put two drops of 
oxalic acid, and blow upon it. If it gets milky, lime is present 

Test for Acid Take a piece of litmus-paper. If it 
turns red, there must be acid. If it precipitates on adding 
lime water, it is carbonic acid. If a blue sugar paper is 
turned red, it is a mineral acid. 

Test for Copper If present, it will turn bright 
polished steel a copper color. Second : A few drops of 
ammonia will turn it blue, if copper is present. 

Tests for Lead Take sulphureted gas and water in 
equal quantity to be tested. If it contains lead, it will turn 
a blackish brown. Again : The same result will take place 
\f sulphate of ammonia be used. 

T*est for Sulphur In a bottle of water add a little 
q '^silver, cork it for six hours, and, if it looks dark on 
tli pp, and on shaking looks blackish, it proves the presence 
of sulphur. 

JAPANESE LACQUER FOR IRON SHIPS. 

The Japanese Admiralty has finally decided upon coating 
the bottoms of all their ships with a material closely akin to 
the lacquer to which we are so much accustomed as a 
specialty of Japanese furniture work. Although the prep- 
aration differs somewhat from that commonly known as 
Japanese lacquer, the b^se of it is the same viz., gum-lac, 
as it is commonly termed. Experiments, which have been 
long continued by the Imperial Naval Department, have 
resulted in affording proof that the new coating material 
remains fully efficient for three years, and the report on the 
subject demonstrates that, although the first cost of the 
material is three times the amount of that hitherto employed, 
the number of dockings required will be reduced by its use to 
the proportion of one to six. \ vessel of the Russian Pacific 
fleet has already been coated with the new preparation, 
which, the authorities say, completely withstands the fouling 
influences so common in tropical waters. It took the native 
inventor many years to overcome the tendency of the lac to 
harden and crack; but having successfully accomplished this, 
the finely-polished surface of the mixture resists in an almost 
perfect degree the liability of barnacles to adhere or weeds *o 



296 

grow, while, presumably, the same high polish must materi- 
ally reduce the skiu friction which is so important an elejnent 
affecting the speed of iron ships. The dealers in gum-lac 
express the fear lest the demand likely to follow on this novel 
application of it may rapidly exhaust existing sources of 
supply. 

IRON IN THE CONGO. 

Last year Mr. Dupont, director of the Museum of Natural 
History of Brussels, went to the Congo for the purpose of 
studying the geology of the valley from the Atlantic to the 
confluence of the Kassai River, over 400 miles from the coast. 
After eight months devoted to this work, he has returned to 
Europe, bringing some surprising reports with regard to the 
mineral resources of the region. He says that throughout 
the entire extent of the country he found in the plateaus 
skirting the river, under the thick alluvium, a stratum of iron 
ore from a foot and a half to three feet in thickness. In 
numerous places he saw blocks of iron ore sometimes many 
cubic feet in dimensions, upon the slopes of ravines, where 
they had been exposed by denudation. He asserts that there 
is scarce' y a country in the world so rich in iron ore as the 
Cor^o basin, and the mineral is not only abundant, but can 
also be easily reduced. In his opinion, if the other continents 
ever exhaust their resources of iron, the Congo basin can sup- 
ply the rest of the world for a long period. 

GLASS CUTTING BY ELECTRICITY. 

The cutting of glass tubes of wide diameter is another of 
the almost innumerable industrial applications of electricity. 
The tube is surrounded with fine wire, and the extremities of 
the latter are put in communication with a source of electricity, 
and it is of course necessary that the wire adhere closely to 
the glass. When a current is passed through the wire, the 
latter becomes red hot and heats the glass beneath it, and a 
single drop of water deposited on the heated place, will cause 
a clean breakage of the g'ass at that point. Contrary to 
what takes place with the usual processes in the treatment of 
this frangible material, jt is found that, the thicker the sides 
of the tubes are, the better the experiment succeeds. 

They have been making 38-ton guns at Portsmouth, 
England, and are talking of introducing the 47-ton variety. 
Nearly 35,000 people live at Portsmouth on wages earned in 
doing some kind of work on Kn^ml'' big guns. 



2 9 7 

OTA* NESS CAUSED BY THE ELECTRIC 
LIGHT. 

A curious phenomenon was recently related by M. D'Ar- 
sonval before the French Academy of Medicine. After gazing 
for a few seconds on an arc light of intense brilliancy, he 
suddenly became deaf, and remained so for nearly an hour 
and a half. Surprised, and somewhat alarmed in the first 
instance, but reassured by the d.sa]r-e.i ranee of the symp- 
toms,, he repeated the experiment with the same result. 
When only one eye was exposed to the light, no very marked 
effect was produced. 

BROWNING GUN BARRELS. 

Mix 16 parts sweet spirits niter, 12 parts saturated solu- 
tion of sulphate of iron, 12 parts chloride of antimony. Bot- 
tle and cork the mixture for a day, then add 500 parts of 
water and thoroughly mix. Clean the barrel to a uniform 
grain free from grease and finger stains. Wipe with a stain- 
ing mixture on a wad of cotton. Let it stand for twenty-four 
hours, scratch brush the iarface and repeat twice. Rub off 
the last time with leathei -aioistened with olive oil. Let dry 
a day, and rub down \\ith a cloth moistened with oil to 
polish. 

SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION 

There is a remarkable tendency observable in tissues and 
cotton, when moistened with oil, to become heated when 
oxidation sets in, and sad results often follow when this is neg- 
lected. A wad of cotton used for rubbing a painting has 
been known to take fire when thrown through the air. The 
waste from vulcanized rubber, when thrown in a damp con- 
dition into a pile, takes fire spontaneously. Masses of 
coal stored in a yard have been known to take fire without a 
spark being applied, and one cannot be too careful in 
storing any substance in which oxidation is liable to take 
place. 

A LARGE LUMP OF COAL. 

One of the largest lumps of coal ever mined in the Monon- 
gahela Valley was taken from J. S. N eels' Cincinnati mines, 
near Monongahela City, lately. The block measured 7 feet 
8 inches long, 3 feet 5 inches high, and 3 feet 7 inches wide. 
A temporary track was laid to the river, and the big piece o^ 
coal loaded in a boat, for Cincinua.' i. 



SCREW-MAKING AT PROVIDENCE, RHODE 
ISLAND. 

It is not known when screws were first made and brought 
into use. The first instance known of machinery being applied 
to the making of screws, was in France, in 1569, by a man 
named Besson, who contrived a screw-cutting gauge to be 
used in a lathe. The early method had been to make the heads 
by pinching the blanks while red hot between dies, and then 
to form the threads by the process of filing. In 1741 Besson's 
device was improved by Hindley, a watchmaker, of York, 
England; and for a long time the watch-makers of that 
country used this device in making the small screws used in 
their work. The first English patent appears to have been 
issued to Job and William Wyatt, in 1760, for three machines 
one for making blanks, another for nicking the heads, and 
a third for cutting the threads. Between that date and 1840 
about ten patents were issued, only one of which is worthy of 
notice, namely that of Miles Berry, d?*ed January 28, 1837, 
which was for a gimlet-pointed screw. The first American 
patent was issued December 14, 1798, to David Wilkinson, a 
celebrated mechanic of Rhode Island. ' The next American 
patent was dated March 23, 1813, and was issued to Jacob 
Perkins, of Newburyport, Mass. In that year, also, a patent 
was granted to Jacob Sloat, of Ramapo, N. Y. At the exten- 
sive nail and iron works of the Piersons, established in Ram- 
apo in 1798, Thomas W. Harvey in 1831 applied the tog- 
gle-joint to the headings of screws, rivets and spikes. In 1834 
Mr. Harvey entered into partnership with Frederick Goodell, 
a cotton manufacturer of Ramapo, and established a small 
screw manufactory at Poughkeepsie, and early in the next 
year Mr. Harvey invented machines for heading, nicking and 
shaving screws. These and a thread-cutting machine, pur- 
chased from its inventors, Jacob Sloat and Thomas Spring- 
steen, were successfully operated, producing a gimlet-pointea 
screw. 

It is interesting to note that, while the manufacture of 
wood screws probably originated in Westphalia, Germany, 
and was subsequently carried on in eastern France and Eng- 
land before its introduction into this country, American in- 
ventors have supplied the machinery that is now universally 
employed. The popular feeling that the gimlet -pointed screw 
was a modern invention is erroneous. The company has in 
its possession sample cards of French screws, pointed, though 



299 

not as perfectly made as at present, which were brought from 
France early in the present century, and from an old piano 
now at Northampton, made about the year 1750, screws have 
been taken showing the same feature. Patents have been 
issued on gimlet-pointed screws, but they covered only a 
peculiar form of point. 

The Eagle Mill of the American Screw Company is 
devoted to the manufacture of wood screws. In the yard 
connected with this mill are landed the rods, in coils, from 
which the screws are to be manufactured. The larger por- 
tion of these rods is .issrswDed from Sweden, Germany and 
England. The r?>t; room into which the reader is to be con- 
ducted is the "pickling room." Here the rod is "pickled" 
for the purpose of removing the flinty scale on the outside; 
and the action of the mixture in that process tends to facil- 
itate the drawing of the wire. After being annealed in fur- 
naces the wire is subjected to the pointing process, the pur- 
pose of which is to reduce the end of the rod to enter the 
draw-plate. The wire is taken into the drawing room, where 
it is drawn in different sizes needed for the great variety of 
screws. The machinery for the different processes is the 
result of the skill of many inventors, who have produced a 
system of machines mostly automatic and beautiful in opera- 
tion. By the automatic wire block used, if anything happens 
to the wire while going through the process, the whole appa- 
ratus stops. If it did not stop, the wire would break. By a 
machine, whose action is accurate and fascinating, the rod 
is cut into the sizes of the screws desired and the head 
put on almost at the same instant. The metal, in going 
through this process, necessarily becomes very oily. 
These "blanks," for such they are called at this stage 
of their manufacture, are put into what are called "rat- 
tlers," revolving boxes, hexagonal in shape, tilled with saw- 
dust, where they are cleansed of the oil that covers them, the 
oil eeing absorbsed by the sawdust. The blanks are ready to 
feave their heads "shaved," which consists in cutting the 
heads perfectly round. The blanks are put into a hopper, and 
by an automatic feeder they are let down into a trough, from 
which they are picked by a metal finger and put into a spin- 
dle. The heads are then "shaved," and by a revolving spin- 
dle the blank is taken to the small saw which cuts the slot in 
the head. Tbe blank is then revolved back again and shaved 
again, to get rid of the "burr," or the rough edge left by the 
tool, in cutting the slot. The blanks are then fired out of 
Vhe machine absolutely perfect. The machine is an automatic 



300 

but very complicated one ; every part of it, however, does its 
work effectively. The blanks, after being shaved and slotted, 
are placed in another machine and threaded, when the screw 
is complete. 

HOW THERMOMETERS ARE MADE. 

The first point, in the construction of the mercurial ther- 
mometer, is to see that the tube is of uniform caliber through- 
out its whole interior. To ascertain this, a short column of 
mercury is put into the tube and moved up and tlowr, to see 
if i'.s length remai' s the same through ail parts of tl.e tube. 
If a tube whose caliber is not uniform is used, slight differ- 
ences are made in its graduation to allow for this. A scale 
of e jual parts is etched upon the tube; and from observations 
of the inequalities of the column of mercury moved in it, a 
table gj.ving the temperatures corresponding to these divisions 
is formed. A bulb is now blown on the tube, and vhileihe 
open end of the latter is dipped into mercury, heat is applied 
to the bulb to expand the air in it. This heat is then with- 
drawn, and theair within contracting, a portion of the merci ry 
rises in the tube, and partly fills the bulb. To the open end of 
the bulb a funnel containing mercury is fitted, and the bulb 
is placed over a flame until it boils, thus expelling all air and 
moisture from the instrument. On cooling, the tube 
instantly fills with mercury. The bulb is now placed in 
some hot fluid, causing the mercury within it to expand and 
flow over the top of the tube, and, when this overflow has 
ceased, the open end of the tube is heated with a blow-pipe 
flame. To graduate the instrument, the bulb is placed in 
melting ice; and, when the top of the mercury column has 
fallen as low rs it will, note is taken of its position as com- 
pared with the scale on the tube. This is the freezing point. 
Jt is marked as zero on the thermometers of Celsius and 
Reaumur, and as 32 on the Fahrenheit class. 

To determine the boiling point, the instrument is placed 
in a metallic vessel with double walls, between which circulates 
the steam from boiling water. Between the freezing and 
boiling point of water, 100 equal degrees are marked in the 
centigrade graduation of Celsius, 180 on the Fahrenheit 
plan, and 80 on the Reaumur. In many thermometers, all 
three of these graduations are indicated on the frame to which 
the tube is attached. Some weeks after a thermometer has 
been made and regulated, it may be noticed that, when the 
bulb is immersed in pounded ice, the mercury does not quite 
descend to the freezing point This is owing to a gradual 
expansion of the mercury, which usually goes on for nearly 



3 oi 

two years, when it is found that the zero point has risen 
nearly a whole degree. It is then necessary to slide dowa 
the scale to which the tube is fastened, so that it will accurately 
read the movements of the mercury. After this change, the 
accuracy of the thermometer is assured, as there is no iurther 
txpansion of the mercury column. 

POINTS FOR APPRENTICES. 

In starting to learn a trade as an apprentice, first imagine 
yourself brighter, and more apt to learn, than the older 
apprentices in the shop. Criticise their work on the last range* 
they blacked. Show the red spots under the doors or under 
the top plates, and if you are not dropped through the trap 
door into the cellar the first opportunity they get, it will be 
some good fortune that favors you. When working with a 
jour., tell him how Tom Jones does that, and his ways are 
not right, or tell him how to do it. Of course the jour, ha? 
worked fifteen years at the business, but that doesn't make 
any difference, you go ahead. If he does not call you c us* 
words and tell you to mind your business, he must have 
a mother-in-law who comes over to see him seven times a day* 
and stays all clay Sunday. 

When you have worked about a year at the business and 
you think you are competent to take charge of the shop, and 
you are given a job of cleaning a furnace, which, of course, 
will smut a boiled shirt, you go home, and kick to the old 
folks; say you are not going to work for Smith any more, at 
he gives you all the dirty work to do, and get the old folks lo- 
go around and see Smith about their precious boy. It will 
make you, in the eyes of Smith, as large as Jumb ) to a rat. 

When you worry your term of apprenticeship t!i rough 
and you receive the title of jour., of course you demand jour.'s 
wages, say as much as old man Stewpot. lie has worked 
eighteen years in the shop, but that doesn't matter. Why, 
you made six dozen joints of stove pipe in two hours and it 
took him three.' Well, if you don't make satisfactory arrange-- 
ments, I heard Billy Doepan say that Enos Ket- 1,3, at Inkville, 
wanted a man, and you, of course, strike; it pays bi^ wages to 
o. first-class man. You go and see Kettle and he as' s you 
what you can do. Of course you worked on the cornice for the 
Grand Opera House, and on the button factory, r.nd several 
other jobs too numerous to mention. You receive n position 
to help Kettle out on the Green building cornice. Thi.> being 
Thursday night, and hs has to go to Piumtoun to CIT. -n up a 
job, he would like to have you come on m the morning. He 



302 

gives you a simple piece of cutting to keep you going until his 
return-on Saturday night, when he makes a practice of paying 
off his help. You come under this head, and find that he offers 
you the enormous sum of seventy-five rents per day. and orders 
the stove porter to go and cover the pig trough with your two 
days' work to keep the pigs from making post holes ir iheir 
trough, which his wife wanted him to do for the past nine 
months. You declare he is a crank; you are going West, or 
to some seaport town. 

You strike out and get a position in a roofing shop paint- 
ing tin. You write home to your brother chip telling what 
a position you have, what big w r ages, etc. , but not giving 
original facts. In a few years you return home broken 
down, with no trade. You can't demand a mechanic's 
wages, and you look back and see your folly. How many 
are there in this boat ? Boys, take my advice: Don't get 
to knowing too much. Jf you get into that way, it is little 
use for a mechanic to have anything to do with you. 

THREE THERMOMETER SCALES. 

Much annoyance is caused by the great difference in 
thermometer scales in use in the different civilized countries. 
The scale of Reaumur prevails in Germany. As is well known, 
he divides the space between the freezing and boiling points 
into 80. France uses that of Celsius, who graduated his 
scale on the decimal system. The most peculiar scale of all, 
however, is that of Fahrenheit, a renowned German physi- 
cist, who in 171401* 1715 composed his scale, having ascer- 
tained that water can be cooled under the freezing point 
without congealing. He therefore did not take the congeal- 
ing point of water, which is uncertain, but composed a mix- 
ture of equal parts of snow and salammonia, about 14 R. 
This scale is preferable to both those of Reaumur and Celsius, 
or, as it is called, Centigrade, because : i. The regular tem- 
peratures of the moderate zone move within its two zeros, 
and can therefore be written without + or . 2. The scale 
is divided so finely that it is not necessary to use fractions, 
when careful observations are to be made. These advan- 
tages, although drawn into question by some, have been con- 
sidered so weighty, that both Great Britain and America have 
retained the scales, while the nations of the Continent use the 
other two. The conversion of any one of these scales into 
another is very simple. I. To change a temperature given 
by Fahrenheit's scale into the same given by the Centigrade 
scale, subtract 32 from Fahrenheit's degrees and multiply 



303 

the remainder by f . The product will be the temperature 
in Centigrade degrees. To change from Fahrenheit's to 
Reaumur's scale, subtract 32 from Fahrenheit's degrees, and 
multiply the remainder by $. The product will be the tem- 
perature in Reaumur's degrees. 3. To change a temperature 
given by the Centigrade scale into the same given by Fahren- 
heit, multiply the Centigrade degrees by , and add 32 to 
the product. The sum will be the temperature by Fahren- 
heit's scale. 4. To change from Reaumur's to Fahrenheit's 
scale, multiply the degrees on Reaumur's scale by -J, and add 
32 to the product. The sum will be the temperature by 
Fahrenheit's scale. Following is a table giving the equiva- 
lents in Centigrade, Reaumur and Fahrenheit, up to boiling 
point, which will be a convenience to all readers who do not 
like the labor of converting one scale to another : 



C. 



R, 



F. 



30 


24.0 


22.0 


29 


23.2 


20.2 


28 


22.4 


-I8. 4 


27 


21.6 


16.6 


26 


20.8 


14.8 


25 


20. 


13.0 


24 


19.2 


II. 2 


23 


18.4 


9.4 


22 


-17.6 


-7.6 


21 


16.8 


-5.8 


2O 


16.0 


4.0 


19 


15.2 


2.2 


1 8 


14.4 


0.4 


17 


-13-6 


1,4 


16 


12.8 


3-2 


15 


I2.O 


5-o 


14 


II. 2 


6.8 


13 


IO.4 


8.6 


12 
II 


-9.6 

-8.8 


10.4 

12.2 


IO 


8.0 


I4.O 


3 


-7.2 
-6.4 


15.8 

17.6 


7 


-5.6 


19.4 


6 


4.8 


21.2 


5 


4.0 


23.0 


4 


3-2 


24.8 


3 


2.4 


26.6 


~-2 


1.6 


28.4 



C. 



8 
9 

10 

ii 

12 
13 
H 
15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 

22 

23 

2 4 

25 
26 

27 



R. 



F. 



Up, 8 


30.2 


o.o 


32.0 


0.8 


33.8 


1.6 


35.6 


2.4 


37.4 


3-2 


39-2 


4.0 


41.0 


4.8 


42.8 


5-6 


44.6 


6.4 


46.4 


7.2 


48.2 


8.0 


50.0 


8.8 


51.8 


9.6 


53-6 


10.4 


55-4 


II. 2 


57.2 


12.0 


59-o 


12.8 


60.8 


43-6 


62.6 


144 


64.4 


15.2 


66.2 


16.0 


68.0 


16.8 


69.8 


17.6 


71.6 


18.4 


73-4 


19.2 


75-2 


20. o 


77.0 


20.8 
21.6 


78.8 
80.6 



304 



c. 


R. 


F. 


C. 


R. 


F. 


28 


22.4 


82.4 


65 


52.0 


149.0 


29 


23.2 


81.2 


66 


52-8 


150.8 


3 


24.0 


86.0 


67 


53-6 


152.6 


3 


24.8 


87.8 


68 


54-4 


154-4 


32 


25-6 


89. 6 


69 


55-2 


156.2 


33 


26.4 


91.4 


76 


56.0 


i5S.c 


34 


27.2 


93-2 




S6.8 


159-8 


35 


28.0 


95 o 


72 


57-6 


161-6 


36 


28.8 


96.8 


73 




163-4 


37 


29.6 


98.6 


74 


59-2 


165-2 


38 


30-4 


too. 4 


75 


60.0 


167-0 


39 


31.2 


I O2. 2 


76 


(10.8 


168-8 


40 


32.0 


104.0 


77 


61 6 


170-6 


4* 


32-8 


105.8 


78 


624 


1724 


42 


33-6 


107.6 


79 


63.2 


174.2 


43 


H-4 


109.4 


80 


64.0 


176.0 


-14 


35-2 


III. 2 


81 


64.8 


177.8 


45 




I 13.0 


82 


65.6 


179.6 


46 


}6.8 


114-8 


83 


66.4 


181.4 


47 


37-6 


116.6 


84 


67.2 


1832 


48 


38.4 


118.4 


85 


68.0 


185.0 


49 


39-2 


I 2O. 2 


86 


68.8 


1 86. 8 


5 


40.0 


122.0 


87 


19.6 


188.6 


5 1 


40.8 


123.8 


88 


70.4 


190.4 


52 


41.6 


125.6 


89 


71.2 


192.2 


53 


42-4 


127.4 


90 


72.0 


194.0 


54 


43-2 


129.2 


91 


72.8. 


195.8 


55 


44.0 


I3I.O 


92 


73-6 


197.6 


56 


44-8 


132.8 


93 


74-4 


199.4 


57 


45-6 


134.6 


94 


75-2 


201.2 


58 


46-4 




95 


76.0 


2O3.O 


59 


47-2 


J&2 


90 


76.8 


204.8 


60 


48.0 


140.0 


97 


7^.0 


206.6 


61 


48.8 


141.8 


98 


78.4 


2O8.4 


62 


49-6 


143.6 


98 


79.2 


210.2 


63 


50-4 


145-4 


luO 


80.0 


212.0 


64 


51 2 


147.2 









WHY STEEL IS HARD TO WELD. 

A metallurgist gives, as a reason why steel will not weld as 
readily as wrought iron, that it is not partially composed of 
cinder, as seems to be the case with wrought iron, which 
assists in forming a fusible alloy with the scale of oxidation on 
the surface of the iron in the furnace. 



305 

DIFFERENT COLORS OF IRON, CAUSED BY 
HEAT. 



Deg. 
Cen. 


Deg. 
Fah. 




261 


502 


f Violet, purple and dull blue. 
1 Between 261 C. to 370 C. it 


370 


680 


^ passes to bright blue sea 






[_ green, and then disappears. 






f Commences (o be covered 






| with a light coating of ox- 


500 


932 


<j ide ; becomes a deal more 






j impressible to the hammer, 






( and can be twisteel with ease. 


5 2 5 


977 


Becomes a nascent red. 


700 


I2Q2 


Somber red. 


800 


1472 


Nascent cherry. 


900 


1657 


C herry. 


1000 


1832 


Bright cherry. 


IIOO 


2OI2 


i hill orange. 


I2OO 


2192 


Bright orange. 


1300 


2.372 


White. 


1400 


2552 


Brilliant white-welding heat. 


1500 
1600 


2732 
291^ 


- Dazzling white. 



TO DRAW FERRULES. 

A useful tool for drawing thimbles or ferrules out of loco- 
motive boiler tubes 
is here shown. It is 
an English inven- 
tion, and it is not 
stated that it is pat- 
ented. The tube A 
is split in quarters on 
the enel so that it 
can be easily slipped 
in. The rest of the 
device explains itself, 

as does the sev ond figure also, which IP another device for the 

same purpose. 




306 
BELTING SHAFTING AT EIGHT ANGLES. 

vn Fig. 1 of the illustration, A is the driver. The belt 
leaves the pulley at C, goes to the driven pulley, and then 
down to the driver at h. In Fig. 2 this movement is re- 




Fig. i. Fig. 2. 

versed. Fig. 3 is a side view of the driven pulley Z?, and Fig. 
4 shows the driving pulley A, with the driven pulley B in- 
side, so as to run in the one direction, while the dotted linesf 




Show B outside, so as to run the opposite way. Figs, i and t 
show that centers of the faces of both pulleys must be in line 



307 

with each other, and if this point is attended to the pulleys 
will run well together, although they may be of different 
diameters. 

AN EASY WAY TO LEVEL SHAFTING. 

The device here illustrated for leveling shafting I have 
found to be very handy. The hangers A. are made of wood 
and are cut at an angle of 45 o at the top end, so that they will 
fit different sized shafts, and a slot is cut at (a) to receive the 
straight edge C. The hangers are placed on the shaft to be 




tried, at any convenient place as near the bearings as possi- 
ble, and the straight edge placed in the slots, in which it 
should fit tight. Then by placing the spirit level D on the 
parallel part of the straight edge, it \vill be seen whether the 
shaft is level or not. It is best ff the hangers be made of 
hard wood. 

A SELF-WINDING CLOCK MOVEMENT. 

A self-winding clock is now on the market and we present 
herewith an engraving of one. It is made by the American 
Manufacturing and Supply Co., Limited, 10 and 12 De$r 
street, New York. Objection may be made to the employ- 
ment of a battery as an auxiliary, and therefore that the clock 



Is not self-winding, but the office of the battery is secendaij; 
the operation of the clock opening the circuit while the bat- 
tery is used only to interrupt it. Appended is a description 
Of the movement: 




The wheels and arbors below the center are removed from 
the clock. In their place a small electric motor is substituted. 
This motor connects with a spring barrel on the center arbor, 
which incloses a spring six feet long, three-sixteenths of an 
inch in widtft and six-one-thousandths of an inch in 
thickness. This spring, at its inner end, is attached 



309 

to the arbor, and at the ou.ef end to the periphery of the 
^pring barrel. The spring is coiled around the arbor many 
times, but not so close as to 'produce friction between the 
Coils; and being attached to the center arbor it follows that 
the inner end will unwind one turn every hour. By a sim- 
ple attachment the electric circuit is made to pass into the 
motor already referred to, which quickly carries the spring 
barrel around once (being free on the arbor), and the outer 
end of the spring attached to its periphery with it. Upon 
the completion of one revolution of the spring barrel, as de- 
scribed, the electric circuit is broken and the motor stops. 
By this arrangement it will be observed that the inner end of 
the spring always has a motion from left to right, or in the 
direction the hands are moving, and the outer end of the 
spring a motion in the same direction when the clock is 
being wound. 

Now, since the winding is done in the same direction as 
the unwinding of the inner end, and the spring is SO wound 
originally as to avoid friction between the coils, it follows 
that the tension upon the train is absolutely uniform at all 
times whether the outer end of the spring is at a point of tem- 
porary rest or is being carried around the arbor at the time 
of winding, as above "described. By actual experiment it is 
found that to obtain a given force at the escape wheel it is 
only necessary to apply a power in this manner at the center 
arbor equal to less than one forty-sixth part of that used in 
the ordinary clock. The train work is not only shortened 
one-half, but the fricfion on the remainder is reduced in the 
proportion stated. 

The invention lies in bringing a motor and clock-work 
together in a time piece, and is not limited to any particular 
device. Experiments prove that a motor as constructed for 
this purpose can be run for one year at an expense of less 
than twenty-five cents; hence a clock may be sealed up and 
left to itself for a period of at least one year with a certainty 
of closer time during that period than can be secured by any 
other known method of giving time. In short, a common 
clock constructed on this principle has been found to keep as 
accurate time as one of the higher grades with gravity 
escapements, etc., run by the old methods. The electric 
motor is normally out of circuit, but at stated intervals, by 
the operation of the clock itself, the circuit is completed and 
the motor is thus set in motion. To be more exact we will 
give a general description of the mechanism employed in the 
clock. Upon the center arbor there is placed a loose " arm M 
between the hour wheel and the wheel carrying the spring 



'oox. At one side of one of the " train plates " is secured 
an insulated spring connector, Jhe free end of which extends 
to, and is within reach of, the " arm," when the same has been 
brought to a perpendicular position, which is done by means 
of a pin projecting from the hour wheel. 

When the hour wheel has thus brought the " arm" to an 
jpright position and in contact with the insulated spring 
connector, the circuit is completed through the motor, which 
at once commences to rotate the spring box one revolution 
from left to right, or in the direction that the hp.nds move. 
Tbe spring box wheel also carries a projecting pin, but set at 
aiCos -'.'. i<a<?e fro^i tb.e rods than the other pin. Now, as 
the motor continues cc* ,.-.Jj? *'*? wing box wheel, while 
the spring connector is resting upon the "arm," it follows 
that as soon as there has been one revolution of the spring 
box wheel the projecting pin upon this wheel will press the 
"arm" forward and out from under the spring connector, 
thereby breaking the circuit and stopping the motor. This 
arrangement prevents the possibility of the clock] running 
b-yond the regular limit for winding, and prevents the motor 
when once set in operation from performing more than the 
work required. 

TESTS OF STEEL PIPE. 

The Riverside Iron Works, of Wheeling, W. Va., has 
carried out a series of interesting experiments to ascertain 
the relative corrosive action of water acidulated with nitric 
acid upon iron and steel plates cut from pipe. The water 
was acidulated with one part of strong nitric acid in ninety 
parts, the plates being of the same dimensions, free from 
scale and grease and polished bright. In each case the 
pieces cut from iron and steel pipe were hung side by side in 
the same acidulated water, the loss of weight being deter- 
mined at the end of twenty-four and of forty-eight hours. 
One test was made by exposing both surfaces and edges to 
the action of dilute acid, the result being that the loss in 
grains after twenty-four hours was 3. 6 in the case of iron 
from standard iron pipe, and 1. 15, or less than half, with steel 
pipe. In forty-eight hours the figures stood 6. 53 and 2.21 
grains, respectively. In a second test the edges of the pieces 
were protected from the action of the acid and the two oppo- 
site sides only exposed. In this test the loss of iron after 
twenty-four hours was 1.89 grains^ against 0.49 grains with 
the steel, and after forty-eight hours 4.28 and 1.24, respect- 
ively. The dimensions of the test-pieces were i]^. ; nches 



3U 

square by 3-16-inch thick. A series >. " comparative tests 
have also been made to ascertain the rela\ ^ strength of the 
weld of Riverside steel and standard iron x **>. Two test- 
pieces were cut from Riverside pipe, mechanv^i lap-weld, 
with the weld at the middle, and in a similar *r*v from 
mechanical lap welded iron pipe, in each case with \ weld 
in the middle. Not one of the tests broke at the we'K *he 
steel showing a tensile strength of 52,400 and 66,330 pou* 
with an elongation of 18.75 and 17.25 per cent in 8 inches 
while the iron pipe samples showed 62,480 and 35,240 pounds 
per square inch, and an elongation of 2.25 and 0.50 per cent 
Two samples from a sheet of Riverside steel lap- welded by 
hand, with the weld in the middle, showed a tensile strength 
of 51,860 pounds, and an elongation of 7 per cent, in 8 
inches, the fracture occurring at the weld. A second sample 
had an ultimate strength of 56,090 pounds, elongation 13 
per cent, and did not break at the weld. Iron plates cut with 
the grain and hand-welded have a tensile strength of 44,630 
and 43,500 pounds, respectively, with an elongation of 5 and 
4.25 per cent., both breaking at the weld. 

TOOL FOR COUNTER-BORING. 

The above is a sketch of a tool that will be found very con- 
venient on many occasions, when 
counter-boring work in the [drill 
press; usually such work is done with 
a cutter of the same shape as it is 
desired to have the finished work, 
when if there is any scale, as in cast 
iron, it is very difficult to get the cut- 
ter started. The tool in the sketch 
entirely obviates that difficulty, as 
only the points come in contact with 
the scale at first and are easily forced 
through it. Referring to the sketch, 
A is the end of a cutter-bar, B, the 
cutter, and C, the wedge for keeping 
the cutter in place. It will be 
noticed that the teeth D, on one side 
of the bar will, as it is" revolved, 
cover the space left by the part of 
the cutter on the other side of the 
bar, and thus rapidly remove the 
scale and metal, when the work 
may be finished by the ordinary flat 
cutter. 




HO^V TO MAKE A SMALL STORAGE LATTERY. 

A storage battery, or accumulator, to light an incandes- 
cent lamp of 4 candle-power, would not jgo in an ordinary 
sized pocket, because one would require at least four cells, 
and if the plates were made too small, the charge put into 
them would last scarcely a few seconds. The following di- 
rections will enable any person to construct a storage bat- 
tery, which, when charged, will light a 4-volt lamp. 

The first thing to do is to procure of some dealer in elec- 
trical apparatus and material a hard rubber cell, about $}4 
inches by 5 inches by i inch, having two compartments of 
equal dimensions. Such a cell can be purchased for about 
fifty cento. 

Next, cut four plates from one-sixteenth inch sheet lead, 
4% inches by i^ inch, having an ear to each; punch as 
many holes in each plate as you can to within ^ inch from 
the ear or top end. Then fill up the holes, and also smear 
the plates with a thick paste of red lead (minimum) and di- 
luted sulphuric acid. Cut out a piece from thin >g of an 
inch hard wood, 3^ inches long and i inch wide ; pierce 
it with four s its large enough to allow the ears of the plates 
to come through (two to each cell), and, also, where con- 
venient, two holes s!:ou!d be made and fitted with glass tubes 
for the purpose of fiiiing the cells. 

As s ion as the rod lead paste has become hard, plac thee 
four p!a'es i \ their positions, and solder the ear of one plate 
to the ear piece of the next cell. This will leave cue free end 
from each cell; to these a wire or terminal should be sol- 
dered. Now cement on the top and cover all over, except 
the g^ss tubes, wit' 1 a composition of one part melted pitch 
and two par's of gutta-percfia, 

Having filled the eel's three-quarters full with a 10 per 
cent, solution of sulphuric acid, connect the wires on a 
primary battery or s nail dynamo. Charge, discharge and 
reverse every three hours, and let the last charge remain in 
all night. Do this till you find your storage battery will 
ring a bell, with fifteen minutes' charging, for about ten. 
Then only charge one way, and mark the ends in some way. 
so as to know where to connect one next time lor charging. 

This battery, when completed, will light a 3 or 4 volt 
iamp well during intervals for about two hours. A similar 
cell, having four compartments instead of two, would suffice 
to operate an 8 or 9 volt lamp, or one of about 6 candle- 
Dower. 

Such a battery as has just been described may be 



veniently be formed by a ten-cell Daniel telegraph battery in 
about a fortnight's time. 

A storage battery of this size should never be charged 
until within an hour or so of its being wanted for use, as it 
will run down a little by short circuiting, owing to the damp- 
ness of the inside. 

Finally, it should be stated, that, before putting the plates 
in the cells for good, a piece of india rubber ought to be 
placed between the plates, as well as a piece on the two out- 
sides, and held by a piece of asbestos fiber. This prevents the 
plates from touching each other, and also keeps them from 
shaking from side to side. 

LUBRICATING WITHOUT OIL. 

Several interesting facts in regard to cylinder lubrication 
were brought out at the recent meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, a'. Philadelphia. Among 
other things Mr. Denton stated as b s opinion that the fric- 
tion of an engine was independent of the lead, and, among 
other things, presented the subjoined interesting table: 



Indicated II. P. 


Friction, 


H. P. Kind of engine. 


84 


7 

10 

5 
5-i 

44 
40 

'9 

25 


{ 
\ 

I 
\ 

\ 


Westinghouse, 
I2xu inches, 
300 revolut's. 
Buckeye, 7x14 
inches, 280 re- 
volutions. 
Compound con- 
densing throt- 
tled. 
Compound con- 
d e n s i n g- ex- 
pans ion. 


Unloaded 


23 ....... ... 


Unloaded 


"347. . 


185 


181 


I 27. . 





This table, it will be observed, shows that the friction is 
actually less in all cases but one when the load is greatest. 
Mr. Denton thought that the friction of a piston in a cyl- 
inder was slight, and that lubrication did not bring about any 
noticeable result so far as this particular part was concerned. 
In support of these statements he cited first the case of aa 
engine in which the steam of the same pressure was admitted 
to both cylinder ends at the same time The difference in 
area between the two faces of the piston nwingr to the pres- 
ence of the piston-rod, and the conseciu^ntly greater effective 



3H 

pressure on the back, as compared with the frc ^ace, caused 
the piston to move slowly to the front end of t v Cylinder. 
The friction, therefore, could not have been appreci. . \. As 
regards lubrication Mr. Denton gave an accoun! O his 
experience with engines which had been cleaned out v>th 
ether, and in which no oil whatever had been used for monthfc 
The records obtained under such conditions, when compared 
with data from the same engines using oil in the cylinders, 
showed no difference worthy of special note. The fact that 
engines showed less friction under the heavier loads than 
under the lighter ones Mr. Denton explained by the assump- 
tion that the various journals, through the reversal of motion 
of the reciprocating parts of the engines, developed a suc- 
tion-pump action, drawing in the lubricating oil, and that 
this action was more vigorous when the engines were fully 
loaded. 

CALKING. 

Calking is something that is not always done as it should 
be. In fact, in some sections of the country it is done as it 
shouldn't be, about as emphatically as it is possible to do any- 
thing. The thing most particularly referred to in this con- 
nection, and the practice of which should bankrupt any 
boilermaker, is known as " split calking." To do calk- 
ing in the best manner, and as it should be done, the edges 
of the plates should be planed. They are planed in all first- 
class shops, and trouble caused by bad calking is something 
very rare with such work. But of course this refers to new 
work. Repair jobs, and boiler work turned out of the shops 
in remote sections of the country where planers are unknown, 
afford the demon of split calking a chance to get in his most 
effective work. He rarely neglects a chance that is offered 
him. Some one may inquire, what is split calking? To 
which we would reply, split calking consists in driving a thin 
caulking tool, scarcely one-sixteenth of an inch thick, against 
the- edge of a sheet so that a thin section of the plate is 
driven in between the two plates, with the idea of making a 
joint tight. The result generally is that the plates are sepa- 
rated from the edge of the lap back to the line of rivets, some- 
times as much as one-thirty-second of an inch, the only bear- 
ing surface outside of the rivets being the portion split off 
from the plate and driven in by the calking tool. This 
bearing surface may be an eighth of an inch wide, but it is 
apt to be much less, and no patent medicine yet discovered 
will keep the seam tight for any length of time. When a 
boiler thus calked gets to leaking so badly that it can't be 



run, the boiler-maker is sent for, and he usually proceeds to 
do more split calking, and in a short time the boiler leaks 
worse than ever. In one instance one of our inspectors 
examined a boiler and found one of the girth seams leaking 
badly. It had repeatedly been calked in the above manner; 
so many times, in fact, had the process been repeated, that 
there was not enough of the Jap to perform another opera- 
tion on. He, therefore, gave instructions for putting on a 
patch, with a special caution to the owner, to whom he ex- 
plained the cause of the trouble, to allow no split calking to 
be done on it. On his next visit he examined the patch, and 
he declares that the boiler-maker had put in on it the worst 
job of split calking he ever saw in his life. 

USEFUL NUMBERS. 

3.l4i5926=ratio of diameter to circumference of circle. 
.y854=ratio of area of circle to square of its diameter. 
33,000 minute foot pounds=i HP. 
396,000 minute inch pounds=i HP. 

396,000 cubic inches piston displacement per minute of 
engine wheel would develop I HP. with I Ib. mean elective 
pressure on the piston. 

23,760,000 cubic inches piston displacement p^r hour of 
engine developing i HP. with i Ib. mean effective pressure on 
the piston. 

859,375 pounds of water per hour at i tt>. pressure pei 
square inch to give i HP. 

55 Ibs. mean effective pressure at 600 feet piston speed 
gives i HP. for each square inch of piston area. 
0.301030=^111^ logarithm 2. 
0.477121 " ^ u 3 

0.602060 4. 

0.698970 " 5. 

0.778151 fc 6. 

0.845098 " 7. 

0.903090 " ** 8. 

0.954243 " 9- 

I.OOOOOO " IO. 

2.3025851 times natural logarithm gives hyperbolic log- 
arithm. 

.5000000= sine of 30 with radius i. 

.7071068 " 45 " i. 

.8660254 " 60 i. 

9,000 to 13,000 feet per minute velocity of circular sa\\ 
him. 

27,000 tbs. per square inch tensile strength of cast iron. 



50,000 tr>s. per square inch tensile strength bf wrought 
iron. 

130,000 lt>s. tensile strength of steel. 
30,000 Ibs. tensile -strength of sheet copper. 
60,000 Ibs. tensile strength of copper wire. 

100,000 Ibs. per square inch==crusning strength of cast 
iron. 

35,000 Tbs. per square inch=crushing strength of wrought 
iron. 

225,000 Ibs. crushing strength of steel. 

300 to 1,200 tons per square foot crushing strength of 
granite. 

6.500 Ibs. per square inch ci u.shing strength of oak. 

(Above crushing strengths are for pieces not over 3 dia- 
meters in length. ) 

600 to 1,000 feet per minute of single leather belt I inck 
wide said to give i HP. on cast iron pulleys. 

2.645 I DS> P er lineal foot of I inch round wrought iron. 

3.368 Ibs. per lineal foot of I inch square wrought iron. 

40 Ibs. per square foot of i inch plate wrought iron. 

2.45 Ibs. per lineal foot of I inch round cast iron. 

12 times weight of pine pattern iron casting. 

13 times weight of pine pattern = brass casting. 
19 times weight of pine pattern lead casting. 
12.2 times weight of pine pattern tin casting. 
11.4 times weight of pine pattern =zinc casting. 

.06363 times square of inches diameter, times thickness in 
inches = weight of grindstone in pounds. 

.8862 times cliam. of circle side of a square equaling. 
.7071 times diam. of circle =side of inscribed square. 
1.1283 times square root of area of circle =diam. of circle. 
57 2 958 in. arc having length = radius 
oi745^X radius=length of arc i deg. 
9.8696044=3. 14i5926* = fi*. 

1.7724538= \ r (3. 1415926)= vn. 

o.497i5=nat. log. 3.1415926. 

i 
. 31831 =reciprocal of 3. 1415926= 

it 

.002/78=1-7-360=1-360. 
114.59=360^-3.1415926. 
3i83Xcircumf. =diam. of circle. 
2786 F. =melting point of iron. 
2016 F.=melting point of gold. 
1873 F.=melting point of silver. 
2160 F.=melting point of copper. 



74 F.=melting point of zinc. 
620 F. melting point of lead. 
475 F.=melting point of tin. 



537 Ibs. per cu. ft.= 
450 Ibs. per cu. ft. = 
485 Ibs. per cu. ft. = 
708 Ibs. per cu. ft.= 
490 Ibs. per cu. ft.= 



'eight of copper, 
veight of cast iron, 
veight of wrought iron. 
v eight (T cast lead. 
v eight of steel. 



27.684 cubic inches of wa er p-jr pound at 32 F 
27.759011. in. water p-?r li>. at 70 
036 Ibs. par cu. in. water at 60 F. 
62.355 Ibs per cu. ft. water at 62 F. 
59.64 Ib.s per cu. ft. water at 212 F. 
.54 Ibs. anthracite per cu. ft. 
40 to 43 cu. ft. anthracite per ton 
49 cu. ft. bituminous coal per ton. 
39.3685 inches = I meter. 
3.2807 feet = i meter. 
1.0936 yards = I meter. 
61.02 cubic inches = i meter. 
2.113 pints = i liter. 
1.057 (marts - I liter. 

BUYING OIL AND COAL. 

There arc many establishments which, when buying oil, 
coal, and such supplies, consider merely the question of first 
cost irrespective of their economic value. The best is not 
necessarily the cheapest, nor is it necessarily the dearest. 
The true economic value is due to the service it will per- 
foivn, divided by the price. 

We will take the case of coal. Some coal will evaporate 
ten pounds of water per pound of coal under certain condi- 
tions, and others only seven. In the one case there will be 
2240X1022,403 pounds of water evaporated, and in the 
other only 2240X7=15,680 pounds, under the same condi- 
tions. If the first lot sold at $5.25 per ton, and the second 
at only $5 the first would be the cheapest, for in the one case 
(including freight and labor in stoking and cost of remov- 
ing ashes) we would get 22,400-7-5.25=4,266.66 pounds of 
steam per d jllar's worth of co:il, and in the other only 
I "5,680-7-5 3, 136 pounds of steam per dollar's worth of coal. 
Not allowing for freight and the cost of removing ashes, and 
Hot considering the capacity of the boiler with good coal as 
compared with its capacity with poor, the first coal would be 
a schcap at $6.80 per ton as the second at $5 ; or, to put 



it the Other way, the poorer coal ought 10 be sold at $3.85 
per ton to make it as cheap as the better material at $5.25. 
When the other expenses are taken into consideration, the 
economy of buying the better coal becomes greater. 

In the matter of oils: these vary in their lubricating 
powers, in their coolness of running, and in their durability. 
We will consider two oils, one at 25 cents per gallon and the 
other at 30, having the same lubricating power and running 
equally cool under fee feed, but one requiring 100 gallons to 
keep the friction down to a minimum and the other taking 
on ty 75 gallons to effect the same object. The relative 
economy of these two oils is not as 30 to 25, or as 120 to 100, 
but as 30X75=2,250 to 25X100=2,500, or as 100 to 90; 
that is, the cost of the high-priced oil to effect a given desired 
condition is only .90 the cost of the poor oil to do the same 
thing ; then the economy is as 100 to 90. At this rate the 
better grade of oil would be as cheap at 
ioX30_ 
7~~ =: 33/i cents per gallon, 

as the cheaper at 25 cents ; or the lower grade would havp 
to be sold at 

9x25 

22 ^ cents per gallon, 

to bring its economy down to that of the better grade ; and 
this without counting freight, which, in many cases, should 
be added to the invoice price, or time in oiling, which is time 
lost. 

NOTES ON PATTERN-MAKING. 

Never work with a dull tool. 

Take time to sharpen and put your tools in good order; it 
saves time in the end. 

Above all, never use a dull or badly " set " saw. It will 
ruin your work, sour your temper, and make you disgusted 
with the whole world. 

If you are varnishing or polishing a piece of work, have 
the room or shop warm, exclude draught and dust, and don't 
be in too big a hurry. 

If you are polishing in the lathe, see to it that all dust 
and dirt are removed from the lathe-bed before you com- 
mence work. 

It is better, when possible, to polish all turned work in 
the lathe. It always has a better appearance for it. 

In making patterns for castings, if you have no experience 



319 

you had better consult some person who has had experience. 
Patterns are difficult things for amateurs to make if they do 
not understand the principles of molding and founding. 

White pine or mahogany makes the best work for pat- 
terns. Lead, brass, copper and sometimes plaster of Paris 
are used for making patterns; especially is this so for small 
fine castings. 

Shellac varnish is the best material for coating pat- 
terns. 

Beeswax may be used for stopping up holes or to cover 
defects in patterns if it is coated with shellac varnish after- 
ward. The beeswax will " take " the varnish readily, and 
will not cling to the ''sand," like ordinary putty. 

Shellac varnish may be mixed with a little lampblack to 
give it body and make a black pattern. 

Sometimes pattern-makers use stove polish or "black 
lead," as it is called, to finish their patterns. It is applied 
nearly dry, then polished with a brush. 

Wood used for patterns must be of the very best finish, 
straight grained, free from knots or shakes, and well sea- 
soned. 

A clean pattern gives n clean casting, and much labor 
may be saved by making the pattern the right size, and 
smooth and clean. 

After patterns have been used they should be kept in a 
dry pb.ce, as damp will distort and otherwise injure them. 

Always make a drawing of patterns before making. Much 
time and labor will be saved. 

Where patterns part in the center they should be made 
to separate easily. 

Put on your best workmanship when pattern making. 

AN INTERESTING EXPERIMENT. 

You think you stand pretty straight, don't you? Well, 
just back up against the wall of a room and bear against it 
all over ; you will find there more buckles, short bends and 
offsets between your head and your heels than you had any 
idea of. 

While you have your heels against, the baseboard, keep 
them there, and reach over forward and touch your fingers to 
the floor, if you want a specimen of upset gravity. 

A steel wire nail mill has just begun work at Hamilton, 
Ont. The output at present is a ton a day. 



3 20 

THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT SHAFTING. 

Don't buy light hangers, and think that they will do well 
enough, when your own judgment tells you that they will 
spring. 

Remember that shafting is turned one-sixteenth inch 
smaller than the nominal size. 

Cold-rolled and hot-rolled shafting can be obtained Tie 
full size. 

The sizes of shafting vary by quarter inches up to uiree- 
and-a-half inches. 

The ordinary run. of shafting is not manufactured longer 
than from 1 8 to 26 feet. 

For line shafts, never use any that is smaller than one- 
and-eleven-sixteentli inches in diameter, as the smallest 
diameters are not strong enough to withstand the strain of 
the belts without springing. 

The economical speed of shafting for machine shops has 
been found to be from 125 to 150 revolutions per minute, 
and for woodworking shops from 200 to 300 revolutions. 

A jack-shaft is a shaft that is us^d to receive the entire 
power direct from the engine or other motor, which it delivers 
to the various main shafts. 

Keep the shafting well lined up at all times, as this will 
ward off a breakdown, and avoid a waste of power. 

Know that the pulleys are well balanced before they are 
put in position, as a pulley much out of balance is quite a 
sure method to throw shafting out of line. 

Look to the pulleys, and see that they have been bored to 
the size of the shaft, for unless this is done the pulley may be 
out of center on the shaft and prevent smooth running. 

If possible, apply the power to a line of shqftingat or near 
the center of its length, as this will enable you to use the 
lightest possible weight of shafting. 

Hangers with adjustable boxes will be found to be the 
most convenient for keeping the shafting in line. 

Keep your drip-cups cleaned, and Jo not allow them to 
overflow or get loose. 

Have a supply of tallow in the boxes ; in case of acciden- 
tal heating it will melt and prevent cutting ; this rule, while 
good for general use, applies particularly to special cases where 
there is a supposed liability to heating. 

Never lay tools or other things on belts that are standing 
Still, for they may I e forgotten and cause a breakdown when 
the machinery is started. 

Don't attempt to run a shaft in a box that is too larre .>r 



321 

too small, as you will waste time and fail to secure good re- 
sults. 

A loose collar held by a set screw will cause the collar 
to stand askew, and it will cut and wear the box against 
whick it runs. 

In erecting a line of shafting, the largest sections should 
be placed at the point where the power is applied. The 
diameter can then be gradually decreased toward the extrem- 
ities remote from this point. 

Don't put loose bolts in plate couplings, as this will give 
no end of trouble in cutting, shearing and the wearing away 
of the bolt holes. 

Don't think that because your shafting has been well 
erected and you oil it regularly, that it will never need any 
inspection or repairs. 

Don't try to economize in first cost by having long dis- 
tances between hangers, for a well supported shaft will 
always do the best work ; short shafts are the surest to be 
straight and to remain so, ( 

The length usually adopted for shafting bearings is twice 
to four times the diameter of the shaft, varying with the 
diameters of shaft, kind of bearings and the material used in 
them. Large shafts- in the gun-metal or bronze boxes may 
have bearings only twice theii diameter in length. Cast iron 
bearings up to and including three inch shafts are often made 
four diameters of the shaft in length, particularly for self- 
adjusting hangers. 

If Babbit is used for the boxes, use only a good metal; 
do not adopt the common mixture of tin, antimony and 
lead. 

Insist upon having good iron in your shafting, as the 
bearings will take a finer polish, and you will not be subject 
to sudden ruptures. 

If the strain on a pulley is so great that the set-screws 
already in will not hold it, d'o not let them score into the 
shaft, but put in an extra screw, or cut a key- way and put in 
a key. 

The width of a key-way should be one-quarter of an inch 
fort^Ci* inch of diameter of the shaft. 

The depth of a key-way is one-half its width. 



322 
WORKSHOP JOTTINGS. 

To Prepare Zinc for Put tiling Apply sulphuric acid 
and water for a quarter of an hour ; then wash off clean with 
water and dry. 

Moisture-Resisting Glue A glue which is proof againsj 
moisture may be made by dissolving 16 ounces of glue in 3 
pinte of skim milk. If a stronger glue be wanted, add 
powdered lime. 

A Good Lubricator It may not be generally known that 
tallow and plumbago thoroughly mixed make the best lubri. 
cator for surfaces when one is wood or when both are wood. 
Oil is not so good as tallow to mix with plumbago for the 
lubrication of wooden surfaces, because oil penetrates and 
saturates the wood to a greater degree than tallow, causing it 
to swell more. 

To Prevent Metals jRusttngThe following is said to 
be a good application to prevent metals rusting : Melt I oz. 
of resin in a gill of linseed oil, and while hot mix with it two 
quarts of kerosene oil. This can be kept ready to apply at 
any time with a brush or rag to any tools or implements 
required to lay by for a time, preventing any rust, and saving 
much vexation when the tool is to be used again. 

7*o Prei>ent Slipping of Belts Belts conveying power 
are very apt to slip on pulleys, but a new pulley has been 
devised to prevent this. The pulley is covered with per- 
forated sheet iron one-sixteenth of an inch thick, which is 
riveted to the pulley. The tension of the belt causes it to 
grip slightly the holes, and thus slipping is avoided, while at 
the same time the pulley is strengthened. 

To Calculate Water in a Pipe To calculate roughly the 
quantity of water in any given pipe or other cylindrical ves- 
sel, it is only necessary to remember that a pipe one yard, or 
three feet, long will hold about as many pounds of water as 
the square of its diameter in inches. Thus: If we have a 
pipe 20 inches in diameter and 16 feet long, we have simply 
to square 20 (2O 2 400), and multiply the result by the 
number of times 3 feet is contained in 16 feet=5X times; 
hence, 400x5^=2,133 pounds. By increasing the result by 
2 per cent., or i-5Oth, a more nearly exact figure can be 
obtained. 



323 
BRASS AND ITS TREATMENT. 

Brass, as previously stated, is perhaps the best known and 
most useful alloy. It is formed by fusing together copper ^ 
and zinc. Different proportions of these metals produce 
brasses possessing very marked distinctive properties. The 
portions of the different ingredients are seldom precisely alike; 
these depend upon the requirements of various uses for which 
the alloys are intended. Peculiar qualities of the constituent 
metals also exercise considerable influence on the results. 

Brass is fabled to hivebeen first accidental'y formed at the 
burning of Corinth, 146 B. C, but articles of brass have been 
discovered in the Egyptian tombs, which prove it to have had 
a much greater antiquity. Brass was known to the ancients 
as a more valuable kind of copper. The yellow color was con- 
sidered a natural quality, and was not supposed to indicate an 
alloy. Certain mines were much valued, as they yielded this 
gold-colored copper, but after a time it was found that by 
melting copper with a certain earth (calamine), the copper 
was changed in color. The nature of the change was still 
unsuspected. 

Alloy of copper and zinc retain their malleability and 
ductility when the zinc is not above 33 to 40 per. cent, of the 
alloy. When the zinc is in excess of this, crystalline character 
begins to prevail. An alloy of one copper to two zinc may 
be crumbled in a mortar when cold. 

Yellow brass that files and turns well may consist of cop- 
per 4, zinc i to 2. A greater proportion of zinc makes it 
harder and less tractable; with less zinc it is more tenacious 
and hangs to the file like copper. Yellow brass (copper 2, 
zinc i) is hardened by the addition of two to three per cent, 
of tin, or made more malleable by the same proportion of 
lead. 

There would be less diversity in the results of brass cast- 
ings if what was put in a crucible came out of it. The vola- 
tility of some metals, and the varied melting points of others 
in the same mix, greatly interfere with the uniformity in 
ordinary work. Zinc sublimes (burns away) at 773 to 800 
degrees, while the melting heat of the copper with which it 
should be intimately mixed in making brass is nearly 1,750 
degrees. Copper, zinc, tin and lead in varying proportions 
form alloys, always in definite quantity for a given alloy. 
The ease with which some of the metals are burned away at 
comparatively low temperatures renders it a very easy mat- 
ter to make several different kinds of metal with*the same 
mix. T nls very thing occurs, and the great difficulty in get. 



324 

ting bearing brasses uniform in quality causes some engineers 
to babbitt all bearings as the best way to insure uniformity. 
One lot of castings may VJe soft and tough, another hard,-' 
and so on. ^ 

Zinc is added the last thing as the crucible comes out of 
the furnace, and the mixing of the mass is a matter of uncer- 
tainty. If the metal Is too hot for the zinc a large percent- 
age goes off in the form of a greenish cloud of vapor, and 
the longer the stirring goes on the more escapes. The two 
metals which enter into the composition of brass have an 
affinity for each other, but they must be brought into inti- 
mate contact before they will combine. Some brass founders 
use precautions to prevent volatilization of the more fusible 
metals, introducing them under a cover }f powdered charcoal 
on top of the copper. 

" Brass finisher " is a term many understand as applied 
only to those who produce highly-finished brass work ; but it is 
not so ; the brass finisher's work is not the superior class of 
work supposed, most of it toing comprised in gas fittings, 
ormolu mounts, etc., but the Highest class of brass finishing 
is a totally different process. Fittings for gas work, all 
finished well enough for their several purposes, and as well 
done as the price paid for them will allow, as well as the 
mountings for furniture, must obviously be produced at a lo\\ 
price, in order to supply the demand for cheap work of this 
character, most of which is simply dipping, burnishing and 
lacquering. 

Let us follow the process of finishing the highest class of 
brass work. Before commencing to polish, all marks of the 
file must be removed, and this is clone thus : Having used a 
superfine Lancashire file to smooth both the edges and surfaces, 
take a piece of moderately fine emery paper and wrap it 
tightly, once only, round the file. By having many folds 
round' the file the work becomes rounded at the edges, 
and so made to look like second-rate things. Some use 
emery sticks, made of pieces of planed wood about ft 
inch thick and ^ inch wide, quite flat on the surfaces. 
They are covered with thin glue, and the emery powdered onto 
them, and then allowed to dry hard. Most common work 
is rubbed over, not to say finished, with emery cloth. This 
will not do for good work. The paper folded once round 
the file is used in a similar manner to the file, and when the 
file-marks disappear, and the paper is worn, a little oil is 
used, which makes it cut smoother. Tp he edges and surfaces 
being prepared to this extent, tite cjges must be finished. 
To effect this take a piece of flat, soft wood, and apply t > its 



325 

surface a little fine oil-stone powder; be sure that, it is quite 
clean, as it is very annoying to make a deep scratch in the 
work just as it is finished; perhaps so deep that it -will re- 
quire filing out. 

FACTS ABOUT A WATCH. 

The watch carried by the average man is composed of 
ninety eight pieces, and its manufacture embraces more 
than 2,000 distinct and separate operations. Some of the 
smaller screws are so minute that the unaided eye cannot 
distinguish them from steel filing or specks of dirt. Under 
a magnifying glass a perfect screw is revealed. The slit in 
the head is two one-thousandths of an inch wide. It takes 
308.000 of these screws to weigh a pound, and a pound is 
worth $1,585. The hairspring is a strip of the finest steel, 
about 9 l / z inches long, and one-hundredth inch wide and 
twenty-seven ten-thousandths inch thick. It is coiled up in 
a spiral form and finely tempered. 

The process of tempering these springs was long held us a 
secret by the few fortunate ones possessing it, and even now 
it is not generally known. Their manufacture requires 
great skill and care. The strip is gauged to twenty one- 
thousandths of an inch, but no measuring instrument has 
yet been devised capable of fine enough gauging to deter- 
mine beforehand by the size of the strip what the strength 
of the finished spring will be. A twenty one-thousandth 
part of an inch difference in the thickness of the stop makes 
a difference in the running of a watch of about six minutes 
an hour. 

The value of these springs, when finished and placed in 
watches, is enormous in proportion to the material from 
which they are made. A comparison will give a good idea. 
A ton of steel made up into hairsprings when in watches is 
worth more than 12^ times the value of the same weight in 
pure e-old. Hairspring wire weighs 1-20 of a grain to an 
inch. One mile of wire weighs less than half a pound. The 
balance gives five vibrations every second, 300 every min- 
ute, 18,000 every hour. 432,000 every day and 157,680,000 
every year. At each vibration it rotates about 1*4 times, 
which makes 197.100,000 revolutions every year. 

In order that we may better Understand the ^stupendous 
amount of labor nerformed by these tiny works, let us make 
a pertinent comparison. Take, for instance, a locomotive 
with six-foot driving wheels. Let its wheels be run until 
they have given the same number of revolutions that a 
watch does in one year, and they will have covered a dis- 
tance equal to 28 complete circuits of the earth. All this a 
watch does without other attention than winding once every 
24 hours. 





Fig. i. 



326 
METAL- WORKING DIES AND THEIR USES. 

BY HENRY LONG. 

In the following pages, which have been specially prepared 
for this work, will be found a condensed description of the 
commoner kinds of dies now in use for sheet-metal work. 
There being several kinds of punching presses, I will specify 
the variety in which each die can be used as I describe it. 
The commonest in use is the simple cutting-die, and I will 
describe it first. It can either 
be made by welding a steel ring 
of the shape desired on a 
wrought iron plate, and then 
dressing the hole out roughly 
to pattern while hot, or by 
drilling out a hole of the shape 
required through a piece of 
flat steel of proper dimensions, 
i and then dressing it out with 
' files, etc., to exact size. While 
the former plan is most expen- 
sive, it is the best in regard to 
wear and quality of work. Fig. i represents a die of this 
kind. The forging for this die would be made as I explained 
above; that is, by welding a steel ring of the shape of 
the pattern on an iron plate, and cutting the hole 
through the iron afterward. The punch for this would be 
made simi'arly, only, that the ring is the shape of pattern 
outside, and after welding to the iron plate it is trimmed off 
outside. There is also a shank to be welded on the other side 
of plate, as nearly central as possible, and large enough to 
finish up easily to size required. In making this die the two 
faces are planed off clean, and then the pattern is laid on top 
face and the die is marked from it. When this is done, it is 
put in the shaper and planed out to the marks, care being 
taken to throw the work forward in the chuck to give about 
/g- in. clearance to the inch, in depth. 

It is now filed out and champfered off on face, as shown, 
iffe face being hollowed out jg" on three or four sides after- 
ward to give it a shearing edge. It is now ready for tempering. 
As the tempering requires great care it is very necessary to 
watch your heat closely, and while making it even, do not 
heat any higher than necessary, and plunge it carefully into 
cold soft water with one edge down, keeping it in there until 
perfectly cold. Now take it out and polish the face and 
inside well, and reheat very evenly as before until you observe 



327 

a dark stra\v color, when you can cool it off, as that is con- 
sidered a good temper, and one that will stand wear without 
breaking. The punch is pared off on both sides and shank 
turned up to size, and then the die is laid on it face to face 
and the shape marked out. Now it is shaped off to the lines 
and fitted closely in the die, the inside edge of punch being 
afterward champfered off as shown. This die can be used in 
any press, and is particularly designed ior light metals such 
'as zinc, tin, etc. A flat-cutting die would be made by taking 
a piece cut from the bar at least i%" longer and 
wider than your pattern, and, after planing it, lay 



your pattern on and 
inside the marks r.n I 




Fig. 2. 



mark the hole. Then drill around 
file out in same w r ay as you do 
the other. The punch would be 
made same as last, but without 
champfering off the edge. This die 
can be used in any press, and is 
designed for heavy work, such as 
hard brass, steel, etc. Sometimes 
there may be some narrow or weak 
part in the die which is likely to 
break out in time, in which case it is 
economical to insert a plug as shown 
in Fig. 2. Of course these plugs 
can be renewed as often as necessary without disturbing 
the form of the die. For round holes of small size, a steel 
plug is fitted in a soft steel plate, and the hole drilled and 
reamed through it, after which the plug is tempered. 

The punch is simply a socket with a set screw in which 
round steel of the right size is used, in this way saving any 
turn ins: or fitting. Sometimes a gang of punches is used, as 
, for which a special punch is designed, In 
this, the shank is a separate pieoe,-and 
has a dove-tailed groove planed through 
it. This groove should be from fa" to 
Yt" larger in every way than the dimen- 
sions you wish to punch. It should also 
have^ 1 ," draft, or taper endwise to allow 
of a driving bit on the plate fitted in. 
This plate should be YZ" thick at least. 
You first drill all the holes in your die 
in the right position, and after reaming 
them our, harden and temper it. You 
now place this plate, which you have fitted in the shank, on 
the face of the die in its true position and fasten it securely 
there. The next thing is to run the drill you used on the 



is shown in Fiq 




328 

die, through tne die holes, and mark their exact position on 
this plate. When this is done, remove the die and drill the 
holes through from these marks, and countersink them from 
behind. Now, the stripper or guide, which should be about 
ffi' thick, is fastened on in the position you wish it, and 
marked and drilled in the same way. The wire punches are 
made by riveting over a head on one end and then driving 
them in from the back, afterward filing off any superfluous 
metal which extends above the back. When you have made a 
gauge and placed it under the stripper, fastening securely, the 
die will be finished. 

The punches should be filed to an even face, and then hol- 
lowed out a little to give more ease in cutting. All the dies 
mentioned thus far can be used in any ordinary press. We 
will now take up the different kinds of form- 
ing dies. There are only two kinds, half- 
round and square; all others are modifica- 
tions of these-. The depth of a half-round 
forming die should be two-thirds of the 
diameter to give the best results, and the 
punch should go down into the groove as 
shown in Fig. 4. A mandril is necessary to 
form the work over in the die. A square 
or box-forming die is simply a square hole 
of the right size, cut through the die, per- 
fectly parallel, and with the upper corners 
rounded a little. If a smooth flat 
bottom is required it is usual to make 
the die of thinest steel, and put a plate 
under it as in Fig. 5, with a pad and 
spring, to throw it out. The punch 
is size of the inside of box, and a close 
fit. A die for forming a shape at any 
angle is simply a groove planed thro' 
the block and having a punch to fit 
it. Fig. 6 is a view of a common 
form of drawing die for deep work. 
They are used for making caps, cart- 
ridge cases, etc. It consists of a 
round disk of steel about ^6 "deep 





Fig. 5- 



with a hole the size of shell required bored in it . 

% This hole is well rounded off at the corner, and counter- 
bored from the bottom with a square, sharp shoulder for 
stripping the work off the punch after it has passed through 
the die. A cast-iron holder with set screw is generally used 
with these dies for convenience in- changing. The punch i& 




Fig. 6, 



329 

fitted into a socket in the shank and held by 
a set screw. It is rounded on the corners to 
give the metal a better chance to turn up 
around it. When the punch and die are set 
the blank is laid on the die, and the punch 
should be tight enough to carry it through 
without a wrinkle. If the shell is not long 
enough after this operation, make a die a 
little smaller and a punch the same, and after 
annealing the shells pass them through it. By 
repeating this operation you can produce 
shells of almost any length. Sometimes it is 
necessary to make a die to perform some 




operation on the edge of a box which has already been formed 
In this case the die is made in such a way that the box can 
be put on it, thus placing the die on the 
inside. A hub is made the shape of the 
box, and with the die dovetailed into its 
upper side, a hole being bored clown 
through the hub to allow the cuttings to 
fall through. v This hub is fitted into a 
special holder as shown. The punch is 
made in the same way as others. These 
dies can be used for any operation that 
a flat die performs, such as cutting, form- 
ing, etc. As I have given a description 
of the different forms of simple dies, I will now explain some 
double and combination dies. A double die is two distinct 
dies in one plate, and it may be extended to include three 
or four, although the work gets complicated in this case, 
and the economy is doubtful. 

This die may be composed 
of two cutting dies, or one cut- 
ting and one forming die, or, in 
fact, any combination which 
may seem desirable. It is gen- 
erally used for cutting dies, 
such as washers, etc. Fig. 8 
shows the plan of one of these 
dies designed to make a washer. 
You will perceive that the first 
punch is the size of the hole in 
the washer and the second cuts 
out the washer itself. The 
punches are set in a long, flat 
socket, and fastened with set 
screws. The main point in these 




Fig. 8. 



dies is to get them correctly spaced so as to cut out all the 
stock. They can be used in a power or foot press. A.;com- 
bination die is one which performs two or more operations in 
one die. Fig. 9 is one of these, designed to make a black- 
ing-box cover. In this die the pinch comes down and cuts 
out the blank which is 
immediately gripped be- 
tween the two face a 
and b, and held firmly 
enough to p r e v cut 
wrinkling, but still to 
allow of its being drawn 
through and over the 
form which is in the 
center of the die. 
When tne press is on the 
return stroke, the ring b 
follows the punch up and ' 
pushes the cover off 
again, while the pad in 
the punch does the same 
there, thus having the 
cover loose on the top 
of the die. These dies 






Fig- io. 



Fig. 9. 

must be operated in a power 
press, or one specially de- 
signed for the purpose, and 
they are more conveniently 
worked .in an inclined than 
a horizontal press, as the 
work will then fall off by the 
force of its own gravity. 

Fig. 10 is a die of the 
same class, but with another 
operation added. It is de- 
signed to make a pepper-box 
cover, and perforates four 
holes in it after it is drawn. 
The punch, as you will per- 
ceive, is entirely different in 
its construction. -.The die is 
the same, excepting that four 
cutting holes or dies are 
drilled in the top of the form 



331 

or plug, and the inside is bored out to allow the cuttings to 
fall through. The stub is also bored out for the same reason. 
In the punch a is the shank, bored out as shown, b is the 
cutting edge or punch proper ; it is bored or chambered out 
for the pad c to work in it. d is a plate that screws into the 
top of the punch b, to act as a back for the pad c to press 
against, and also as a holder for the four small punches. It 
has three holes in it, through which short pins work to com- 
municate the power of spring E to the pad c. //is a washer 
under the spring, and G is a plug or pin that screws in the top 
of shank, and extends down to the plate d, against which 
it presses, in this way hold- ing the small pin punches down 
to place, and guiding and regulating the spring at the same 
time. The operation of the die is the same as Fig. 9, only 
that after the tin has been drawn down its full length, the 
small punches cut the holes through the top, and then the 
pad c acts as a stripper for these punches at the same time 
as it punches the cap out of the large punch. 

As all other combinations are made on this plan, it is 
hardly necessary to describe any others. 

Fig. 1 1 represents a die for doing the same work, but in 
what is called a cam or double-action press. These dies are 

much simpler and 
cheaper to make and 
do equally good work 
with the others. The 
piece A is the cutting 
punch, and works in 
the die B. After cut- 
ting the blank it 
passes down until it 
presses the blank 
against the face shown 
on the inside of the 
die. While it is hold- 
ing the blank firmly 
there the fo r m i n g 
cutting punch 





yMMMwxvA 

I 



Fig. 11. 



punch C passes down through the _ 

forces the tin down through the inside die B, in this way 
forming it into any shape desired. In passing up again it 
strips the box off against the underpart of the die, allowing it 
to fall into a box underneath. This covers the list as an- 
nounced in the beginning of this article, and although the 
different kinds of dies are endless, the foregoing description 
will enable the reader to judge of the best way of doing work, 
and there is hardly any pattern which cannot be produced by 
fme or more of these dies in coiwbination. 



332 

RULE TO FIND THE STRENGTH OF BOILER 
SHELLS AND FLUES. 

The pressure for any dimension of boiler can be ascertained 
ty the following rule, viz. : 

Multiply one-sixtli (^th) of the lowest tensile strength 
found stamped on any plate in the cylindrical shell by the 
thickness expressed in inches, or parts of an inch of the 
thinnest plate in the same cylindrical shell, and divided by the 
radius or half diameter also expressed in inches and the 
quotient will be the pressure allowable per square inch of sur- 
face for single riveting, to which add twenty per centum for 
double riveting. 

Boilers built prior to February 28, 1872, shall be deemed 
to have a tensile strength of 50,000 pounds to the square inch, 
whether stamped or not. 

For cylindrical boileryfej- over 16, and less than 40 inches 
in diameter, the following formulas shall be used in determin- 
ing the pressure allowable. 

Let D = diameter of flue in inches. 
1760 = A constant. 

T = thickness of flue in decimals of an inch. 
P = pressure of steam allowable, in pounds. 
1760 

= F, a factor. 

D 

.31 = C, a constant. 
FXT 

Formula : = P. 

C 

EXAMPLE, 

Given, a flue 20 inches in diameter, and .37 of an inch in 
thickness ; what pressure could be allowed by the inspectors? 
1760 88X.37 

F = = 88 ; then, = 105 + pounds as the allowa- 

20. .31 ble pressure. 

TO CALCULATE THE SPEED OF A BELT. 
To find the speed a belt is traveling per minute, multiply 
the diameter infect of either pulley by 3.7 times its revolutions 
per minute ; the result is the feet travel of belt per minute if 
there is no slip. At the recent " Inventions Exhibition " in 
Liverpool, the indicated horse-power transmitted by the belt- 
ing averaged, on trial, per one inch width of belt a horse 
power, a speed of 200 feet per minute ; it would seem that a 
liberal factor of slip should be allowed outside of this. 



333 
SIZES AND WEIGHT OF SHEET TIN. 



Mark. 



Xo. of 
sheets 
in Box. 



Dimensions. 



Length | Brdth. 



Wt. 

of 

Box. 



Inches. Inches. Lbs. 

1C 225 ntf 10 112 

IIC. 

IIIC i2# 9/2 

IX 13% 10 140 

IXX " " " 161 

IXXX " " 182 

IXXXX " " " 203 

DC loo 16^ 12% 105 

DX ; " " 26 

DXX 

DXXX 

DXXXX.... 

DC 200 15 ii 

DX... 

r DXX 210 

r DXXX.... " 231 

? DXXXX... " " 252 

jCW 225 13^ 10 112 

The following table, showing the number of pounds per 
foot in various woods, in different stages of dryness : 

Shipping Thoroughly Kiln 

Green. dry. air dried, dried. 

White ash 4% 4 3/2 24-5 

Gray ash 4/2 3^ 3 2 l /4 

Birch $/ 2 4/2 4 3/2 ' 

Basswood 3^ 3 2^ 2^ 

Cottonwood 3^ 3 2% 2% 

Cherry 5 4/2 3/2 3 

Chestnut 4 1 A ' 3/2 2 H 2 % 

Soft elm 4 3/2 3 

Rock elm 5 4%. 3^ Z 1 A 

Hickory 5^ 4^ 4 3 1 A 

Hard maple S/4 4/4 3^ 3 

Bird's-eye maple .... 5j^ 4% 3M 3 

Curly maple 4$ 4 3/4, 2 ^ 

White oak 6 5 4/2 4 

Red oak 5^2 4/4 3/4 3 

Sycamore 5 4 3 2 ^ 

Walnut 6 5 4 3^ 

Whitewood 4>2 3 1 A 2 H 2 /^ 



334 



CALIBER AND WEIGHTS OF LEAD PIPES. 



CALIBER. 


WEIGHT 
PER 
FOOT. 


CALIBER. 


WEIGHT 
PER 
FOOT. 


^ in. tubing 


LBS. 

I 
I 

2 

2 


oz. 

6 

8 

12 

8 
10 

12 

4 

12 

s . 


\ l /2. in. aqueduct. . . 
ex. light 


LBS. OZ. 

3 8 

4 

i 

7 8 
3 12 
4 8 
5 8 
6 8 
8 
3 
4 

7 8 

8 

I 

n 
H 
17 
5 
9 

12 

16 

20 
15 

18 

21 

16 

21 

25 

3 6 

8 


y% in. aqueduct .... 
light 


light 


medium 
strong . . 


medium 
strong. 


ex. strong. . . 
J^ in. aqueduct . . . . 
ex. light 
lio-ht .... 


ex. strong. . . 
1 3 4 in. light . . ... 


light 


medium 


medium .... 
strong 


strong 


ex. strong.. . . 
2 in. wastf . 


ex. stron r . . 


j^j in. aqueduct 
ex. light 
light ... 


2 
2 

3 
I 

2 
2 

3 

3 

i 

2 
2 
I 
2 
2 

3 
4 
4 

2 
2 

3 
3 
4 
6 


12 

4 

12 

8 

S 
4 i 

8 

8 
8 

8 
4 

12 

8 

12 
12 


2 in. ex. light 
light 


medium 
strong 


medium 
strong 
ex. strong. . . 
$ in. aqueduct .... 
ex. light. 


ex. strong. . . 
2 '2 in. 3-16 thick. . 
1 4 thick 
5-16 thick. . . 
y% thick. 


li<rht .. 


medium 


3 in. waste 


strong 


3 16 thick... 
% thick 


ex. strong . . . 
fa in. aqueduct .... 
ex. light 


5-16 thick. . . 
y% thick 
3 *A in. % thick .... 
5-16 thick.. . 
y% thick 


light . 


I in. aqueduct 
ex. light 
light 


4 in. waste 


medium. 


% thick 


strong 


5-16 thick. . . 
y% thick 


ex. strong. . . 
lj in. aqueduct... . 
ex. light 


7-16 thick. . . 
4^2 in. waste 


5 tn. waste ..,.,... 


medium 
Strong 




ex. strong. . . 



WEIGHT OF CIRCULAR BOILER HEADS. 



Diam. 
in 
inches. 


Thickness of Iron. Inches. 


3-16 


X 


5-16 


H 


7-16 


X 


9-16 


16 


ii 


H 


18 


21 


25 


28 


32 


18 


!3 


18 


22 


27 


3i 


36 


40 


20 


17 


22 


27 33 


33 


44 


50 


22 


20 


27 


33 ! 40 


47 


54 


60 


24 


24 


3 2 


40 


47 


55 


64 


7i 


26 


28 


37 


46 


56 


64 


75 


84 


28 


3 2 


43 


53 


65 


75 


86 


97 


3 


37 


5 


62 


74 


87 


100 


112 


3 2 


42 


56 


70 


84 


99 


112 


127 


34 


48 


64 


79 


96 


in 


128 


H3 


36 


54 


7i 


8 9 


1 08 


125 


I 4 2 


161 


38 


60 


79 


99 


120 


139 


158 


179 


40 


66 


88 


HO 


132 


154 


I 7 6 


198 


42 


73 


97 


121 


146 


170 


194 ' 


220 


44 


80 


107 


J 33 


1 60 


187 


214 


740 


46 


88 


117 


H5 


176 


204 


234 


^62 


48 


95 


127 


158 


190 


222 


254 


286 


50 


103 


138 


172 


206 


241 


2 7 6 


310 


52 


112 


149 


1 86 


224 


260 


298 


335 


54 


121 


160 


200 


242 


28l 


320 


362 


56 


I 3 


172 


214 


260 


302 


344 


389 


58 


139 


185 


231 


278 


324 


370 


4i7 


60 


149 


198 


247 


298 


336 


39 6 


446 



HOW TO CALCULATE THE CAPACITY OF 

TANKS. 

In circular tanks, every foot of depth, five feet diameter, 
gives 4^2 barrels of 31^ gallons each; six feet diameter, 6} 
barrels; seven feet diameter, 9 barrels; eight feet diameter, 
12 barrels; nine feet diameter, 15 barrels; ten feet diameter* 
18^ barrels. In the case of square tanks, for every foot of 
depth 5 feet by 5 feet gives 6 barre.s ; 6 by 6 feet, 8 ] < bar- 
rels; 7 by 7 feet, n)4 barrels; 8 by 8 feet, I ~ T ^ barrels ; 9 
by 9 feet, 19^ barrels; 10 by lo feet, 23 -V barrel. 



NUMBER OK BOILER KIVKTS IN A 100 POUND 
KEG. 



Length. 


/^ 
Inch. 


9-16 

Inch. 


H 

Inch. 


11-16 
Inch. 


;X 

Inch. 


7 /8 

Inch. 




990 


760 


56; 


450 






H 


875 


725 


530 


415 






X 


800 


690 


490 


38 9 


356 


228 


H 


760 


650 


460 


370 


329 


211 


'/2 


730 


625 


425 


357 


290 


i So 


1% 


710 


595 


505 


340 


271 


174 


i% 


690 


550 


39 


325 


264 


169 


1% 


665 


530 


375 


312 


257 


165 


2 


630 


5io 


360 


297 


248 


156 


2 l /S 


590 


500 


354 


289 


237 


152 


2% 


555 


490 


347 


280 


232 


149 


2 l /2 


525 


475 


335 


260 


219 


141 


*% 


500 


440 


312 


242 


211 


133 


3 


460 


AID 


290 


224 


203 


127 


3X 


430 


3 80 


267 


212 


I9O 


US 


3% 


410 


350 


248 


2O I 


1 80 


108 


zH 


395 


335 


241 


I 9 2 


l6 2 


102 


4 




326 


230 


184 


158 


99 


4>4 




312 


220 


177 


150 


96 


4^ 




298 


2IO 


171 


146 


94 


4# 




284 


2OO 


166 


138 


89 


5 




270 


190 


161 


135 


87 


SX 




256 


1 80 


156 


130 


84 


5^ 




244 


172 


*5i 


124 


80 


5^ 




233 


164 


H5 


I 2O 


77 


6 




223 


157 


140 


"5 


74 


6# 




213 


150 


137 


in 


71 


6 




207 


146 


134 


107 


69 


6 




203 


H3 


129 


104 


67 


7 




i)8 


I4O 


125 


100 


64 



To BRONZE IRON CASTINGS. After having thoroughly 
cleaned the castings, immerse them in a solution of sulphate 
of copper. The castings will then take on a coaHng of cop- 
per. Then wash thoroughly in water. 



Copper is said to lose 18 per cent, of its tenacity upon 
being raised from 60 to 36o 9 . 



337 

NUMBER OK " AMERICAN" " NAILS AND CUT 
SPIKES IN A POUND. 



.s ^ 




g 








bi> 


<u 








e 


CJ 


fcJD 




.S 


'cL 


g J5 


.'2 


5 


G 

r <v 


rt 


S 


'S 





^ : 








u 







U 




2 F 


1050 












1/g 


3 1' 


860 














2 


900 












jif 


3 


500 




650 




670 






4 


300 




480 


45 


500 




3^ 


5 


212 




350 


300 


370 




2 


6 


160 


85 


240 


212 


260 




2 X 


7 


135 


65 


190 


1 60 


210 




2 /^> 


8 


95 


50 


135 


120 


155 




234: 


9 


75 


40 










3 


10 


60 


35 


"5 


IOO 


135 


16 


3X 


12 


48 


30 


IOO 




120 






16 


34 


25 


80 




IOO 


H 


4' r 


20 


24 


20 


65 




85 


12 




30 


18 




50 




70 


IO 


5 r 


40 


15 




40 




60 


9 




50 


12 










8 


6 2 

y 


6 


10 










6 


| 














4 



Clinch-nails weigh about the same as common. 

Box-nails are made ^ inch shorter than common nails of 
same sizes. 

5 Ibs. of 4d or 3^ Ibs. of 3d will lay i,oop shingles. 5^ 
Ibs. of 3d fine will put on 1,000 laths, four nails to the lath. 

Bricks made from the refuse of slate quarries are stronger 
than stone; they stand 7,200 Ibs. compression against 6,000 
for stone, and 3,200 Ibs. for common brick. The cost is from 
$12 to $20 per thousand. 

In London 20,000 men earn their living at carpenter work* 
4,000 in Paris, and 4,000 in Berlin. Hours in London are 
per week. 



33* 

WAXING FLOORS. 

Take a pound of the best beeswax, cut it up into very small 
pieces, and let it thoroughly dissolve in three pints of turpen- 
tine, stirring occasionally if necessary. The mixture should 
be only a trifle thicker than the clear turpentine. Apply it 
with a ~ag to the surface of the floor, which should be smooth 
and perfectly clean. This is the difficult part of the work, 
for, if you put on either too much or too little, a good polish 
will be impossible. The right amount varies, less being 
required for hard, close-grained wood, and more if the wood 
is soft and open-grained. Even professional "waxers"are 
sometimes obliged to experiment, and novices should always 
try a square^foot or two first. Put on what you think will be 
enough, and leave the place untouched and unsteppecl on for 
twenty-four hours, or longer if needful. When it is thor- 
oughly dry, rub it with a hard brush until it shines. If it 
polishes well, repeat the process over the entire floor. If it 
does not, remove the wax with fins sandpaper and try again, 
using more or less than before, as may be necessary, and con- 
tinuing your experimenting until you secure the desired result. 
If the mixture is slow in drying, add a little of any of the 
common "dryers" sold by paint dealers, japan for instance, 
in the proportion of one part of the drier to six parts of tur- 
pentine. When the floor is a large one, you may agreeably 
vary the tedious work of polishing by strapping a brush to 
each foot and skating over it. 

HOW TO MAKE AN IVORY GLOSS ON WOOD. 
A most attractive ivory gloss is now imparted to wood 
surfaces by means of a simple process with varnish, the latter 
being of two kinds, namely, one a solution of colorless resin 
in turpentine, the other in alcohol. Eor the first, the purest 
copal is taken, while for the second sixteen parts of sandarac 
are dissolved in sufficient strong alcohol, to which are added 
three parts of camphor, and finally, when all these are dis- 
solved, they are combined with five parts of well-shaken 
Venice turpentine. In order to insure the color remaining 
a pure white,, particular care is essential that the oil be not 
mixed with the white paint previously put on. The be>t 
French zinc paint, mixed with turpentine, is employee), an 1, 
when d,y, this is rubbed down with sandpaper, following 
which the varnish described is applied 



339 
CARE OK OAK LUMBER. 

Throughout the civilized world, except in extremely hot 
fountries, one or more species of the oak is found. In this 
country oak forests abound in almost all the Southern and 
Cerrtral States. In species there are so many that even 
experienced lumbermen are frequently perplexed to correctly 
designate to which class a sample piece of wood belongs. 
Ordinarily in the yard trade but two kinds are known 
white and red. Among shipbuilders, carriage-makers and 
machinists may be found live oak, a species of wood that is 
peculiarly adapted to purposes where immense strength is 
necessary. The average lumberman, when he talks about 
white oak or red oak, is influenced solely by the color of the 
wood when it becomes partially seasoned. Again and again 
veterans in the wood-working business have been known to 
select red oak for white, and vice versa in fact, from a 
dozen specimens of six different species of oak, they have 
been unable to correctly name a single sample. f 

Oak is a wood which calls for unusual and unceasing 
care .in its manufacture. The tendency of oak, from the 
moment an ax is planted in the side of the tree, is to split, 
crack, and play all sorts of mean tricks on the owner. Such 
tendencies can be held in hand, and almost absolutely 
Dbviated, by following certain rules. A thick coat of water- 
woof paint applied to the ends of the logs is a wise expendi- 
wre ; it prevents the absorption of moisture. Oak, when 
piled, should have the ends protected so as to prevent absorp 
tion of rain and moisture, followed by the baking process of 
a hot sun Alternate moisture and heat is the prime cause 
of checks and cracks, and when such defects begin in oak 
they are bound to increase and ruin otherwise perfect stock. 

Oak should be stuck as fast as sawed. It is a mistake to 
permit it to lie in a dead pile even for a single day. It is a 
wood that contains a large amount of acid, which oozes to the 
surface as fast as the lumber is sawed, and, if the stock is 
allowed to remain piled solid, it is apt, even in a few hours, 
to cause stain on the surface. The lumber should be stuck 
in piles not over six feet* in width. The bottom course 
should be raised two feet from the ground, and a space of five 
mches left between the pieces. It is advisable to follow this 
rule up to about the fifth course, when tne space can be 
gradually diminished to two inches, and continued to the top 
of the pile! In this way air has free circulation through the 
pile, and the lumber will dry readily. The pile should cat 
toward the back, so that rain will fallow the inclination. 



340 

Board sticks not over three inches wide should be used, 
the front stick placed so as to project a half inch beyond the 
lumber. This plan permits moisture to gather in the stick, 
not the lumber. Other sticks should be placed not over four 
feet apart, and in building the pile the sticks should be 
exactly over one another. By this plan, warps, twists and 
sags are avoided. 

Jt is advisable to pile every length by itself. This rule 
permits more systematic piling, and, in shipping, consign- 
ments can be made of lengths precisely as wanted. Thick- 
nesses in piling should never be mixed. Twisted stock is 
certain to be the result if this advice is ignored. 

The sap should be placed downward. The draft is up- 
ward, and any practical lumberman can readily observe trie 
advantage of this advice. Every pile should be well covered 
with sound culls, the covering so placed as to project beyond 
all sides of the pile. Raise it a foot from the top course. 
The piles should not be nearer than twenty inches apart; 
twenty-four inches is better. 

HOW TO SHARPEN A PLANE-IP ON. 

The simple art of sharpening a plane-iron is supposed to 
be understood by every mechanic, remarks a writer in a 
contemporary, but there are hundreds of men who cannot do 
a creditable job in this respect. The common tendency is to 
round off the edge of the tool until it gets so stunted that 
under a part of the cutting the tool strikes the work back of 
the cutting edge. To do the job correctly we will begin at 
the beginning, and grind the tool properly. First, the kind 
of wood to be cut must be taken into consideration. Com- 
mon white pine can best be worked with a very thin tool, 
ground down even t > an angle of 30 degrees, provided the 
make of the tool will allo ,v it. Some planes will not, for the 
iron stards .so " stunt," or nearly perpendicular, that its grind- 
ing causes a severe scraping action, which soon wears away the 
tool. In such cases, from 45 to 60 degrees is the proper 
angle for plane-iror~ and this, too, is about :ight for hard- 
wood planing. . 3) . 

Determine the angle you want on the plane-iron and then 
grind to that angle, taking care to grind one flat bevel, and 
not work up a dozen facets. If the stone be small, say 12 to 
18 inches in diameter, the bevel will be slightly concave 
like the side of a razor, and this is a quality highly prized by 
many good workmen. In grinding, take care to avoid a 
"feather edge." If the tool already possesses the right 



341 

hape, grind carefully right up to this edge, but not grinding 
it entirely off. The time to stop grinding a tool is just before 
the old bevel is ground off. 

Should the tool need any change of shape, such as the 
grinding out of a nick or a broken place, then put the edge 
of the tool against the stone and bring the tool to the de- 
sired shape before touching the bevel. 

Let the iron lay perfectly flat upon the stone, with a 
tendency only to bear harder upon the edge of the bevel 
than upon the heel. Move the iron back and forth on the 
stone as fast as your skill will allow, taking care that the 
heel of the bevel is not lifted from the stone. As you be- 
come proficient in whetting an iron, the heel may be lifted 
from the stone about the thickness of a sheet of paper, or 
just enough to prevent it from touching. The reason why 
many carpenters cannot set an edge is because they raise 
their hand too much, and perhaps rock the tool, thus forming 
a rounding bevel, the sure mark of a poor edge-setter. ^ 

The proper way to oil-stone a tool is to continue the 
grinding by rubbing on the oil-stone until the bevel left by 
the grindstone is entirely moved and the edge keen and 
sharp. If this be properly done the tool need not be touched 
upon its face to the stone, but among a dozen good edge- 
setters not more than one can do it. It is a delicate opera- 
tion, anil can only be acquired by long practice. Nine times 
out of ten the average workman is obliged to turn the plane- 
iron over and wet the face thereof, and here is where many 
men fail who have done the other things well. By raising the 
back of the tool only a very little the edge is "dubbed off," 
and regrinding of the face becomes an immediate necessity. 
A good stone should " set " an edge on a tool wh jh will shave 
off the hair on a person's wrist without cutting the skin or 
missing a single hair. 

VALUE OF MAHOGANY. 

As is known to every woodworker, mahogany has no 
equal for durability, brilliancy, and intrinsic value for any 
Work which requires nicety of detail and elegance of finish. 
Cherry, which is a pretty wood for effect, and extremely 
leasing when first finished, soon grows dull and grimy- 
looking. Oak, which has been so much used of late, is 
attractive when first finished, but experience teaches that it 
does not take many months to change all this, and instead of 
alight, fresh looking interior, one that has a dusty appear- 
ance is presented, which no amount of scraping ana re- 



caking will restore to its original beauty. What applies to 
in this yet more applicable to ash. 

Mahogany, however, seems to thrive best under the condi- 
tions which are detrimental to these other woods. At first 
of a light tone, it grows deeper and more beautiful in color 
with age, and although its first cost is more than these other 
woods, yet its price is much less than is popularly supposed ; 
#1 1 the only objection urged against it has been cost. What 
is more valuable, however, and what makes mahogany in 
leality a less costly wood, is the fact that, unlike cherry, oak 
fr ash, it is easily cleaned, because it is impervious to dust or 
jb'rt, while it does not show wear, and instead of growing 
duller, grows brighter and more pleasing in appearance. 
While first cost is more than that of cherry, oak or ash, it is 
nevertheless true that the judgment of many men has led 
tfiem to regard mahogany as the cheaper wood when its dura- 
bility and cleanly qualities are considered, and to-day it takes 
front rank in first-class material. 

POLISHING GRANITE. 

The form is given to the stone by the hands of skilled 
aiasons in much the same way as is done with other stone of 
ihfter nature. Of course, the time required is considerably 
greater in the case of granite as compared with other stones. 
If the surface is not to be polished, but only fine-axed, as it 
is called, that is done by the use of a hammer composed of a 
number of slips of steel of about a sixteenth of an inch thick, 
which are tightly bound together, the edges being placed on 
the same plane. With this tool the workman smooths the 
surface of the stone by a series of taps or blows given at a 
right angle to the surface operated upon. By this means 
the marks of the blows as given obliquely on the surface of 
the stone are obliterated, and a smooth face produced. 
Polishing is performed by rubbing, in the first place, with 
an iron tool and with sand and water. Emery is next 
applied, then putty with flannel. All plain surface and 
molding can be done by machinery, but all carvings, or sur- 
faces broken into small portions of various elevations, are 
done by the hands of the patient hand-polishers. 

The operation of sawing a block of granite into slabs for 
panels, tables or chimney-pieces is a very slow process, the 
rate of progress being about half an inch per day of ten hours. 
The machines employed are few and simple; they are tech- 
nically called lathes, wagons and pendulums or rubbers. The 
fethes are employed for the polishing of columns, the wagons 



343 

for flat surfaces, and the pendulums for molding^and such flat 
work as is not suitable for the wagon. In the lathe fhe 
column is placed and supported at each end by points upon 
which it revolves. On the upper surface of the column there 
are laid pieces of iron segments of the circumference of the 
column. The weight of these pieces of iron lying upon the 
column, and the constant supply of the lathe-attendant of 
sand and water, emery or putty, according to the state of 
finish to which the column lias been brought, constitute the 
m whole operation. While sand is used during the rougher 
" state of the process these irons are bare, but when using emery 
and putty, the surface of the iron next to the stone is covered 
with thick flannel. 

The wagon is a carriage running upon rails, in which the 
pieces of stone to be polished are fixed, having uppermost the 
surface to be operated upon. Above this surface there are 
shafts plated perpendicularly, on the lower end of which are 
fixed rings of iron. These rings rest upon the stone, and 
when the shaft revolves they rub the surface of the stone. At 
the ^aiiie time the wagon travels backward and forward 
upon the rails, so as to expose the whole surface of the stone 
to the action of the rings. The pendulum is a frame hung 
upon hinges from the roof of the workshop. To this frame 
are attached iron rods, moving in a Horizontal direction. ^In 
the line upon which these rods move, and under them, the 
stone is firmly placed upon the floor. Pieces' of iron are then 
loosely attached to the rods, and allowed to rest upon the sur- 
face of the stone. When the whole is set in motion, these 
irons are dragged backward and forward over the surface of 
the stone, and so it is polished. When polishing plain sur- 
faces, such as the needle of an obelisk, the pieces of iron are 
flat ; but when we have to polish a molding, we make an 
extra pattern of its form, and the irons are cast from that 
pattern. 

IN FAVOR OF SMALL TIMBER. 

The statement that a 12x12 inch beam, built up of 2x12 
planks spiked together, is stronger than a 12x12 inch solid tim- 
ber, will strike anovice as exceedingly absurd. An authority 
on the subject says every millwright and carpenter knows that it 
is so, whether he ever tested it by actual experience or not. 
The inexperienced will fail to see why a timber will be 
stronger simply because the adjacent vertical longitudinal 
portions of the wood have been separated by a saw,, and if 
this were th: only thing about it, it would not be stronger, 



344 

but the old principle that a chain is no stronger that its 
weakest link comes into consideration. Most timbers have 
knots in them, or are sawed at an angle to the grain, so that 
they will split diagonally under a comparatively light load. 
In a built-up timber no large knots can weaken the beam 
except so much of it as is composed of one plank, and planks 
whose grain runs diagonally will be strengthened by the 
other pieces spiked to them. 

VALUABLE ARTESfAN WELLS. 

Two artesian wells recently sunk in Sonoma Valley, 
Cal., are considered to be worth not less than $10.000 each. 
One of them flows 90,000 gallons of water per day, and the 
other 100,000. 



The cement by which many stone buildings in Paris have 
been renovated is likely to prove useful in preparing the 
foundations for machinery. The powder which forms the 
basis of the cement is composed of two parts of oxide of 
zinc, two of crushed limestone and one of pulverized grit, 
together with a certain proportion of ochre, as a coloring 
agent- The liquid with which this powder 'is to be mixed 
consists of a saturated solution of six parts of zinc in com- 
mercial muriatic acid, to which is added one part of sal-ammo- 
niac. This solution is diluted with two-thirds of its volume 
of water. A mixture of one pound of the powder to two 
and a half pints of the liquid forms a cement which hardens 
quickly, and is of great strength. 

Large cylinders of window-glass are now cut by encircling 
the cylinder with a fine wire, which is then heated to redness 
by an electric current, and a drop of water being allowed to 
fall upon the hot glass a perfectly clean cut is obtained. 
The old method was to draw out a fiber of white-hot semi- 
molten glass from the furnace by means cf tongs, and to 
wrap it round the cylinder. 

The Hudson Bay Company, which was incorporated 225 
years ago, is the oldest incorporated company. 

The grindstone quarries along the shores of the Bay of 
Fundy are developed when the tide is down. The best ma- 
terial is down low in the bay. 

Some fine pearls were recently discovered in Tyrone (Ire- 
land) rivets. 



345 



WOODEN BEAMS. 

Safe Load. Uniformly Distributed, for Rectan- 
gular "White or Yellow Pine Beams one inch 
thick, 
allowing 1,200 Ibs. per square inch fibre strain. 

To obtain the safe load for any thickness, multiply the 
safe load given in table by the thickness of beam. 

To obtain the required thickness for any load, divide 
by the safe load for i inch given in table. 



i* 


DEPTH OF BEAM. 


6" 


7" 


8" 


9" 


10" 


11" 


12" 


13" 


14" 


16" 


16" 


rt 


Ib, 


IbT 


Lbs. 


Lbe. 


LbL 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Tfc. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


t 


960 


1810 


1710 


2160 


2670 


3230 


3840 


4510 


5230 


6000 


6830 


6 


800 


1090 i 1420 


180012220 


2690 


8200 


3760 


4860 


5000 


5690 


7 


690 


930 


1220 


1540 


1900 


2300 


2740 


3220 


8730 


4290 


4880 


8 


600 


820 


1070 


1850 


1670 


2020 


2400 


2820 


8270 


8750 


4270 


9 


530 


730 


950 


1200 


1480 


1790 


2130 


2500 


2900 


3330 


8790 


10 


480 


650 


850 


1080 


1880 


1610 


1920 


2250 


2610 


3000 


3410 


11 


440 


590 


780 


960 


1210 i 1470 


1750 2050 


2380 


&730 


3100 


12 


400 


540 


710 


900 


1110 


1340 


1600 1830 


2180 


2500 


2840 


18 


870 


500 


660 


830 


1030 


1240 


1480 i 1730 


010 


2310 


2630 


14 


840 


470 


610 


770 


950 


1150 


1870 


1610 


1870 


2140 


2440 


15 


820 


440 


570 


780 


890 


r6so 


1280 


1500 


1740 


2000 


2280 


16 


300 


410 


530 


680 


830 


1010 


1200 


1410 


1630 


1880 


2130 


17 


280 880 


500 


640 


780 


950 


1130 


1330 


1540 


1760 


2010 


18 


270 860 


470 


600 


740 


900 


1070)1250 


1450 


1670 


1900 


19 


250 840 


450 


570 


700 


850 1 1010 


1190 


1380 


1580 


1800 


20 


240 1 830 


430 


540 


670 


810 


960 


1180 


1810 


1500 


1710 


21 


2801 810 


410 


510 


630 


770 


910 


1070 


1240 


1430 


1630 


22 


220 


300 


890 


490 


610 


730 


870 


1020 


1190 


isec 


1550 


23 


210 


280 


870 


470 


580 


700 


830 


98011140 


1300 


1480 


24 


200 


270 


360 


450 


560 


670 


800 


940 


1090 


1250 


1420 


25 


190 


260 


340 


430 


530 


650 


770 


900 


1050 


1200 


1370 


26 


180 


250 


830 


420 


510 


620 


740 


870 


1010 


1150 


1310 


27 


180 


240 


820 


400 


500 


600 


710 


830 


970 


lliC 


1260 


28 


170 


230 


800 


890 


480- 


580 


690 


800 


930 


1070 


1220 


29 


170 


230 


290 


870 


460 


560 


660 


780 


900 


1030 


1180 



WEIGHT OF 
/ 

A CUBIC FOOT OF SUBSTANCE. 

Iverag* 

NAMES OF SUBSTANCES. V*ht 

Lit 

Anthracite}' solid, of Pennsylvania, 93 

'' broken, loose, - * 64 

" " moderately shaken, . 68 

" heaped bushel, loose, - * (80) 

Ash, American white, dry, ? . / - 38 

Asphaltum, - - f ; *.< 87 

Brass, (Copper and Zinc,) castj . - 604 

" rolled, - - . ,* * * * " 624 

Brick, best pressed,' 16O 

" common hard, - - ... * - 126 

" soft, inferior, - - - - 100 

Brickwork, pressed brick, - . - - - 140 

" ordinary, - - -112 

Cement, hydraulic, ground, loose, American, Rosendale, 56 

", ' " " H Louisville, 6O 

" " " " English, Portland, - 90 

Qherry, dry, - - - - - ' .- 42 

Chestnut, dry, - - - - - - 41 

Coal, bituminous, solid, - - - - -84 

' " broken, loose, - - - . 49 

" heaped bushel, loose, - (74) 

Coke, loose, of good coal, 27 

" " heaped bushel, .- (3>l 

Copper, cast, - ^ - - . - 642 

rolled, 648 

Earth, common loam, dry, loose, - ' - - - 78 

" " " moderately rammed, 95 

" as a soft flowing mud, 108 

^bony, dry,. ..,.. 70 

EJm, dry, .,_... 36 

Flint, ^ - 102 

Class, common window, 167 



347 
WEIGHT OF SUBSTANCE. 

(CONTINUED.) 

Average 

NAMES OF SUBSTANCES. . wht 

Ite 

Gneiss, common. ....... [QQ 

Gold, cast, pure, or 24 carat. - ... . 1204 

" pure, hammered, - - . . . . 1217 

Granite, --..... ^70 

Grave!, about the same as sand, winch see 

Hemlock, dry, . - ..... 25 

Hickory, dry, - 53 

Hornblende, black, -.-..,. 203 

Ice, - . . - . 58.7 

Iron, cast. ......... 450 

wrought, purest, .-..- 485 

average, 480 

Ivory, 114 

Lead, 711 

Lignum Vitx, dry, 83 

Lime, quick, ground, loose, or in small lumps, - 53 

thoroughly shaken, - 75 

" " " " per struck bushel, - - (881 

Limestones and Marbles, ...... 188 

" " loose, in irregular fragments, - 96 

Mahogany, Spanish, dry, - - - - - " 53 

Honduras, dry, - ..... 35 

Maple, dry, .-.-..-. 49 
Marbles, see Limestones. 

Masonry, of granite or limestone, well dressed, - 185 

" mortar rubble, - - */:- - 154 

" dry (well scabbled,) - - 138 

sandstone, well dressed, - - - - 144 

Mercury, at 32 Fahrenheit, 849 

Mica, 183 

Mortar, hardened, 103 

Mud, dry, close. -; . . . 80 to 110 

wet, fluid, maximum; - - 120 

Oak, live, dry, ......... 9 



"WEIGHT OF SUBSTANCES. 

(CONTINUED.) 

NAMES OF SUBSTANCES. Weight 

Oak, white, dry, ...**. 62 

" other kinds, - - - * * 32 to 45 

Petroleum, -.-.*.- ^55 

Pine, white, dry, - * - 25 

" yellow, Northern, - - - ? 34 

" " Southern, - - * * - 45 

Plarinum, - - - - - 9 - 1342 

Quartz, common, pure, - . . . . 165 

Rosin, - - - "- - + * 69 

Salt, coarse, Syracuse, N. Y. - . - * - 45 

" Liverpool, fine, for table use,\ .- * *. 49 

Sand, of pure quartz, dry, loose, - - - 9Q to 106 

" well shaken, - . - , . 99 to 117 

" perfectly wet, - - - * - 120 to 140 

Sandstones, fit for building, * 151 

Shaies, red /or black, - - - - - . 162 

Silver, - - - - - - - - 655 

Slate, - - - -..^- . . . 175 

Snow, freshly fallen, - - - - 5 to 12 

" moistened and compacted by rain, - .- 15 to 5O 
Spruce, dry, - - - . -'+*'- 25 

Steel. - - - -.,* . 490 
Sulphur, -.. - - .* - 125 

Sycamore, dry, ;- - - - - - - X 87 

Tar, - - . - - - - - . . . 62 

Tin, cast, - n - - - - - *',*-. 459 

Turf or Peai, dry, unpressed, - - ... 20 to 30 
Walnut, black, dry, , . - . -.-'-.,- 38>' 
Water, pure rain or distilled, at 60 Fahrenheit, , 62# 

" sea, - - -.- .-. -64 

Wax, bees, . - , . . - - - 6O.5 
Zinc or Spelter, v ........ 437 

Green timbers usually weigh from one-fifth to one-half more 
than dry. 



349 

ROUND CAST IRON COLUMNS. Safe Load in Tons of 
2, ooo pounds; safety, 6. These tables are based on 
columns made of the best iron, perfectly molded and 
with both ends turned. 



M 


Ovtlide Diameter. 8 in. 


4 

m 


Ontsl.le Diameter, 4 IB". 


'3 


36 in. 


X n. 


1 in. 



i 


*/2 in'- 


H in. 


lin. 


3 


44,070 


69,890 


71,190 


4 


61,020 


85,880 


106,220 


4 


*9,8frl 


53,535 


63,686 


6 


56,1 40 


79.202 


98,02(1 


i 


84,579 


46,992 


55,859 


6 


51,246 


72,124 


KD.81I6 


6 


30,23 I 


4 1 ,083 


48.835 


7 


46,652 


65,968 


82,035 


7 


26,268 


35,698 


42.433 


s 


41,868 


58,912 


72,865 


8 


22,812 


81,001 


36,851 


9 


37,912 


53,303 


65,926 


9 


19,844 


26,967 


32,056 


10 


33,885 


47,690 


58,985 


10 


17,889 


28,564 


28,010 


11 


80,701 


42,681 


53.01 1 


It 


1.6,147 


20,694 


24,630 


12 


27,476 


38.671 


47,880 


1* 


1 3,402 


18,213 


21,650 


13 


2 0.0410 


34,794 


43,167 


13 


11,786 


16,123 


19,228 


14 


22.464 


31,616 


39,104 


14 


10,469 


14,335 


17,097 


15 


20,5 1 1 


28,667 


36,504 


15 


9,463 


'12,847 


15,271 


16 


18,557 


26,1 18 


32,304 




Ootiide Diameter, 6 in. 




Outside Diameter, <5 in. 




&in. 


fc in. 


lin. 




fcin. 


lin. 


IK i". 


6 


79,104) 


141,250 


118,000 


6 


140,120 


177,410 


210,180 


6 


74,118 


13 2 ,3 5 3 


105,838 


7 


132,782 


168,1*20 


199,174 


7 


68,996 


123,207 


98,566 


8 


125,253 


168,587 


187,880 


8 


63,886 


114,082 


91,266 


9 


117,676 


148,993 


176,514 


9 


68,951 


105,270 


84,216 


10 


109,945 


139,205 


164,908 


10 


64,261 


96,895 


77,516 


11 


108,021 


130.438 


1A4,;>2 


11 


49,876 


89,062 


71,250 


1 2 


96,119 


121,7011 


144,179 


12 


45,826 


81,832 


65,466 


13 


89,6I2i 113,448 134.403 


in 


42,105 


75,187 


60,150 


14 


83,514 105,739 125.371 


14 


S8,710 


69.125 


55.300 


15 


77,810; 98,517 


1 1 6,7 1 5 


15 


85,618 


63,603 


60,833 


16 


72,532i 91,835 


108,798 


16 


32,830 


58,625 


46,900 


1 7 


67,633 8 ;),<; 3 2 


101,449 


17 


30,298 


54,103 


43,283 


18 


63.094 79,886 


94.64'.' 


.18 


28,003.' 50.006 


40,005 


19 


58,9621 74.653!' 8S.44:! 


19 


25,931! 16,306 


37,045 


20 


55.13I! 69,S03 


82,697 


20' 


24,056 


42,957 


34.366 


21 


5l,5S4j 65,818 


7 7,:J7> 










22 


48,348 


; i ,2 1 5 


72,523 






1 


23 


45,365 


7,4H 


68.048 




0Mi<U Diameter, 7 i. 




Outfttde Diameter, 8 iu. 




Kin. 


1 in. 


\ 1 4 in. 




fc in. 


1 in. 


l!'i ni. 


7 


166,110 


212,440 


255,880 


8 


193,230 


2 4 S, 600 


299,4 r.O 


M 


158,664 


202.917 


243,938 


9 


185,671 


2:{8.H;<; 287.7:$; 


9 


151,086 


193,226 


232,282 


10 


177,942 


_'2S.93 % J: 27.",7.">9 


10 


148.288 


183,375 


220,440 


11 


170.110 


2 IS. 85 61 263.628 


11 


135,769 


173,636 


208,783 


12 


162,279 


L'OS,;sO 251,48.* 


12 


128,198 


163.954 


197,094 


18 


154.359 


P.S.688 23S",26H 


IS 


120,936 


154,667 


185.930 


14 


146,700 


I8S.7SSI 2t7,34:{ 


14 


119,948 


145,730 


175,186 


1 5 


l:{,6r:> 


1 79,674' 216.42:* 


15 


107,824 


137,258 


165,002 


16 


ue.5ri'j 


170,535: 205.417 


10 


101,062 


129.250 


1 55, 3 7:, 


17 


1 .',>,; S I 16 1.832 194.93I 


17 


95,123 


121.654 


146,244 


IS | 119.328 15:5.516 1X4.917 


18 


89,567 


114,548 


137,701 


19 n:i.i5o 145,574 i7;>,3.->< 


Itt 


84,275 


107,780 


12 9. 5 65 


20 ' I07.3O2 


I3S.050! 166,487 


30 


79,380 


101.520 


122.040 


21 ! 101.796 


130.966 


i:,7,7.,4 


21 


74,798 


9&,660j 11 4, 995 


22 96,580 


124.256 


149.672 


22 
23 


70,589 
664686 


90,277 108,525 
85,i20! I08,4."S 


28 
24 


9 1.6.'. li 
'S7.O01I 


1 17,920 
1 1 1.942 


1 1-2.040 

i:s 4. *::. 


554 


62.980 


8<M83 U6.750 


8 a 


82.695 


I06.X92 liS.l.il 



R)UND CAST IRON COLUMNS (Continued). 



- 


OdUlde DiEtoeler, ) 5 In. 


J3 
tf. 

e 

1 


Outside Diameter, 16 In. 


lin 


1& in. 


vita.. 


ljto, 


2 in. 


2% in. 


16 


496,974 


718,798 


922.884 


16 


772,129 


993.6481,198.139 


16 
17 


486,723 
496,261 


708,972 903.058 
688,838| 884.518 


17 

18 


767. US 
741,095 


974. 785J1, 175,918 
955.158!l,161,830 


18 


460,664 


673,5661 804.910 


19 


726,521 


986,397jl. 127.523 


19 
20 
21 


464,978 
444,242 
483,467 


658,045 844,980 
642,525i 825,050 
626,940 805.038 


20 
21 

2 2 


711,0421 916,3I2il,103,34ft 
695.3911 895.149[l.079,067 
879.610 ! 871. 750:i.054,674 


22 


422,78f 


611,419 


785.108 


28 


604.031! 854. 76J1, 080,400 


23 


412,903 


595,898 


76i,178 


2 I 


048.452 88 4.7401 1.006,22 5 


24 


401,405 


580.568 


745.45)3 


25 


632.9 U 


814.773 


982,156 


25 


890,938 


565,425) 


726,054 


26 


617,567 


794,962 


95 8. '29!* 


26 


880,651 


550.417 


706,777 


27 


802,329' 775,367 


984,057 


27 


870,401 


635,733 


687,900 


28 


587,806; 756,016 


011.828 


2H 


860.241 


621,220 


669,28(5 


29 


572.537 737.017 


888.365 


29 


850,565 


607,035 


651.071 


80 


o57,988 


718,281 


865,841 


30 


840,933 


403.105 


633.1 S3 


31 


543.702 699.918 


843,681 


81 


880.921 


470.49-2 


615,704 


8-2 


529.69*! 681.866 


822,845 


82 


822,329 


466.198 


595,633 


33 


515,060 


664,180 


800,633 




Outside Diameter, 17 In. 




On JeUe Diameter, 17 In. 




IHin. 


2 in.* 1 2y 2 in.. 




1)6 in. 


2 in. 


W z in. 


17 


825,852 


,065.025, 1/280,84 4 


26 


(J80.50;; 


885.856 


1,070,353 


1'8 


S09,752 


,045,798'l.2G8.<H2 


27 


671,01b 


865,875 


1.046,216 


19 


795,883 


,026. 19$!U24 0.089 


28 


655,758 


846.176 


1.023,415 


20 


779,994 


.000,495 1. 216.125 


20 


640,031 


825.6G7 


998,841 


21 


764,510 


986.515 1.101.982 


30 


625.661 


807,846 


975,496 


22 


748,952 


906. 43!) 1.167.726 


81 


(510.007 


788,807 


952,492 


23 


788,832 


946.270 1.1 43, 355 


32 


& 96.4 Go 


769,645 


929.944 


24 


317.618 


22a.oo<; im,87i 


33 


582.132 


744,267 


903,737 


25 


702,060 


905, 981i 1.09 4. 01 5 


34 


560.206 


730.626 


888.7W8 



NEW STEEL RAILS USED AS LINTELS OR GIRDERS. 
Safe load In tons or 2000 )bs. 













A 


Length 






f 
I 


2 


1 8 


_L 

5.50 
5 05 


5 


3.50 
4.00 


7 8 


i) 
2:50! 

2.70 , 

i 


62 Ib. rail, 
60 Jb. rail, 


per 
ycr 


yardjlO.76 
yard 12. 


7.00 
8.00 
n n\n 


47u 


3. J 2.76 

.r>o; a. 


TWiHrwil i 




in i 


. ! n 


i > t \ 


n (i? .\ (i IIOA 


n i >. . n i 9Ain 09 R. 


A OrtA ' 




.170jO.226jO.SOO i 




tin H 1 15 

<>| I.50J 1.40; 
1 SOJ 1 .70 1 00"J 



- j 



AREAS OF CIRCLES, 

Advancing by Eighths. 



' .0 


n 


' 


rf* 


>ij 


.9* 


K 





i. 
















.0 


.0122 


.0490 


.1104 


. 1963 


.3068 


.441! 


.6019 


.7854 


.9940 


1.227 


1.484 


1.767 


2.073 


2.405 


2.701 


3/14 1C 


3.546 


3.976 


4.430 


4.908 


5.411 


5.939 


6.41 


?.08 


7.669 


8.295 


8.946 


9.621 


10.32 


11.04 


11.79 


12.56 


13.36 


14. 18 


15.03 


ir,.90 


16.80 


17.72 


13.06 


19 63 


20.62 


21.64' 


22.69 


23,. 7 5 


24.85 


25.96 


27.10 


28.27 


29.46 


30.67 


31.91 


33.18 


34.47 


85.78 


37.12 


38.48 


39.87 


41.28 


42. 7i 


44.17 


45.66 


47.17 


48 70- 


50.26 


51.84 


53.45 


55 . 08 


5G.74 


58-42 


60. J3 


6 1 . 86 


3.61 
78.54 


65. 39 

80.51 


67. 20 
82.51 


69 . 0- 

84.54 


86.59 


88.66 


90.76 


92. 8S 


95.03 


97.20 


99.40 


101 6 


103.8 


106.1 


108.4 


110.7 


113,0 


115.4 


117.8 


120.2 


122.7 


125.1 


127.6 


130.1 


132.7 


135.2 


137.8 


140.5 


143.1 


145.8 


148.4 


151.2 


153.9 


15G.6 


159.4 


162.2 


165 1 


lf.7.9 


170.8 


173.7 


17.7 


179.6 


182.6 


185.6 


168.6 


191.7 


194.8 


197. a 


201.0 


204.2 


207.3 


210 5 


213.8 


217.0 


220.3 


223.6 


226.9 


230 3 


23J.7 


237.1 


240.5 


243.9 


247.4 


250.9 


254.4 


258.0 


261.5 


265.1 


268. 8 


272 .'4 


276.1 


279.8 


283.5 


287.2 


29 i . 


294.8 


298 . 6 


302.4 


306.3 


310.2 


314.1 


318. 1 


322.0 


326 . 


330 


334.1 


338.1 


342.2 


< ] C 












t 




346 3 


350 4 


354.6 


358 8 


363 . 


367.2 


371.5 


375 8 


380.1 


884 4 


388.8 


393.2 


397 6 


402 . 


406.4 


410. 9 


452.3 


457 1 


461 .8 


466 6 


471.4 


476.2 


481. I 


485.9 


530.9 


536.0 


541.1 








5(52.0 


567.2 


572.5 
615.7 


577.8 
62 1.2 


583.2 
626 . 7 


632.3 


637 9 


64 3. 5 


649.1 


654.8 


660.5 


666.2 


671.9 


677.7 


683 . 4 


689.2 


695.1 


700.9 


706.8 


712.7 


718.6 


724.6 


730.6 


736.6 


742-6 


748.6 


754.8 


760.9 


767-0 


773.1 


779.3 


785.5 


791.7 


798.0 


804.3 


810.6 


816.9 


823.2 


829.6 


836.0 


842.4 


818.8 


855.3 


861.8 


368.3 


874.9 


881.4 


888.0 


894.6 


901.3 


907.9 


914.7 


921.3 


928 . 1 


934.8 


941.6 


948.4 


955 . 3 


9(52. 1 


969.0 


975.9 


982.8 


989 8 


996.8 


1003.8 


'.010.8 


1017.9 


1025.0 


1032.1 


1039.2 


046.8 


053.5 


1 Ot>0.7 


1068.0 


1075.2 


1082.5 


1089.8 


1097. 1 


104.5 


111.8 


Iii9. 2* 


1126.7 


1134.1 


1141.6 


1149.1 


1156.6 


164.2 


171.7 


1179.3 


1186.9 


1194.6 


1202.3 


1210.0 


1217.7 


225.4 


233.2 


1241.0 


1248.8 


1256. f f 


1264.5 


1272.4 


1280.3 


288.2 


296.2 


1304.2 


1312.3 


320. & 


1328.8 


1336.4 


1344.5 


352.7 


360.8 


1369.0 


1377.2 


385.4 


1393.7 


1402.0 


1410.3 


418.6 


427.0 


1435.4 


1443.8 


452.2 


1460.7 


1469.1 


1477.6 


486.2 


494.7 


1503.3 


1511.9 


520.5 


1529.2 


1537.9 


546.6 


, r >55.3 


564 . 


1372.8 


581.6 


590.4 


1 599 . 3 


1608.2 


617.0 


626.0 


634 . 9 


1643.9 


1652.9 



352 
CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES. 

Advancing by Eighths 

CIRCUMFERENCES. 



' .0 


.* 


., 


t 


-H 


.* 


.H 


H 


.0 


-892-7 


.7894 


1.178 


1.570 


1.963 


2.356 


2.748 


8.141 


8.5S4 


8.927 


4.319 


4.712 


5. 105 


5.497 


5.890 


6.288 


6.675 


7.08 


7.461 


7.854 


8.246 


8.639 


9.032 


9.424 


9.817 


10.21 


10.60 


10.99 


11.38 


11.78 


12.17 


12. 56 


12.95 


13.85 


18. M 


14.13 


14.52 


14.92 


1J5.31 


15.70 


16.10 


16.49 


16. 8ft 


17.27 


17.67 


18.06 


is. ir> 


18.84 


19.24 


19.68 


20.02 


20.42 


?O.Rl 


21.20 


2 J . 5 


21.99 


22.38 


22.77 


23.16 


23 56 


23.95 


24 . 34 


21 71 


25.18 


25.52 


25.9 


26.31 


^t, . 70 


27.0-.I 


J7.48 


27. NH 


28.27 


28.66 


29.05 


29.45 


SS. 84 


SO. 2 3 


,-Mf.sa 


31.02 


81.41 


81.80 


32.20 


32.59 


32.. 18 


33.37 '* 


.3:3.77 


34. IK 


84.55 


84.95 


85.34 


85.<?3 


86.1? 


36.52 


SO. 91 


37.3ft 


37.69 


88.09 


38.48 


88.87 


39.27 


39.66 


40.05 


40.44 


40.84 


41.28 


41.62 


42.01 


42.41 


42.80 


43.19 




43.98 


44.37 


44.76 


45.16 


45.55 


45.94 


46.33 


46^73 


47.12 


47.51 


47.90 


48.30 


48.69 


49.08 


49.48 


49.87. 


50.26 


50.65 


51.05 


51.44 


51.83 


52.22 


52.62 


53.01 


53.40 


58.79 


54.19 


54 . 58 


54.97 


55.37 


55.76 


5f%. 15 


56.54 


56.94 


57.33 


57.72 


58 - 1 1 


58.51 


58.90 


59.29 


59.69 


60.08 


60.47 


60.86 


61.26 


6 1 . 65 


62.04 


62 .*3 


62.83 


63.22 


63.61 


64.01 


64.40 


64 79_ 


65.18 


65.58 


65.97 


66.86 


66'. 75 


67.15 


67.54 


67.93 


68.82 


68.72 


69.11 


69.50 


69.90 


70.29 


70.68 


71.07 


71.47 


71.86 


72.25 


72.64 


73.04 


73.43 


73.82 


74.22 


74-61 


75.00 


75.39 


75.79 


76.18 


76.57 


76-96 


77.86 


77.75 


78.14 


78.54 


78.93 


79.32 


79.71 


80.10 


80.50 


80.89 


81.28 


81.68 


82.07 


82.46 


82.85 


83.25 


83.64 ' 


84.03 


84.43 


84.82 


85.21 


85.60 


86.00 


86.39 


86.78 


87.17 


87.57 


87.98 


88.35 


88 . 75 


89.14 


89.53 


89.92 


90.32 


90.71 


91.10 


91.49 


81.89 


92.28 


92.67 


93.06 


93.46 


93.85 


94.24 


94.64 


95.03 


95.42 


95.81 


96.21 


96.60 


96.99. 


97.89 


97.78 


98.17 


98.57 


98.96 


99.35 


99.75 


100.14 


100.53 


100.92 


101.32 


101.71 


102.10 


102.49 


102.89 


103.29 


103. 67 


104.07 


104.46 


I 04 . 85 


105.24 


105.64 


106.03 


106.42 


106.81 


107.21 


107.60 


107.99 


108.39 


108.78 


109. 17 


109.56 


109.96 


110.35 


110.74 


111.18 


111.53 


111.92 


112.31 


112.7% 


118.10 


118.49 


113.88 


114.28 


114.67 


115.06 


115 45 


115.85 


116.24 


116.68 


117.02 


117.42 


117.81 


118.20 


118.61 


118.99 


119.38 


119.77 


120.17 


120.56 


120.95 


121.34 


121.74 


122.13 


122.52 


122.92 


128.31 


123.70 


124.09 


124 49 


124.88 


125.27 


125.66^ 


126.06 


116.45 


126.84 


127.24 


127.63 


128-02 


128.41 


128.81 


129.20 


127.5 


129.98 


180.88 


130.77 


IS i. ift 


1.55 


181.95 


132.34 


132.7 


133. 13 


133.52 


133.91 


134.30 


i3i . 70 


135.09. 


135.48 


135.8 


136.27 


136.66 


137.05 


137.45 


137.84' 


138.29 


138.62 


139.0 


139.41 


139.80 


140 19 


140.59 


140.98 


Ml. 37 


141.76 


142.1 


142.55 


142.94 


143.34 


143.73 


144.12 



353 

Weight of Cast Iron Columns Per Lineal Foot 
Foot of Plain Shaft. 



:a 


THICKNESS OF METAL. 


I 


Kin. 


Xln.j^m. 


Mini 




* 


n 


lin 


lifcin. 


IK in. 


iy 2 m. 


MK 


2 tii 


2 


4.3 
6 5 


6.0 
7 8 


7 4 
9 8 


8 4 9.2 9 7 
11 5 12 9 14 


ul:.:: 










3 

3H 


6.8 

8 


9 7 
11 5 


12 3 
14 7 


146 
17 6 


16.6 
20.3 


18 3 

22 6 


? ::::. 






































4 


9.2 


13 3 


17 .2 


20.7 


23.9 


2f 


.8 29.5 .. 












10.4 


15 2 


19 6 


23.81 


27 e 


31 1 34 4! 37.3 


39'^ 








6 


11.7 


17.0! 22 1 


26.9! 


31 3 


3c 


4 


39 .1 


42 ? 


46 fl 










12.9 


18 9 24 5 


29.9' 


35 


& 


.7 44 2 


48,3 


52.:. 








6 


14.1 


20.7 27.8 33 


as - 


44 


49 1 


53.9 


58.3 








6V$ 


15 3 


22 .6 


29 51 36 1 


42 3 


48 '6 


54 


69 4 


64.4 










' r. 


16 6 


24 4 31 9 


39 1 


46 C 


52 


.6 


58 fl 


64 9 


70.6 


81 








17 8j 26 2; 34 4 




49 7 


Bf 


.9 63 f 


7U.4 


7fi 7 


88 4:. - 




t'-' ' 

8 


19 Ol 28 1 36 8 


45 3 


53 4 


61 




68 ', 


75 9 82 8i 95 7! . 






20.2 


29 9! 39 3 


4* 3> 


57 1 


65 ft 


73 e 


HI 5 


89 HM. 1; .-. 





21 5 


31 8 41 7 


51 4 


60 8 


69 8 


78 S 


87 


w i 110.5!. ... 




9H 


22 7 


33 6, 44.2 


54 5j 


64 4 


74 


1 


K< 5 


92 5 


101 I 


117.8 


J:jy.2' 


10 


23 9 


35 4 ! 46 8 


5- 5 


OS 1 


7S 4 


88 4 08 


107 4 125.2 


HI : 


ir.7 r 


11 


25.2 37 3 49 1 
26 4' 39.1 51 6 


60 6: 

63 7' 


71 R 

,-,, 


fe, 

87 


93 3! 103 f> 
98 Si 109 1 


119 7 


132 5 
139 9 


150 3, 1A 
158 9; 17 T 




27 6 4J 0. 54 8 


66 7 


7y 2 


91 


3 


Iff* 1. 114 6 


125 8 147 3l 


167 &, 18C .5 








I 








} 








12 


28 8 42 8' 56 5 


69 K 


82 6 


95 


*? 


108 120 1 


131 9! 15*: 6 


176 l! 196 3 







44 fl 1 58 9 


72 9, 


865 


ww 9 


112 9 


126 6 


m i 


162.0 


184 7 


205 2 


13 




46 5 61 4 


759 


90 2 


104 


2 


117 R 131.2 


U4 2 169 4 103 Ji 216 t> 


13/4 







63 8 
663 


79 


m \>m r, 

97 e!l!2 8 


!.' 7 


136 7 
142 2 


151J 3 176 71 201 9j 2L'u i 1 
15*5.5! 1^4 l! 210 ,V 235 6 


44Vi 


' 68.7 


85 2.1 


01 2 


117 


0:1.12 .-,i 147 7 


102 6i iyi 4 


219 I 


246 * 


15 


. _ ' ... 71 2 


88.2104 9 


121 


3 


137 A! \ r S, '2 


168 7 


108 8 


*7 6 


.255 5 


16 


7fi 1 


94 3il 


V :5 




HJU7 3 1U .< 


!<"*! (V 213 i)\ 244 ^ 


274 \t 


i: 






81 
86 9 


100 5:119 71138 
106 6127 Oil47 


1 


157 1 
166.0 


175 ;} 

1S6 4 


1M8 3j 228 3 ml 
24Ja 6 243 279 2 


.294 5 
314 1 




u 






90 8 


112 8il34 4 


155 


7 


170 7! 197 4 


217 8 


257 7 296 4 


S 8 


ft 


"."..i .. 95 7 


118 9; 141 '. 


164 


.3 IWJ.5J.208 5 


230 


274 4 313 5 


Sfvl 4 


INCREASE IN WEJUE 


T fOrt 


y-i IN I NCR* AS E IN DIAMETER 


*. 


*. 


*m 


ft in 


H M , 





m. 


l,n I 


Sg in, l 


,,,, 


1 I 
fcm. Uiin 2 in. 


7 


1 S 


2.5 


3 i 


37 


4 




T- 


77 \ 


6 1 


74 


86 [.. 



354 

Weight of Square or Rectangular Cast Iron Col* 
umn Shafts Per Lineal Foot. 

EXAMPLE : Column 6" X 10" X i 7 + 10' o'. 6" X 
jo" = 1 6" X 2 = 32. Following out line on which 32 is 
found in left hand column to column headed i", we find 
the weight per foot to be 87.5 pounds, which, multiplied 
by 10' i" = 875 pounds. 



jftul 

i -? 24 


M ETAL 


* 


V 


23.8 

28.7 
84.2 


1" 


w- 


IX" 


"" 


HT 


2" 


14 
<16 


18.6 
22.5 
26.4 


21.1 

25.8 
30.5 


25.0 
31.3 
87.6 


26.4 
38.4 
40.4 


27.3 
35.1 
43.0 


28.1 
87.5 
46.9 










49.2 


60.0 


M 


80.8 


86.2 


89.7 


48.8 


47.4 


50.8 


56.3 


60.2 


2.6 


20 


34.2 


39.8 


45.1 


60.0 


64.6 


68.6 


65.6 


71.1 


76.0 


22 
f4 

26 


88.1 
42.0 
45.9 


44.6 
49.2 
53.9 


50.6 
56.1 
61.5 


66.3 

62 6 

68.8 


61.5 66.4 
68.51 74.2 
7 ft. 6] 82.0 


75.0 
84.4 

93.8 


82.0 
93.0 
103.9 


87.6 
100.0 
112.5 


28 


49.8 


68.6 


67.0 


76.0 


82.6 


89.8 


103.7 


114.8 


125.O 


90 


53.7 


63.8 


72.6 


81.8 


89.6 


97.7 


112.5 


126.8 


192.6 


12 


57.6 


68.0 


77.9 


87.6 


96.7 


105.5 


121.9 


187.7 


150.0 


94 


61.5 


72.7 


83.4 


93.8 


108.7 


118.3 


131.3 


147.7 


162.5 


86 


65.4 


77.3 


88.9 


100.0 


110.7 


121.1 


140.C 


158.6 


175.O 


88 


69.8 


82.0 


94.8 


106.3 


117.8 


128.9 


150.0 


169.5 


187.5 


40 


73.2 


86.7 


99.8 


112.6 


124.8 


136.7 


159.4 


180.5 


200.0 


42 


77.1 


91.4 


105.3 


118.8 


131.8 


144.6 


168.8 


191.4 


212.6 


44 


81.0 


96.1 


110.8 


126.0 


138.8 


152.3 


178.1 


S02.3 


225.O 


46 


84.9 


100.8 


116.2 


131.3 


145.9 


160.2 


187.5 


213.8 


2S7.6 


48 
60 


88.8 
92.8 


105.5 
110.2 


121.7 
127.2 


137.6 
143.8 


152.9 
159.9 


168.0 
175.8 


196.9 
206.3 


224.2 
235.2 


250.0 
262.6 


62 


96.7 


114.8 


132.6 


150.0 


167.0 


183.6 


215.6 


246.3 


275.0 


64 


100.6 


119.5 


138.1 


156.3 


174.0141.4 


226.0 


257.0 


287.6 


66 


104.5 


124.2 


148.6 


162.6 


181.0199.2 


234.4 


268.0 


300.0 


68 


108.4 


128.9 


149.0 


168.8 


188.1 207.0 


243.8 


278.9 


312.5 


60 


112.3 


133.6 


154.5 


175.0196.1 214.9 


253.2 


289.8 


825.0 


62 


116.2 


138.3 


160.0 


181.3 202.1 222.7 


262.5 


800.8 


387.5 


64 


120.1 


143.0 


165.4 


187.5209.2230.6 


271.9 


811.7 


350.0 


68 


124.0 
127.9 


147.7 
162.3 


170.9 
176.4 


193.81216.2 
200.o!223.2 


238.3 
246.1 


281.3 
290.6 


822.7 
336.6 


362.6 
875.0 


70 


131.8 


157.0 


181.8120613 230.3 253.9 


300.0 


344.5 


S87.5 


;2 


135.7 


161.7 


187.7 212.5287.3261.7 


309.4 


865.5 


400.0 


74 


139.5 


166,4 


192.8 218.81244.3 269.5 


818.8 


366.4 


412.6 


76 

78 


143.5 
147.4 


171.1 

175.8 


198.3 
203.7 


226.0J261.8 
23I.3J268.4 


277.3 
285.2 


328.1 
337.6 


877.3 
383.3 


425.0 
487.5 


80 


151.3 


1 &0.5 


20.2 


237.6265.4'293.0 


340.9 399.2 


450.0 



355 
CUBIC MEASURE. 



1. 0005788 
1*728. 1. 
46656- 27. 



Tard. 

.000002144 
.03704 



J. 



Oubir Metre* 

.000016386 

.028315 

764513 



A CUBIC FOOT IS EQUAL TO 



1728 cubic inches 
.037037 cubic yard 
803564 U S struck bushe) 
of 2150 42 cub in 
U S pecks 
U. S liquid gallons 
of 231 cub in. 

$.42851 U. S dry gallons of 
268 8025 cub in 



321426 
7.48052 



29 92208 U. S liquid quarts. 
25.71405 U S dry quarts 
59 84416 U S liquid pints 
51 42809 U 8. dry pints. 
239.37662 U. S. gills 

.26667 flour barrel of 3 

struck bushels 
23748 U 8. liquid barrel 

of 31 > gallons 
\ 



A cubic inch of water at 62 ? Fahr weighs 252 458 grains. 
A cubic foot of water ai 02 Fahr weighs 1002. 7 ounces. 
A cubic yard of water at 62' Fahr. weighs 1692 pounds 



FRECNH CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE. 







Pint 


Quart. 


Buah. 


Cubic Inch. 


Cu Ft 


Centilitre 
Decilitre . 
Litre j 


Dry . . 
Liquid 
Dry . 
Liquid 
Dry .. 
Liquid 
Dry .. 
Liquid 
Dry . 
Liquid 
Dry 
Liquid 
Dry 
Liquid 


.0181 

.0211 
.1816 
.2113 
1.816 
2.113 

2i 13 

211 3 










J 61016 

6.1016 
61.016 
610.16 

6101 6 
(51016. 


.0353 
.3531 
3.531 
35.31 
353.1 






0908 

1056 
908 
1.056 
908 
1056 
90.8 
1056 

10565 
10565. 




2837 


Decalitre 

Hectolitre . 

Kilolitre OT A 
Cubic Metre / 

MyrioWtre 


2.837 

28.37 
283.7 



AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

The standard avoirdupois pound is the weight of 27.7015 
cubic inches of distilled water, weighed in the air, at 39.83 
degrees Fahr., barometer at thirty inches. 



Ounces. 


Pounds. 


Quarters. 


Cwt8. 


Ton. 


1. 


= .0625 == 


.00223 = 


.000558 = 


.000028 


16. 


1. 


.0357 


.00893 


.000447 


448. 


28. 


I. 


.25 


.0125 


1792. 


112. 


4. 


1. 


.05 



35840. 



2240. 



80. 



20. 



A drachm 27.343 grains. 

A stone 14 pounds. 

A quintal ~ 100 kilogrammes. 



7000 grains = 1 avoir, pound = 
5760 grains = 1 feroy pound 

Kilos p. sq. ceiitim. x 14.22 = 
Pounds p. sq. inch x .0703 


1.21528 troy pounds, 
.82285 avoir, pound. 

Pounds p. sq. inch. 
Kilos p. sq. centiui. 



FRENCH WEIGHTS. 

EQUIVALENT TO AVOIRDUPOIS. 





Gnic* 


<>,,,. 


Pounds, 


Milligramme 
Centigramme 

Decigramme 


.0154& 

1543SI 

1.54031 


* J352 
003527 


.000023 
.0002^ 


G ram ine 


15.4831 


.035275 


.00220* 


Decagramme. . . . 
Hectogramme 
Kilogramme . 
M vrio* r vammc 


154.883 

1543.31 
15433.1 


352758 
3.52758 
35.2758 
352.758 


.022047 
220473 
2.20473 
22.0473 


Quintal 




3527 58 


220.473 


Millicr or TMmt 




35275.8 


2204 73 



357 
SQUARE MEASURE. 

Inches Feet- VnnJ Perches. Acre. 

1. = .00694 = 000772 -- .0000255 = .0000001 5& 
144. 1. .111 .00367 .000023 

1296. 9. 1- .0331 .0002066 

39204. 272*. 30*. 1. .00625 

6272640. 43560. 4840- 160 1 

100 square feet = 1 square. 
10 square chains - I acre. 
1 chain wide = 8 acres per mile. 
I hectare = 2471143 acres. 

S= 27.878.400 square feet. 
= 3.097.600 square yards." 
= 640 acres. 

Acres x 0015625 = square milei 

Square yard x 000000323= square miles 
Acres x 4840= square yards 

Square yards x 0002066 = acres. 

A section of land is 1 mile square, and contains 640 acres. 

A square acre is 208 71 ft at each side; or, ; 20 x 198 ft. 

A square * acre is 147 58 ft at each side. or. 110 x 198 ft. 

A square * acre is 104 355 ft. at each side, or. 55 x 198 ft. 

A circular acre is 235 504 ft in diameter 

A circular 4- acre is 166 527 ft. in diameter 

A circular acre is 117.752 ft m diameter 



FRENCH SQUARE MEASURE. 











Square 


Q 




Q 


Millimetre. 


00154 


0000107 


000001 


Centimetre 


15498 


0010763 


.000119 


Decimetre 


15 498 


107630*5 


011956 


Met or Ccn 


1549 8 


10 76305 


1 19589 


Decametre 


154988 


1076 305 


119.589 


Hectare .. 





107630 58 


1195H 95 


Kilometre . 


'.38607 amis 


10763058 


1195895. 


Mynamei. 


38.607 




..,'.. - 



35* 



SURVEYING MEASURE. 



(LINEAL.) 



Inch**. 


Feet. 


Yard*. 


Chains. 


1. 


= .0888 


= .0278 


= .00126 


12. 


1. 


.333 


.01515 


36. 


3. 


1. 


.04545 


792. 


66. 


22. 


1. 



63360. 5280. 



1760. 



80. 



Mile. 

.000015$ 
.000189 
.000568 
.0125 
1. 



One knot or geographical mile = 6086.07 feet - 1855.11 
metres =1.1526 statute mile. 

One admiralty knot = 1.1515 statute miles = 6080 feet 



LONG MEASURE. 

Inehe*. Feet. Yard*. Poles. Furl. Mlie. 

1. = .083 = .02778 = .005 = .000126 = .0000158 
12. 1. .333 .0606 .00151 .0001894 
36. 3. 1. .182 .00454 .000563 
198. 16f 5*. 1. .025 .003125 



7920. 660. 



220. 



63360. 5280. 1760. 

A palm = 3 inches. 
A span = 9 inches. 



40. 
320, 



1. 

8. 



.125 
1. 



A hand 4 inches. 

A cable's length 120 fathoms. 



FRENCH LONG MEASURE. 





luches. 


Feet. 


Yards. 


MIk-8. 


Millimetre 


03937 


0033 






Centimetre 


!393G8 


.0328 






Decimetre 


3 9368 


.3280 


.10036 




Metre 


39.368 


3.2807 


1 09357 




Decametre 
Hectometre 


303.68 


32.807 

328 07 


10 9357 

100 357 


Oo2l;>4 


Kilometre 




3280 7 


1093 57 


t>2mo 


Myriametre 





32807. 


!00:V, 7 


; -.H.v t n6 



359 
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, 



ULTIMATE RESISTANCE TO TENSION 
W LBS. PER SQUARE INCH. 

METALS. 

Atertf*. 

Brass, cast, 18000 

" *>re, ....... 49000 

Bronze or ^un metal, 36000 

Copper, cast. - - . 19000 

sheet, 30000 

bolts, . . 36000 

w>re, - - ^ - 60000 

Iron. casi. 13400 to 29000, - ... 16500 

" wrought, round or square bars of 1 to 2 inch 

diameter, double refined, - 6OOOO to 54OOO 

wrought, specimens j inch square, rut from large 

bars of double refined iron, . 60000 to 53OOO 
" wrought, double refined, m large bars of about 

7 square inches section, - - 46OOO to 470OO 

wrought, plates, angles and other shapes, 48OOO to 61OOO 

plates over 36' ' wide. - 46000 to 6OOOO 

Wrought iron, suitable for the tension members of bridges, 
should be double* refined, and show a permanent elongation of 
20 per cmr .n ft", when broker* m small specimens, and a re- 
duction o -irea of 26 per cent at point of fracture 

The modulus of elasticii) of Union Iron Mills' double refined 
bar .ron s 25000000 tu 2,6000000, from tests mado on firushed 
eyebars 

iron, wire. 70000 to 10000O 

1 wire-ropes. - *> - 9000O 

Lead, sheet, ....-.-. 3300 
Steel, ...... 65000 to 12000O 

Tin, cast, - 460O 

Zjnc, - - ' - - - - * - 700O to 8000 



STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

(CONTINUED.) 

TIMBER, SEASONED, AMD OTHER ORGANIC FIBE& 



Ash, English, ...-.- . . 17QOO 

American, - - . - - 11000 to 14000 

Beech, " - 1500O to 1800O 

Box, - - - w * \ ~ - - 20000 

Cedar of Lebanon, - -. * - - - 11400 

" American, red, - * - - / - 1O3OO 

Fir or Spruce, - 1000O to 1380O 

Hempen Ropes, - - - - - 12000 to 16000 

Hickory, American, - - - - 12800 to 18000 

Mahogany, 8000 to 218OO 

Oak, American, white, - - - - - - 18OOO 

" European, - -, - - - 10000 to 19800 

Hne, American, white, red and pitch, Memel, Riga, - 10000 

long leaf yellow, - 120OO to 19200 

Poplar, - - - ' . . , ~ . . 7000 

Silk fiber, ..---,.. 52000 

Walnut, black, .,.-.. 16OOO 

STOKE, NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL. 

Brick and Cement, ------ 28O to 300 

Glass, - - ; - -, - . - r - - 9400 

Slate, ...-,- r 9600 to 12800 
Mortar, ordinary, 50 

ULTIMATE RESISTANCE TO COMPRESSION, 

METALS. 

Brass, cast, - * * - - - - 103OO 

Iron, . * . * a . 82000 to 14500O 

" wrought, * < 3600O to 4OOOO 



Ifc K. 
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

(CONTINUED.) 

TIMBER, SEASONED, COMPRESSED IN THE 
DIRECTION OF THE GRAIN 

Average. 

Ash, American, - 4400 to 5800 

Beech, - - 5800 to 6900 

Box, - 10300 

Cedar of Lebanon, - - 5900 

" American, red, 6000 

Deal, red, - - 6500 

Fir or Spruce, 5100 to 6800 

Oak, American, white, - 7200 to 9100 

" British, 10000 

" Dantzig, - - 7700 

Pine, American, white, - 5000 to 5600 

" long leaf, yellow - - 8000 

Spruce or Fir, 5800 to 6900 

Walnut, black, - - 7500 

STONE, NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL. 



Brick, weak, 

" strong, 

" fire, - 
Brickwork, ordinary, in cement, 

. " best, 
Chalk, 
Granite, 
lyimestone, 
Sandstone, ordinary, 



550 to 800 
1100 
1700 

300 to 450 

1000 

330 

5500 to 11000 

4000 to 11000 

4000 



ULTIMATE RESISTANCE TO SHEARING 



METALS. 
Iron, cast, - 
" wrought, along the fiber, 

TIMBER, ALONG THE GRAIN. 



27700 
45000 



White Pine, Spruce, Hemlock, 
Yellow Pine, long leaf, 
Oak, European, 
Ash, American, 



500 to 800 

- 630 to 960 

2300 

- 2000 



362 
/"able of Safety Load of Cast Iron Columns Factor of Safety 10, 

This factor of safety of 10 has been adopted to allow for imper- 
fections in casting; such as air-holes, unequal thickness of metal, 
tc., devietion of pressure from axis of columns, and the effect of 
latenal forces accidentally applied. Where these risks do not 
occur, a factor of 6 may be taken for safe load. Ends of columns 
should always be turned- true. 



(q4#ua| .jo jooj 
jad eutur.ip3 
jo -em ui iqS|o& 


55 i! 31522 55253 s:-!^! :B 




saqooi 
at va&B iBuouoag. 


91 


* CO :c l> ^ % i^ X X t- 9*O7SM>e * 


f 

kl 

UI 

u 


M 


1 




c 


| 




: : : : : : : : : : : '. : ::::::** 


it 
ot 


1 


M : : ! '; 1 N 28 


2 


J 






: : '. : :''.'.: 


LENGTH OF'COLUMNS l*i 

BOTH EWDB TUBWRD. 


91 
94 


| 


: ] \ i ;=sss : sssasa ss 


g 


a! 


COC r^ 91 A 




at 


s 
fi 


OC99 US PS 




' j 


r cc ^i- r. 


_ ^,-919191 9191WSCW* MM 


- 


1 


S2 * 2^Ct M OS^^Ot^ A^XM^X C.M 


' 


94 


1 


r-o ee r. 


^ -^atOM 919J ^00 ** 


O 


1 


22 2, 2, S xg g5g .5 S! . 3S58 5g 


OK. 
(P 


I 


2 2a ^-wto --e9. ,9.x*o e 




I 


.*? " 
< i i? * 9et>91r> MX9 3t W M 3t O * 


15 91 9J8 * 10 W X 


bi~ . . u . - 


; *w *_j **-..; *x^ s ** xs 



TABLE OF SAFETY LOAD OF CAST IRON 
COLUMNS. 

(CONTINUED.) 



tuihiai jo jooj 


^^ ^ ----- --r . 1 


en foju iBnouooc 




^LENGTH OF COLUMNS IN FEET. 

| | BOTH ENDS TURNED. 


e 
ee 


_ 
I 


r-3tciec ?-: -*- -wo Cii.c-res.o Oso* 




s 


-,s,^. -*.^ ^ ^^ wo ^ -,cr^ *xe* 




s 


J r 

a 

$ 




<N(M9eBeo-* .aieseesewe so-r^.e.*.- ^-ao 


Ot 

M 
1 






, 




e 


i 


^^^^ 9t ^ & ~ 




- 


1 


' CODfM^O . 1 * -~, ^Tcr 


^^^^.ooo ^.-h^..^c,t- .e^.-.-Qc-c- ec-oe 


CO 


1 




^-..o^^coo Vke . e ^> CD^^XSS*. -*a 





I' 









I 


i(5 * i- ? GC r d O r 1 CC ift OS Si OC t^ iffl 8C OS t~ SI 91 "Si 


_Z^!!I 





1 


SS^ S;3SSS^ SSI22I5S SSS: 


00 


I 


OD i *i SS S3 M 91 5: r- MSO " r< ~ 


' 


1 




"Itfjajv 







364 



TABLE OF SAFETY LOAD OF CAST IRON 
COLUMNS. 

(CONTINUED.) 



* -qiJBuai JO JOOJ 

' a ad s u tun [03 



EET. 



NGTH- OF COLUMNS 

BOTH ENDS TURNED 



J_ 



H^ 



corsxorco 



'*! O <X t O 



5 OS CO ** - -* OS ff 1 3S r- CO O 

C (5 r- CC 5: X O R US CC 99 88 O O 3> r S 

sssccai r>I csd-r oJ o'oo-^ccto ^ot^oree* 






-CCOSO CSl-QCOSO-<iN I-XOSC (M * OS O <N CO * 



waoor- J-o^,- o^09*,Or^r~OD0-0 

OOUOOr^ i- Ct- O5 O CO gjc OS O W "t- O OS O - 1C - CD 



^09 oOOSOi-i99kO OSOi-i&4eSr- O w-^fior. 



c-o 



Ot*ke t^osi^ogio**** OOSOCDOS ocDoo-4e 



ie9or- Of-ieo^n: 



~OMCOCCG>1CO GC M r- 01 CO 



df 1-1 <N ^* U3 CC QC - Oie9>C 



Crushing and Tensile Strength, in Ibs., per square inch jf Natural 
and Artificial Stones. 



DESCRIPTION. 


Weight 
per 
Cubic ft 
tn Ibs 


Crushing Force. 
Lbs. per Square 
Inch. 


Aberdeen Blue Graaite .. ..'.. 


16? 


8.400 to 10.914 


Quincy Granite 


160 


15 300 


Freeetone, Belleville . . . 




3 522 


Freestone, Caen . . 




1 088 


Freestone, Connecticut. 




3 319 


Sandstone, Acqula Creek, used for Capitol Wash- 
ington 




5,340 


Limestone, Magnestan, Graf ton. Ill 
Marble, Hastings, N. Y 




17.000 

13,941 


Marble, Italian 




12,624 


Marble, Stockbrldge, City Hall, N. Y . 
Marble, Statuary 




10,382 
3,216 


Marble, Veined 


165 


9 681 


Slate 




9,300 


Brick, Red ^ T 


135.5 


SOS 


Brick, Pale Bed 


130.3 


562 


Brick, Common 




800 to t 000 


Brick, Machine Pressed 




6 222 to 14 214 


Brick Stock 




2,1^7 


Brtck-work, set In Cement, bricks not very hard, 
Brick, Masonry, Commou 




521 
500 to 809 


Cement Portland 




1,000 to 8 309 


Cement, Portland, Cement i. Band 1 
Cement Roman 





1,280 
342 


Mortar 




120 to 240 


Crown Gl&M . ; .... 




31 000 


Portland Cement .. . 




TENSION. 

427 to 711 


Portland Cement wHb Sand 




92 to 284 


Glass Plate 




9 420 


Mortar 




50 


Plaster of Paris . .. 




72 


6lme .- 




11,000 



Capacity of Cylindrical Cisterns.' 



FOR EACH FOOT OF DEPTH. 



Diameter 
In Feet. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Diameter 
In feet. 


Gallons. 


Pound*, 


2.0 
2.5 


23.5 
36.7 


1M 

306 


9.0 
9.5 


475.9 
530.2 


4,421 


3.0 


52.9 


441 


10.0 


587.5 


4,899 


3.5 


72.0 


600 


11.0 


710.9 


5,928 


4.0 


94.0 


784 


12.0 


846.0 


7,054 


4.5 


119.0 


992 


13.0 


992.9 


' 8,280 


5.0 


146.9 


1,225 


14.0 


1,151.5 


9,602 


5.5 


177.7 


1,482 


15.0 


. 1,821.9 


11,023 


6.0 


211.5 


1,764 


20.0 


2,350. 1 


19\596 


6.5 ( 


248.2 


2070 


25.0 


8.G72.0 


30,820 


7.0 


287.9 


2,401 


30.0 


5,287.7 


44,093 


7.5 


S30.5 


2.756 


35.0 


7,197.1 


60,016 


8.0 


376.0 


3,185 


40.0 


9,400.3 


78,? as 


8.5 


424.5 


3,540 









366 
PROPERTIES OF TIMBER. 

I i ! j I \ I 8 n 

' : i : : : ; 2 S 

i: i ! I Mi! 



s | s s 

i -' I 



3 : 

S : 



2 2 
5 3 



f* ~ g 

222 



strength 
reftklng. 

e = 100. 



III 



3 s ? * 2 ' S 8 5j i ? = 

2222S222222|3 = 

CMOrt S 0?S???!r)>O $ 



rushing 
gth per eq 
.. In lt>6. 



| S 

232 

s S 



o 



i I i 






l 



3222 

I i. i s 



2 2 S 5 
| | | | 
d c* a of 



P 

M M 



i 



S 2 S 

000 

s 5 i 



- 

5 3 S 



: I U j i I i I I* * 
j>g i Iv I i >.-' 3 >. " J ; :' J 
I- 1 : I 1 I * i . * - 1 4l I * 

dowan.SsooSa:^^ 



367 

SQUARE CAST IRON COLUMNS. 

Safe Load in Pounds. Safety 6. 
BOTH ENDS TURNED. 



f 


} 4utfllde*5Ue Column, 8x8. 


LengtL. [| 


Outride SizeColBM, I Ox It/ 


&in..; 


I in. 


l&in. 


XHL 


lin. 


Ifein 


8 


255,486 


328,902 


458,113 


10 


325,965 


422,874 


599,07 1 




247,656 


318,822 


444,073 


11 


318,015 


412,560 


684,4** 


10 


289,457 


308,266 


429,370 


12 


309,751 


401,839 


66,*7t 




231,786 


298,430 


416,670 


13 


301,232 


390,787 


563,61* 


12. 


222,400 


286,308 


898,787 


14 


292,540 


379,512 


687.* 


1 is 


213,752 


275,176 


888,280 


15 


283,752 


368.111 


521, 7*0 ' 


14 


204,896 


263,774 


267,399 


16 


274,925 


356,669 


505,**? t 


15 


196,642 


258,153 


252,606 


17 


266,109 


346,229 


4H9,07o 


16 


188,268 


242,368 


337,584 


18 


257,362 


833,876 


472,980 


17 


180,126 


231,887 


322,986 


19 


248;709 


822,660 


457,087 


18 


172,220 


221,709 


808.810 


20 


240,204 


311.616 


441,46ft 


19 


164,589 


211,884 


295,125 


21 


231.878 


300,809 


426,14* 


20 


157,242 


202^,426 


281,950 


22 


223,720 


290.282 


411,16* 


21 


150,225 


193,354 


269,314 


23 


216,881 


280,062 


896,754 


*2 


148,452 


184,674 


257,224 


24 


208,083 


269,946 


382,42f 


23 


137,014 


176,37(i 


245,562 


25 


200,619 


260,263 


368,704' 


4 


180,881 


168,490 


284,682 


26 


193,398 


250,895 


355,434 


25 


126,849 


160,809 


223,985 


27 


186,411 


241,830 


342,59* 




OatBlde Site Column, 12x12. 




Outside Site Column, 12x12. 




l.in. 


l&in. 


2 in. 




1 in. 


iKta. 


2 IQ. V 


12 


616,846 


740,029 


989,720 


21 


414,986 


594,184 


7.>4,52<t 


13 


606.383 


725,048 


980,696 


28 


403.458 


577,678 


7 38,560 


14 


495,550 


709,537 


901,000 


23 


392,093 


561,406 


712,890 


15 


'484,418 


693,598 


880,765 


94 


380,864 


545,328 


692,480 


46 


473,057 


677,382 


860,104 


25 


369.829 


529,527 


4)72,416 


17 


461,579 


660,888 


839,160 


26 


359.005J 514.030 


652,730 


18 


449,913 


644,194 


818,024 


27 


348.401: 498.847 


683,460 


10 


438,253 


627,409 


796,824 


2ft 


337.7311 483.569 


614,056 


L 


426,693 


610,804 


775.684 


29 


3 29,941 j 469.552 


690.S** 



COST OF LIVING IN CHINA. 
Land in China is divided into more holdings than anjr 
other land in the world. It takes but a very small piece 
land to support a Chinese family. The Chinese are the 
closest and most thorough cultivators in the world. Field 
hands in China are paid $12 per annum. The food is 
cooked by the employer. With his food he is furnished 
straw, shoes and free shaving the last a matter which a 
Chinaman never neglects for any great length of time where 
it is possible to secure the luxury. It costs about $4 a year 
to clothe a Chinaman. Much of the land ki China is divided 
Up into gardens of areas as small as one-sixth of an acre. 



; NOTES OX HOT WATER SYSTEMS. 

Let your " risers " not be less than i%", for smaller pipes 
soon become coated, if the water used contains lime or otner 
matters in solution or suspension. 

; Galvanized pipe is best; it does not become rusty and dis- 
color the water.' 

In ordinary pip? be sure to get " galvanized steam," and 
Hot " galvanized gas. " 

Let your draw-off services be for bath i", to lavatories 
l", for hot water ]'. Do not make the " draw-offs " too 
small, it takes too long to drain a pipe of cold water. 

. The larger tire pip?s the freer the circulation, and, if you 
have Hard water, they will remain in good order longer. 

; Be sure that all joints are secure and free from leaks, and 
always look through a pipe before fitting it in place, to see 
that there is no dirt or impediment to the flow of water 
through it. 

Avoid the use of elbows in circulating pipes, use only 
bends; if you cannot avoid using an elbow, see that it is a 
round one. 

TO SOLDER ALUMINUM. 

M. Bourbouze has formed an alloy of 45 parts of tin and 
55 parts of aluminum, which answers for soldering aluminum. 
This alloy possesses almost the same lightness as the pure 
aluminum, and can be easily soldered. M. Bourbouze has 
invented another containing only ten per cent, of tin. This 
second alloy, which can replace aluminum in all its applica- 
tions, can be soldered to tin, while it preserves all the prin- 
cipal qualities of the pure metal. 

A new and curious alloy is produced by placing in a clean 
crucible an ounce of copper and an ounce of antimony, and 
fusing them by a strong heat. The compound will be hard, 
and of a beautiful violet hue. This alloy has not yet beea 
applied to any useful purpose, but its excellent qualities, 
independent of its color, entitle it to consideration. 

A CHEAP FILTER. 

A cheap filter which any tinner can make is 12x6 inches ia 
size, and 8 inches high. The water flows in near the top, and 
n the top is a door through which to get into it to clean H. 
The outlet pipe at the bottom projects two inches up on the 
inside to hold the dirt back. A large sponge is placed inside, 
which forms the filtering medium, which, of course, can be 
cleaned as often as desired. 



COMPOSITION OF BABBITT METAL. 

Genuine Babbitt metal, according to the formula of the 
inventor, is 9 of tin, i of copper. Antimony has been added 
since, so that the proportions by hundreds will stand 80 tin, 
5 copper, 15 antimony. For high speeds the metals should 
be cooler, giving a larger proportion of tin ; for weight the 
metal should be harder, giving a larger proportion of 
antimony. 

THE HEATING SURFACE OF A STEAM RADIA- 
TOR. 

For instance, the radiator contains 300 feet of one-inca 
pipe; what will be its heating surface in square feet? A. 
300 feet =3, 600 inches. The outside circumference of one- 
inch pipe=4 inches. And 3,600 X 4 = 14,400 square inches 
of heating surface. Lastly, 

14,400 

= 100 

144 

square feet of heating surface. The way you have calculated 
the heating surface is not correct, because you did not multi- 
ply the length of the pipe by the circumference. 

A CHIMNEY THAT WILL DRAW. 

To build a chimney that will draw forever, and not fill up 
with soot, you must build it large enough, sixteen inches 
square; use good brick, mid clay instead of lime up to the 
comb; plaster it inside with clay mixed with salt ; for chimney 
tops use the very best of brick, wet them and lay them in 
cement mortar. The chimney should not be 1 built tight to 
beams and rafters; there is where the cracks in your chimney 
comes, and where most of the fires originate, as the chimney 
sometimes get red hot. A chimney built from the cellar up 
is better and less dangerous than one hung on the wall, 

ANCIENT USE OF LEAD. 

The ancients, like the moderns, used lead to fasten iron 
into stone, to give a glaze to pottery, and as a help to the 
manufacture of glass. Very singular were the " imprecation 
tablets, surreptitiously deposited in tombs, and sometimes 
even in the coffin of the deceased, that a curse might follow 
him to the other world, '^ which seem "to have been more 
frequently deposited by women than by men." Vitruvius 
describes elaborately a vast aqueduct, the lead >n which 



would cost to-day two millions. The leaden bullets of the 
ancient slingers often bore an inscription in relief such as 
4i Appear," " Show yourself," " Desist," " Take this," " Strike 
Rome." The Greeks were especially fond of bullets with 
such mottoes, and they have been found upon Marathon and 
many other famous fields. 

A RUSSIAN WELDING PROCESS. 

The process of welding, invented by Mr. Be Benardox, of 
Russia, is now applied industrially by the Society for the 
Electrical Working of Metals. The pieces to be welded are 
placed upon a cast-iron plate supported by an insulated table, 
and connected with the negative pole of a source of electricity. 
The positive pole communicates with an electric carbon in- 
serted in an insulating handle. On drawing the point of the 
carbon along the edges of the metal to be welded, the oper- 
ator closes the circuit. He has then merely to raise '.lie point 
slightly to produce a voltaic arc, whose high V jperature 
melts the two pieces of metal and causes them to unite. The 
intensity of the current naturally varies with the \\ork to be 
done.** For regulating it, a battery of accumulators is used, 
and the number of the latter is increased or diminished as 
need be. This process of welding is largely employed in the 
manufacture of metallic tanks and reservoirs. 

COLD SOLDER. 

LaMetallurgie gives the following receipt for cold solder: 
Precipitate copper in a state of fine division from a solution 
of sulphate of copper by the aid of metallic zinc. Twenty 
or thirty parts of the copper are mixed in a mortar with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, to which is afterward added seventy 
parts cf mercury, and the whole triturated with the pestle. 
The amalgam produced is copiously washed with water to re- 
move the sulphuric acid, and is then left for twelre hours. 
When it is required for soldering, it is warmed until it is 
about the consistency of wax, and in this state it is applied 
to the joint, to which it adheres on cooling. 

TO TIN MALLEABLE IRON. 

W. M. writes : I tin malleable iron, which comes from the 
bath nice and bright, but although I keep it covered, after a 
few days it gets red, copper colored in spots, and this color 
gradually spreads all over the work. Can you tell me the 
cause ? A The red color is probably derived from oxida- 



tion of the iron by the acid left in the poies of thr iron. 
The acid rusts the iron and oozes out through the* pores of 
the tin by the pressure due to increase of bulk by tiic action 
yf the acid upon the iron ; possibly also moisture may be 
ibsorbed by the acid through the tin, which is porous. 
Rinse the work immediately after tinning in boiling water, 
holding 2 oz. sal soda to the gallon in solution. 

OLD TINS NO LONGER USELESS 

A number of people recently gathered at the Colun.l't 
rolling mill, Fourteenth street and Jersey avenue. Jersey City, 
at the formal opening of the mill. The industry is a novel 
one, being the manufacture of taggers' iron from old tin cans, 
and other waste sheet metal. This iron has heretofore been 
manufactured almost exclusively in Europe, and the Columbia 
Rolling Mill Company is the only American company which 
turns out the product in large quantities. The process is 
simple. The tin cans are first heated in an oven raised to a 
temperature of about 1,000, which melts off the tin and lead. 
The sheet iron which remains is passed first under rubber- 
coated rollers, and then chilled iron rollers, which leaves the 
sheet smooth and flat. After annealing and trimming, they 
are ready for shipment. The tin and lead which is melted 
from the cans is run into bars, and is also placed upon the 
market. All the raw material used is waste, but the sheet 
iron turned out is said to be of good quality. It is used for 
buttons, tags, and objects of a like nature. The material used 
costing little, and the demand for taggers' iron being consider- 
able, it is thought that this is a good opportunity to build up 
another American industry. 

LEAD ON ROOFS AND IN SINKS. 

Tenacity is very slight in some of the metals. An in- 
stance may be seen where roofs are covered with lead. The 
heat of the sun will expand them, and, of course, it is easier 
for the sheets to expand down-hill than up; then, when they 
get cold, their own weight will be too great for them, and 
they will sooner stretch than creep back up hill; so, in fact, 
unless properly laid, the lead roof will to some extent crawl 
off its frame- work. The same thing will be seen in kitchen 
sinks of lead, where very hot water is run into them. The 
lining gets wrinkled, because, after buckling by reason of the 
expansion, it will sooner pull thinner than come back to the 
ordinary position and condition of surface. 



37* 
,THE USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE. 

The standard steel square has a blade 24 inches long and 2 inches 
wide, and a tongue from 14 to 18 inches long and \Y 2 inches wide. 
The blade is exactly at right angles with the tongue, and the angle 
formed by them an exact right angle, or square corner. A proper 
square should have tke ordinary divisions of inches, half inches, 
quarters and eighths, and often sixteenths and thirty-seconds. 
Another portion of the square is divided into twelfths of an inch; 
this portion is simply a scale of 12 feet to an inch, used for any pur- 
pose, as measuring scale drawings, etc. The diagonal scale on the 
tongue near the blade, often found on square?, is thus termed from 
its diagonal lines. However, the proper term is centesimal scale, 
for the reason that by it a unit may be divided into 100 equal parts, 
and therefore any number to the icoth part of a unit may be expressed. 
In this scale A B is one inch; then, if it be required to take off 73-100 
inches, set one foot of the compasses in the third parallel under i at 
E, extend the other foot to the seventh diagonal in that parallel at G, 
and the distance between E G is that required, for E F is one inch and 
F G 73 parts of an inch. 

Upon one side of the blade of the square, running parallel with the 
length, will be found nine lines, divided at intervals of one inch into 
sections or spaces by cross lines. This in the plank, board and 
scantling measure. On each side of the cross lines referred to are 
figures, sometimes on one side of the cross line, and often spread 
over the line, thus, i | 4 9 | We will suppose we have a board 12 
feet long and 6 inches wide. Looking on the outer edge of the blade 
we find 12; between the fifth and sixth lines, under 12, will be found 12 
again ; this is the length of the board. Now follow the space along 
toward the tongue till we come to the cross line under 6 (on the edge 
of the blade), this being the width of the board; in this space will be 
found the figure 6 again, which is the answer in board measure, viz., 
six feet. 

On some squares will be found on one side of the blade 9 lines, 
and crossing these lines diagonally to the right are rows of figures, as 
seven is, seven 25, seven 33, etc. This is another style of board 
measure and gives the feet in a board according to its length and 
width. 

In the center of the tongue will generally be found two parallel 
lines, half an inch apart, with figures between them; this is termed 
the Brace Rule. Near the extreme end of the tongue will be found 
24-24 and to the right of these 33.95. The 24-24 indicate the two 
sides of a right-angle-triangle, while the length of the brace is indi- 
cated by 33.95. This will explain the use of any of the figures in 
the brace rule. On the opposite side of the tongue from the brace 
rule will generally be found the octagon scale, situated between 
two central parallel lines. This space is divided into intervals and 
numbered thus: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60. Suppose it becomes neces- 
sary to describe an octagon ten inches square; draw a square ten 
inches each way and bisect the square with a horizontal and per- 
pendicular center line. To find the length of the octagon line, 
place one point of the compasses on any of the main divisions of the 
scale and the other leg or point on the tenth subdivision. 



373 

ENDLESS TIN PLATES. 

A patent has been recently granted for a novel process of 
manufacturing continuous tin plates. The plates are made 
of steel, and the process consists of producing a sheet of 
sbeel of any continuous length and of required width, by 
first rolling the metal hot and afterward rolling it cold, 
until a proper thickness and perfectly smooth surface is 
obtained. Next, the surface of the sheet is scoured, and 
then it is afterward passed through a bath of molten tin, 
thus receiving its coating. Finally the sheet is subjected to 
a rolling operation, under heavy pressure, between highly 
polished rolls, by which the tin and steel are condensed and 
consolidated together, and the surface hardened and pol- 
ished. The inventor states that, by this method, the tin 
will be found to be so hardened upon and incorporated with 
the steel, as to produce a tin plate which is superior, in most 
respects, to any tin plate, wherever produced. 

HARDWARE IN HAVANA. 

The annual value of the imports into Havana of iron- 
mongery and hardware is about $600,000, of which England 
supplies barely one-half. Consul-General Crowe states that 
German trade in these branches is constantly increasing, but 
so far has been confined to such articles as white metal spoons 
and forks, locks, cutlery and wire nails, which, however, 
form an important aggregate, as the consumption is consider- 
able. The German goods are generally inferior to the 
English, which are often of better quality than is actually 
required. German travelers pay more frequent visits, offer 
better terms, and give more attention to the requirements of 
the country than the representatives of English firms. The 
United States supplies barbed fence wire, cut nails, carpenter's 
tools, wheelbarrows, bolts and padlocks, and, according to 
the British Consul-General, "inferior gas and water valves. " 
Their pumps and plows are described as superior to the 
European articles. 

CRYSTALLIZED TIN [PLATE. 

Crystallized tin plate has a variegated primrose appear- 
ance, produced upon the surface by applying to it, in a 
heated state, some dilute nitre-muriatic acid for a few sec- 
onds, then washing it with water, drying, and coating it 
with lacquer. The figures are more or less diversified, ac- 
cording to the degree of heat and relative dilution of the 
acid. Place the tin plate, slightly heated, over a tub of 



water, and rub its surface with a sponge dipped iu a liquid 
composed of tour parts of aquafortis und two of distilled 
water, holding one common sale or sal-ammoniac in solution. 
When the crystalline spangles seem to be thoroughly brought 
out, the plate must be immersed in water, washed either with 
a feather or a little cotton, taking care riot to rub off the 
film of tin that forms the feathering, forthwith dried with a 
low heat, and coated with a lacquer varnish, otherwise it loses 
its luster in the air. If the whole surface is not plunged at 
once in cold water, but is partially cooled by sprinkling water 
*l it, the crystallization will be obtained by blowing cold air 
hrough a pipe on the tinned surface, while it is just passing 
from the fused to the solid state. 

USEFUL RECIPES. 

Tinning Acid for Zinc or Brass. Zinc. 3 oz.; muriatic acid, 

1 pt. Dissolve, and add 1 pt. water and 1 oz. sal-ammoniac. 
To Solder Brass Easily. Cut out a piece of tin foil the size 

of the surface to be soldered. Then apply to the surface 
a solution of sal-ammoniac for a flux. Place the tin foil 
between the pieces, and apply a hot soldering-iron until the 
tin foil is melted. 
To Solder Without /Tea/. Steel filings, 2 oz. ; brass filings, 

2 oz. ; fluoric acid, 1 ^ oz. Dissolve the filings in the acid, 
and apply to the parts to be soldered, having first thoroughly 
cleaned the parts to be connected. Keep the fluoric acid in 
earthen or lead vessels only. 

To Tin Brass and Copper. Make a mixture of 3 Ibs. cream 
of tartar. 4 Ibs. tin shavings, and 2 gallons water, and boil. 
After the mixture has boiled sufficiently, put in the articles 
to be tinned, and continue the boiling. The tin will be pre- 
cipitated on the articles. 

TO POLISH NICKEL-PLATE. 

To brighten and polish nickel-plating and prevent rust, 
apply rouge with a little fresh lard or lard oil on a wash- 
leather or piece of buckskin. Rub the bright parts, using 
as little of the rouge and oil as possible: wipe off with a 
clean rag slightly oiled. Repeat the wiping every day, and 
ttoe polishing as often as necessary. 



375 



PATTERN FOR FLARING OVAL ARTICLES. 

Of all the great variety of patterns with which the tin man 
has to deal, t^ere is probably none that seems more difficult 
and c^u : cs mere troub'e and perplexity to make than a flaring 
oval pan. By following the annexed diagrams and explana- 
tions, the development of this pattern will be seen to be sim- 
ple, easy and quickly per- 
formed. 

First, always describe the 
oval from two centers thus 
making the bottom of the dish 
parts of two diameters or. 
circles. Separate the circles 
when they intersect each other, 
and proceed the same as in any 
roiu d, flaring article. 

Jn Fig. i the compasses 
are set at a a, and the large circles described as A A B B, then 
set the compasses at b b and describe the smaller circles, thus 
completing the oval or bottom of pan. 

To make the pattern for the body : In Fig. 2 mark A B 






the size of large diameter. Then draw the depth of vessel 
and flare desired, as A B C D. Extend the lines C A ant 



376 

D B until they cross at e, set the compasses at <*, and "describe 
the curved lines C D and A B. Make the length A F equal 
to A A in Fig. i. Add the locks as shown in dotted lines; 
this will be the pattern for side of dish. 

In Fig. 3, make a a equal to the small diameter and pro- 
ceed the same as in Fig. 2, this will be the end pattern. It 
takes two pieces of the large pattern and two of the small to 




FIG 4. 

make the dish. Should it be found desirable to make the 
body of pan in only two pieces, then cut the smaller or end 
pattern in two and place it upon each side of the large pattern^ 
as shown in Fig. 4. 

An oval can be made from three or more centers upon the 
same plan when desired. 

FLARING ARTICLES WITH ROUND CORNERS. 

First, to cut the pat- 
tern of an oblong %r_ 
ing dish with square- 
cornered bottom and 
round cornered top, 
in two pieces, of which 
Fig. I is the ground 
plan, and Fig. 2 the 
side elevation. 

The height of side 
A, Fig. 2, is from a to 
b t which is also the 
radius for the corners. 
First mark off the side 
A, Fig. 3 ; then strike 
the segments of thecircles a b; this gives the corner. Then 




377 

murk off >ne-half of end on each side of a b (c and </), whicfc 
completes the pattern for pj 

one-half the dish; 

Fig. 4. For practice, 
we will now cut the pat- 
tern so the bottom, sides 
and corners will be in one 
piece. 

One end of the seam 
comes on the end piece, 
and on the other end in 
the center of the corner piece. 

Fig. 5, B, shows cone made by putting together the two 
flaring sides shown in Fig. 2, A and C, the pattern required 
to construct said cone D is the ground plan of cone B 




divided into four parts. It will be noticed that the four cor- 
ners in Fig. I w r ill make D, and that the pattern for the four 
corners (a b A, Fig. 3) are equal to C, Fig. 5. 

As each corner of Fig. i 
is one-fourth of a cone, so 
the pattern of each corner, 
Fig. 4, is one-fourth of the 
pattern C, required to make 
the cone B ? Fig. 5, 

We will now suppose A, 
Fig. 2, to be the side view 
of a triangular dish con- 
structed on the same prfnciciple as A. Each of the 




37* 

sides will be the same size as required to make the square dish. 
only the pattern C, Fig. 
5, will be required to be 
divided into three part s 
for each corner of the 
triangle. Fig. 6 is a 
ground plan of bottom 
of dish. We will cut this 
pattern in one piece by 
marking off one of the 
rides, and then transfer- 
ing one-third of pattern 
Fig. 8. 





A, Fig. 7, to each 
side, until we have 
used the three sides 
and three corner 
pieces. 

The next step will 
be to cut the pattern 
of a flaring oblong 
dish, top and bottom 
having round cor- 
ners, of which Fig. 2 
will be a side view 
and A, Fig. 8, the 
ground plan. 

If the side and end 
pieces in A, Fig. 8 t 
were removed, B 
would be the result. 
C is a side view and 
pattern for B. Now, 
if we wish a pattern 
for the A, all that is 
required is to cut the pattern for the four corners (C) into four. 




379 

pieces, and place the side and end pieces between, or, if the 
Fig. 9. 






pattern is wanted in two pieces, 
take a side on which we place two 
corners and a half of 911 end 
against each corner, as follows: 

Or we can suppose Fig. 10, B ? 
to be the side view of dish having 
half-round flaring ends, but ends 
of different diameters, as shown 
by Fig. 10, A. 

We will have the small end 
the same as in Fig. 8, so as to use 
the same pattern. 

B, Fig. 10, showing side view 
and radius of large and small \ / 

circle. 

Fig. 10, C, giving the pattern for one-half of A, Fig. 10. 

To have the drawings appear plain, locks were not 
added. 

MAKING EAVE TROUGH. 

The outside line on the larger of the two small diagrams 

represents a No. 9 
v .^^__L_^^ spring wire clamp, 

V^L //^ ? ' : " : "^" :=: x\\ ne t0 be USe( * at 

\C)| f/f, \\ eac ^ seam f tue 

III Yr-| trough, The dark 

^ == J\ III V9\ line on outside of the 

jt^_^ _ 1 smaller diagram rep- 

^^^ resents a small clamp 

used to hold the bead down at the ends of the log. The 



log with it 3 trough cia':>pt;vl u,> u. 
d to the flat side 



large diagram shows the 

It will be seen that a j^-inch piece is secured 

of the log, which piece projects } u r in inch beyond one edge 



of the log. A rocker may also be placed under the log. 
The log is secured to the bench by hooks or staples with a 
long shank fastened to the bench and hooking onto spikes 
driven into v the ends of the log. 



TABLE OF HEIGHT OF ELBOW ANGLED. 

The following table gives the height of pitch of miter 
lines for elbows from one inch to twenty-five inches in 

diameter. It will be 
found of great assist - 

" ibl-- p - 

bow patterns quickly 
"y, by do- 




ance in describing el- 
bow patterns c 
and accurately, 
ing away with draw- 
ings and geometrical 
calculations, which 
would otherwise be 
necessary to get the 
correct pitch of elbows. 
The accompanying dia- 
gram indicates the po- 
sition of base and 
miter lines. The 
height of pitch, that 
is, the length from O 
to W, is shown by the table for all elbows from one inch to 
twenty-five inches in diameter, and of from two to ten 
pieces. In two-piece elbows the height of pitch is the diam- 
eter of the elbow, and this column is added to make the 
table complete. No matter how large the sweep of an el- 
bow, the angle of pitch remains the same, and the only dif- 
ference to be made in cutting the pattern is to add space as 
desired, as indicated at X in the diagram. Locks and seams 
are to be added. 



Sj 


NO. OF PIECES IN ELBOW. 


II 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


I 


I 


7-16 


9-32 


7-32 


6-32 


5-32 


i-8 


1-8 


3-32 


2 


2 


27-32 


18-32 




11-32 


9-32 


1-4 


7-32 


6-32 


3 


3 




13-16 


l-f 


1-2 


7-16 


11-32 


5-16 


9-32 


4 


4 


i 21-32 


i 1-16 


13-16 


21-32 


9-16 


15-32 


13-32 


3-8 


5 


5 


2 I-l6 


i 5-16 




13-16 


11-16 


9-16 


1-2 


7-16 


6 


6 


2 1-2 


i 5-8 


i 3-16 


31-32 


13-16 


11-16 


5-8 


9-16 


7 


7 


2 29-32 


T 7-8 


3-8 


i 1-8 


15-16 


13-16 


9-16 


5-8 


8 


8 


3 5-16^ 1-8 


9-16 


i 1-4 


i 1-16 


29-32 


13-16 


23-32 


9 


9 


3 23-32 


2 13-32 13-16 


i 7-16.1 3-16 i 


29-32 


13-16 


10 


10 


4 1-8 


2 II-l6 


i 9-16 5-16,1 1-8 




29-32 


ii 


ii 


4 1-2 


2 15-16' 3-16 


i 3-4 


7-16 i 1-4 


3-32 


i 


12 


12 


4 15-163 3-16 3-8 


i 7-8 


9-16 i 3-8 


3-16 


i 1-16 


13 


13 


5 3-8 


3 7-8 9-16 2 1-16 


23-32 i 15-32 


5-i6 


i 5-32 


14 


14 


5 3-4 


3 23-32 ( 3-4 2 7-32 


7-8 


i 9-16 


3-8 


i 1-4 


15 


15 


6 5-32 


4 3I-32J2 3-8 




i 11-16 


1-2 


i 11-32 


16 


16 


6 19-32 


a. 1-4 


3 5-32 2 17-32 


1-8 


i 13-16 


19-32 I 7-16 


17 


17 


7 


4 7-32 


3 6-162 11-16 




i 15-16 


11-161 1-2 


18 


18 


7 3-8 


4 25-32 


3 9-162 27-32 


3-8 


2 1-32 


25:321 19-32 


19 


10 




5 1-163 3-4 


3 


1-2 


2 1-8 


7-8 


i 11-16 


20 


20 


8 1-4 


5 5-163 31-32 3 3-16 


21-32 2 1-4 




i 25-32 


21 


21 


8 5-8 


5 19-324 5-323 11-32 


13-162 3-8 


1-161 7-8 


22 


22 


9 1-16 


5 27-32 4 3-8 3 1-2 


I5-l62 1-2 


3-16.1 15-16 


23 


2} 


9 7-166 3'3?'4 9-163 21-32 


3 1-16 2 10-32 


9-32 2 1-32 


24 


24 


9 7-8 


6 3'8 4 3-4 '3 i3-i6 


3 3-162 11-16 


3-8 


2 1-8 


25 


2510 9-32 


6 5-8 4 15-163 15-16 


3 5-162 13-16 


7-162 3-16 




1 


1 



The table is adapted to right-angled elbows only. The 
line of figures at the top of the table indicate the number of 
pieces of which elbows are to be made. All other figures are 
in inches, the first or left hand column being the diameter of 
elbows, the remaining column being the height of pitch 
required. 

ZINC AS A FIRE EXTINGUISHER. 

Zinc, placed upon the stove, in fire or in grate, is said to 
have proved itself an effective extinguisher of chimney fires. 
To a member of the Boston Fire Department is reported to 
be due the credit of successfully introducing this simple 
scheme. When a fire starts inside a chimney, from whatever 
cause, a piece of tin sheet zmc, about four inches square, is 
merely put into the stove or grate connecting with the chim- 
ney. The zinc fuses and liberates acidulous fumes, which, 
passing up the flue, are said to almost instantly put out what- 
ever fire may be there. It certainly sounds simple enough. 



3 S2 

HOME-MADE ASH SIFTER. 

An io\va correspondent sent Good Housekeeping the fol- 
lowing diagram and description of a home-made ash-sifter, 
any tinner or other person may construct : " I got my idea of 

it from seeing sand sifted by 
throwing it on a sieve that 
stood slanting. The wire 
sieve (already wove) can 
be bought at a hard- 
ware store for twenty 
cents a running foot, and it 
is two or two and a half 
feet wide, and this can be 
tacked to a frame made to 
fit the sifter, one end just 
reaching over the box for 
coal, and the other end ex- 
tending nearly to the top 
of the sifter. There is no 
shaking, nor any dust. 
Ashes are emptied in the 
top of the sifter, the coal 
being carried over the sieve to the coal box, while the ashes go 
through into the ash box. The sieve should be two and a 
half feet long. Can use a sliding or swinging cover." 

TO DESCRIBE A MITER. 

As there seems to be some interest manifested in regard to 
tbj miter question, and nothing definite as to the desired 
miter lias been given, I wish to submit the following rule: 

Let a in diagram be the size of the article upon which the 
miter is to be cut ; strike a circle full size, or from edge to 
edge as shown at e and b of the diagram ; draw a line as 
shown by </, from e to b> which divides the circle equally. If 





you wish a square miter set compass at e and obtain one- 
fourth of the circle as shown at figure 2, and draw line b f 



3^3 

intersecting trie circle where the p >int of the compass shows 
one-fourtu of circle. Cutting this line you have a s juare 
miter. Sho.ild you wish your work to form six squares, take 
the sixth of a circle as shown at figure i by line c b ; or, if 
eight squares, one-eighth f circle, and intersect the circle at 
point designated by compass. 

A miter may be cut for any angle desired by the same 
rule ; divide the circle into the number of squares wanted, 
and proceed a> shown above. This rule does not apply to 
forming a miter for gutters. 



TO PESCRIBE A PATTERN FOR A FOUR-PIECE 
ELBOW. 

Three and four piece elbows have very largely taken the 
; old right-angled elbow, on account of their bet- 
ter appearance, and also 
becajse they lessen ob- 
struction to draft. The 
machine-made article is 
k pt in stock for all 
common sizes, but the 
'inner is liable to be 
called upon at anytime 
to make such an elbow, 
on account or stock be- 
ing sold out or of un- 
usual size, or other 
cause. Herewith are 
given diagrams and ex- 
planations which will 
enable any tinner t^ 
construct a pattern for 
any desired size. 

Let AB E D,Fig. i, 
be the given elbov 




A98 7 



ft 4. 821B 



draw the line F C ; make F M equal in length to one-half 
the diameter of the elbow, with F as a center ; describe the 
arc K L ; divide the arc K L into three equal parts ; draw 
the lines F H and F I ; also the line I H ; divide the section 
H K into two equal parts, and draw the line F G ; draw the 
lins A B at right angles to B C ; describe the semi-circle. 
A N B ; div'^~ +he semi-circle into any number of equal 
parts; from me points draw lines parallel to B C, as I, 2, 5, 
etc. 



3*4 

Set off the line ABC, Fig. 2, equal in length to the cir- 
cumference of elbow A B ; erect the lines A F, B D and 




C E ; set off on each side of the line B D the same number 
of equal distances as in the semi-circle A. N B ; from the 
points draw lines parallel to B D, as i, i, 2, 2, etc. ; make 
B D equal to B G ; make A F and C E equal to A J ; also 
each of the parallel lines, bearing the same number as i, i, 
2, 2, 3, 3, etc. ; then a line traced through the points will 
form the first section ; make F G and E J equal to H I ; re- 
verse section No. i ; place E at G and F at J ; trace a line 
from G to J ; make G H and J I equal to P 6, Fig. 67, or 
to D K. Fig. 68; take Sec. No. i, place F at H and E at 
i, and trace a line from H to I ; this forms Sec. No. 3 
and 4. 

Edges to be allowed. 



In the West Indies the work of coaling ships is performed 
by negresses. Like ants going to and fro, each of these 
women, with a load of coal weighing about forty pounds, 
carried in a basket on top of the head, climbs the eang-piank, 
and the bunkers are filled in a wonderfully short time. For 
this arduous work, a cent a basket is the general price, but 
night work and emergencies double the rate. A penny is 
given to each woman as she fills her basket, and the number 
given out forms a check on the tally kept by the parties 
receiving the coal. The name of the firm owning the coal 
pile is stamped on the coins, which are current throughout the 
: slands. 



3*5 
A WIRE FLOWER STAND. 

Tinners are ingenious, and can generally make anything 
from sheet metal, wire, or other light material, which tliey 
take a fancy to try their hands at. Many have made orna- 
mental articles at il'i 
moments with which to 
beautify their own home, 
or possibly that of some 
young lady. By their 
skill in thi^ direction 
they ore frequently able 
to make presents yi arti- 
cles of their own make, 
which are not merely or- 
namental, but also useful. 
This is commendable, 
and such eki!! and enter- 
prise is wo/thy Of encour- 
agement. 

We here present an 
illustration of a new 
round flower-stand con- 
structed in three j arts, 
which can be take;* asun- 
der so as to convert the 
stand at will into a rustic 
table. The cut is taken from the London Ironmonger^ 
which says that the originator of the flower-stand is doing 
well with it. 

TO STRIKE AN OVAL OF ANY LENGTH OR 
WIDTH 

In arecet't number of the American Ar isan, which I 
have mislaid, some one asks for a rule to stride nn oval of 
any desired width and length. There are several different 
ways of striking an oval or ellipse, but I find the one 1 en- 
close you the most practical. 

Let A B and C D equal width jind length. On the line 
CD lay off the width of oval a: C C. Divide the distance 
from E to D into thr e equal parts, and lay off two of the 
parts thus formed on either s'de of the center F, as G and 
H. Span the dividers from H to G, and, with F as a center, 
check the line A B, as at M and K. Draw 1'ne intersecting 
the points H M G K, and, with tin* radius G D and K. B 
strike the ends and sides of oval. 




3 86 
AN ORNAMENTAL PAPER HOLDER. 

Tinners with leisure who desire to use their handiwork in 
making something for Christmas, will be interested in the 




accompanying illustration which we reproduce from a 
European journal. It is intended for a holder for paper, 
magazines, or sheet music. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION. 

Much continues to be said and written about heating and 
ventilation, and some may consider it a worn-out subject ; but 
so long, as millions of people continue to be poisoned by 
impure air, agitation to secure reform cannot be overdone. 
It will dd' : no harm, therefore, to again name some of the evi- 
dences and consequences of a lack of ventilation: Head- 
ache; dull pressure on the lungs ; lungs become parched, pro- 
ducing irritation ; dfyness of the throat, producing sore 
throat ; a feverish condition of the whole system. These are 
some of the immediate consequences, but by no means embrace 



3*7 

all the ultimate evil effects. It shou'd be the duty of all 
fnrnacemen to call the attention of their patrons to these 

c c 



7 



Fig I 



matters. Furnaces are often blamed for the quality of air 
supplied, while the fault lies solely with the operators in not 
making provision for the supply of pure air to the furnace, 
and proper ventilation. 

This subject will not take care of itself. We must first 
feel lhat fresh air is worth taking some trouble to obtain, and 
then we must study ho\v to obtain it without the body's 
becoming either chilled or overheated in summer or winter, 
in the daytime or in the night. At night more care needs to 
be taken to secure ventilation, because there are no doors 
being opened ; no stirring about to promote circulation. 
Especially should pure air be supplied to the sick room, and 
the vitiated air removed. 

In summer we depend on the natural movement of the air 
for ventilation, windows and doors being open more or less. 
In winter, with the house closed up, it requires thought and 
effort to provide fur a change of air in apartments. It must 
be remembered that, under natural conditions, air moves hor- 
izontally, according to the direction of the wind. Heat causes 
air to move in a perpendicular direction. In dry weather, 
heated air andsmoke will rise until the same density of atmos- 
phere is reached, which soon results from loss of heat. When 
the at mo phere contains a great deal of moisture, s.noke will 
descend, on account of quick condensation and loss of heat. 

This principle, understood by all must be kept in view in. 
any plan for ventilation. Suppose we wish to ventilate a 
room in the morning when the air outside has become a little 
warmer than the air inside. The upper part of a window 
being opened the warmer air outside would blow across the 
lop of the room, leaving the air below undisturbed Now, 
if we open the window at the bottom we shnll secure a cii> 
Culation of air in the room. While the outside air is warmer 
we do not notice the draft. Suppose we now go 'Lito the 
kitchen, where the windows are only opened at the bottom 
and raised halfway up; we shall feel the lower part is cool, 



while the i.ir in the upper part is undisturbed. ]\o,v, if we 
open the top of the window and divide the difference so as to 
have the top and oottom open, we shall have a circulation. 
Or if we open a door and hold a candle at the top and then 
at the bottom, we will see the same circulation illustrated by 
the cold air flowing in at the bottom and the hot air out at 
the top. These experiments furnish the natural laws which 
should govern ventilation. 

Carbonic acid gas from respiration and other, exhalations 
of the body, as well as gases caused by decayed vegetation in 
cellars, or from garbage, sewer emanations or any kind of 




filth are all poisonous, and, being heavier than pure air, sink 
to the bottom of a room by gravitation. It is a gross error 
to suppose, as many do, that the foul air rises to the ceiling 
and remains there. The sickness and death of children, often 
attributed to other causes, arises from blood-poisoning from 
the foul air near the floor to which children are much more 
exposed than grown persons. 

The illustrations given herewith will show where 
the foul air is and how it is confined unless drawn 
off by some superior force. In Fig. i, A represents a 
cellar, DD the walls, CC the surface of the ground outside of 
the house. Foul air seeks the lowest space by gravitation, 
therefore all below CC is foul air because there is no ventila- 
tion to draw it away. So long as it remains stagnant, pure 
air will not take the place of the foul. JVow, if we place a 
furnace in the cellar, as shown in Fig. 2, and take the air 
from the same, it would amount to almost the same thing as 
living in the cellar, for you breathe the same air. Opening 
the windows furnishes an outlet for the warm air and thus 
Cools off the furnace; but the same foul air, dust and ashes 
are brought up from the furnace for inhalation. 

Again, if the rooms are closed, the air from the furnace 
v ill rise to the ceiling, then pass to the windows, where the 



temperature will be reduced, and will then descen I to the 
floor and down the sides of the hot-air flue to the furnace to 
be reheated and sent up again. This has been proven by ex- 
periment. The children will be the first to be affected by 
this reheated foul air. 

How can we obtain pure air? By ventilation. How can 
ventilation be secured? In various ways. The principal 
method used is the ventilating shaft. One shaft is generally 
sufficient for one dwelling, and is usually in the firm of a 
large chimney, as shown in Fig. 3. A is the chimney; B is 
a heavy sheet-iron pipe, with air space around the pipe for 
ventilation; C is an opening into tne pipe B for connection 
with the furnace; Z>is a place for cleaning out just below the 
furnace opening; these two openings should be in the cellar 
where the furnace is; C is the place for the kitchen stove, 
which will supply sufficient heat for ventilating the house dur- 
ing the summer season. Fig. 3. 

We will next consider how to supply the 
furnace with pure air. It should be taken 
from the side from which come the pre- 
vailing winds. Of course, care should be 
taken that it is not polluted by a sewage 
hopper, water closet or other source of con- 
taination. The opening into the air-duct 
should be two feet or more above the ground, 
and should be covered with fine wiie gauze. 
The air-duct should be carried along the 
ceiling of the cellar until it reaches the fur- 
nace, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 2, 
then drop down at the side of the furnace to 
the bottom. The space around the furnace 
should be made air-tight. Any foul air in 
the cellar will be drawn into the fire-box of 
the furnace to promote the combustion of 
the fuel. The area of the cold-air duct 
should, in no case, be less than half the area 
of the hot-air pipes. 

In setting a furnace, particular carej 
snould be taken to see that the chimney has 
a good draught. There should be sufficient height between 
the top of the furnace and the ceiling of the eel ar to permit 
a good rise for all the hot-air pipes from the furnace. 
If there is not sufficient height in the collar to admit 
of this, the furnace should be set into a ^it dug out 
below the cellar floor and bricked up. Ample room 
should be allowed in front ,of the furnace for cleaning 




out ashes. All the pipes should be kept as close to the 
furnace as possible. If any hot-air pipe is extended more 
than fifteen feet from it, it should be encased with about 
half an inch space around, with both ends of casing entirely 
closed, to prevent the loss of heat. The location of the 
furnace should be so that the length of hot-air pipes shall be 
about equal. The smoke-pipe should be run directly to the 
chimney. Dampers should be placed ia all the hot-air pipes 
close to the furnace, and. when the pipes are not in use, the 
dampers should be closed. The vapor-pan should be placed 
where the water will not boil. In some cases, if set on the 
top of the furnace, the water will boil over aii,l crack the 
furnace. A proper place must be provided for it. In a brick- 
set furnace, the vapor-pan should be automatic in action, 
being connected with an outside pan with a ball and cock. 
Without this arrangement it is hard to keep up a regular 
supply of vapor, as this is a point generally neglected. 

In order to distribute the heat through the rooms, the 
ventilating registers must be located in the proper places. 
They should be placed in the floor near the windows or in the 
coldest part of each room, so as to draw the heat to tliat 
part. Never run a hot-air pipe up an outside wall if you 
wish success with your work. If ventilators are put into a 
side wall, be sure that they extend down entirely to the floor, 
otherwise there will be a cold stratum of air next the floor, 
causing cold feet. A failure to do this, causes children to 
have cold feet at school. People frequently suffer in a simi- 
lar way at church. 

TWO SPINDLE MILLING MACHINE. 

The illustration represents a milling machine of new de- 
sign, recently built by E. W. Bliss Company, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., for use in their own works. 

As will be seen, the general arrangement is that of a planer, 
but, in the place of the ordinary planer tools, are substituted 
vertical spindles for butt milling. 

The table has a longitudinal travel of 36 inches, and is fed 
by a screw which may be operated by the hand-wheel shown 
at right side of bed, or fed by power, in either direction. 

Four speeds for feed for the table are provided, and in 
addition a power '-rapid transit" motion, which is operated 
to run the table in either direction, by means of the hand-iever 
shown to the right of bed. The quick motion is especially in- 
tended for running the table back alter the cut is finished, and 
being entirely independent of the cone feed, both can be In 



391 

operation atone and the same time, thus saving the trouble 
of throwing off the cone-feed in order to run the table back 
for starting a new cut. 

The cross-head is raised and lowered by power, much in 
the same manner as in a planer, and in addition ea< h spindle 
has an independent vertical adjustment of two inches oper- 
ated by the hand cranks shown at the upper boxes on saddles. 
Each saddle is capable of independent lateral motion,, oper- 
ated by the large hand-wheel at front, and has also a p >wcr 
attachment for feeding, supplied with four changes of speed. 

As in the case of" the table, the saddles nay be moved 
independently from the power feed while the latter is in oper- 
tion. The cross-head is made of sufficient lengtli to allow 
the saddles to be run out far enough to bring the nulling cut- 
ters outside of the housings, between which the distance is 
fifty-four inches. 

The machine illustrated was built for special v\ork not 
requiring a long table, but the latter can be made of any 
length required, and the builders are now filling several orders 
for machines with five to six feet length of table. 

The driving-shaft, carr'ed by cross-head, is splined its 
length between bearings to allow for the lateral motion of the 
saddles, and is driven from the floor counter by the familiar 
arrangement of belting shown, which dispenses with the 
necessity of a tightener to make up for the -vertical arljirrt- 
ment of the cross-head. 

In some of the machines now in corpse of construction, 
the arrangement is such as to allow the floor counter to be 
dispensed w ? ith, and one at top of machine to be substituted, 
which, in some cases, might be considered preferable. 

By the use of the two spindles on the work for which this 
machine was designed, and with special attachments to facili- 
tate the setting, this tool is now doing work that heretofore 
required the use of five planers, thus proving itself a most val- 
uable addition to the equipment of a machine shop. 

EXPLOSION OF A DOMESTIC HOT WATER 
BOILER. 

Explosions of domestic hot water boilers attached to 
cooking ranges, water-backs in ranges, etc., through freezing 
up of the pipes in cold weather, are becoming so frequent 
that it may not be out of place to give an account of one o* 
the most destructive ones that has occurred recently, and 
point out its cause. 

The boiler in question was used in an hotel in a large city 



392 

in one of the Northwestern States, where the temperature is 
very low at times. It was connected to the kitchen range, 
the range was a very large one, and the heating surface was 
furnished by a coil of j^ inch pipe, placed near the top, 
instead of the cast-iron front or back, such as is commonly 
used in the smaller ranges in private dwellings. The con- 
nections to the boiler were made in the usual manner ; the 
accompanying cut shows its essential features. 

The operation of all boilers of this sort is as follows : 
The connections being made, as shown in cut, the water 
is turned on from the main supply, and the entire system is 




RANGE 



fil. d with water. When it is filled, and all outlets are 
closed, it is" evident that no more water can run in, although 
the boiler is in free connection with, and is subjected to, the 
full pressure of the source of supply. When a fire is started 
in the range, and the water in the circulating pipes, or 
water-back, is heated, the water expands, is consequently 
lighter, and flows out through the pipe into the boiler at A, 
as this connection is placed higher up than the one at B ; 
this starts the circulation, and the water, as it becomes 



393 

heated, constantly flows into the boiler at A, and rises to the 
upper part of the boiler, while the cooler water at the bot- 
tom of the boiler flows out into the circulating pipes at B, 
and, if no water is drawn, a slow circulation goes on, as heat 
is radiated from the boiler, in the direction indicated by the 
arrows, the water at the top of the boiler always being much 
hotter than at the bottom. WLien the hot cock is opened, 
cold water instantly begins to flow into the boiler at D, by 
reason of the pressure on the city main, and forces hot water 
out of the boiler at C. Thus it will be seen that hot water 
cannot be drawn unless the cold water inlet is free, and it is 
equally evident that cold water cannot enter the boiler unless 
the hot water cock or some other outlet is open. 

The above points being understood, we are in a position 
to investigate the cause of the explosion referred to, which 
killed one person and badly injured twelve or thirteen others, 
besides badly damaging the building. 

On the morning of the explosion fire was started as usual 
in the range about four o'clock a. m- It was found, on try- 
ing to draw water, that none could be had from either cold 
or hot water pipes: it was rightly judged that the j>ipes were 
frozen. The fire was continued in the range, however, and 
the breakfast prepared as best it could be, and a plumber sent 
for to thaw out the pipes. He arrived on the premises about 
seven o'clock, as would naturally be the case. He opened 
both hot and cold water cocks, and, getting neither steam nor 
water, concluded there was no danger, and proceeded to 
thaw out some pipes in the laundry department first. About 
an hour afterward the explosion occurred. The lower head 
of the boiler let go, and the main portion of the boiler shot 
upward like a rocket through the four stories of the hotel 
and out through the roof. 

The coroner held an inquest on the remains of the person 
killed, and some of the testimony given, as reported in a 
local paper, would be amusing were it not for the tragic 
nature of the affair which called it out. The usual expert, 
with the usual vast and unlimited years of experience, was 
there, and swore positively to statements which a ten-year- 
old boy who had been a week in the business ought to be 
ashamed to make. He had examinee! the wreck with a view 
to solving the mystery (?) The matter was as much of a 
mystery now as oh the day of the explosion. His theories 
were exploded as fast as he presented them. The boiler must 
have been empty. If it had been full of water, it could not 
possibly have exploded, etc., etc. And then a lot more 
nonsense about the "peculiar" construction of the boiler. 



394 

As a matter of fact, there was nothing peculiar about the 
boiler or its connections. Everything was precisely like all 
boilers of its class, of which there are probably hundreds of 
thousands in daily operation throughout the country, and, 
moreover, they were all right. 

Now let us inquire what caused the explosion. Every- 
thing was all right at eight o'clock the previous evening, for 
water was drawn at that time. The fire was built in the 
range at four o'clock a. m. It is admitted that the cold 
water supply pipes were frozen, for no water could be had 
for kitchen use. It is also proved absolutely that the hot 
water supply was frozen or otherwise stopped up, by the fact 
that at seven o'clock the plumber who came to thaw out the 
pipes opened the hot water cock and got "neither water nor 
steam." Here was his opportunity to prevent any trouble, 
but he let it pass. Any one who understood his business 
would have known that there must have been a tremendous 
pressure in the boiler at this time, as the range had been fired 
steadily for three hours; there were about eight square feet 
heating surface exposed to tne fire by the circulating pipe in 
the range, and there had been no outlet for the great pressure 
which must have been generated during this three hours 
firing. The blow-off cock should have been tried at once; 
if this were clear, and tha probability is, from its proximity 
to the range, that it was clear, the pressure could have been 
relieved, and disaster averted. If the blow-off proved to be 
stopped up, then the fire should have been at once taken out 
of the range. At the time the plumber opened the cocks 
connecting with the boiler, it probably was under a pressure 
of 400 or 500 pounds per square inch. An ordinary cast- 
iron waterback such as is used in small ranges in private 
houses would have exploded shortly after the fire was built, 
but it will be noticed that the heating surface in this case 
was furnished by a coil of 1*4 -inch "pipe; this was very 
strong, and the boiler was the first thing to give way, simply 
because it was the weakest part of the system. 

Accidents of this sort can be easily avoided by exercising 
a little intelligence and care. The hot water cock should 
always be opened the first thing on entering the kitchen 
every morning. If the water flows freely, fire may then be 
started in the range without danger- If it does not flow 
freely, don't build a fire until it does.* 

* A CEMENT TO MAKE JOINTS FOB GRANITE MONUMENTS 
Use clean sand, twenty parts; litharge, two parts; quicklime, 
one part, and linseed oil to form a thin paste. 



USEFUL SHOP KINKS. 



jles, or rise of elevations 

The usual rise given to 
furnace pipe elbows is 
one inch to the foot. A 
rule to obtain the desired 
result is as follows, and 
is almost identical with 
the one commonly used 
to get the height and 
pitch of miter line of 
riglit-anglod elbows. It 
i > applicable to any sized 
tliroat and any sized el- 
b.rvv; also, to elbows 
wit,h any number of 
pieces or sections. 

First draw lines a c 
and c 6, Fig. 1, at right 
angles to each other. 
From point c on line c ft, 
measure off 1 foot, and 
perpendicular from the 
point thus obtained erect 
line d to r, which is the 
desired height you wish the elbow to rise, or angle from a 
true right-angled elbow, in this case one inch to the foot. 
From point c as center, draw the arc a to r. From point r 
draw the line r c for base line. This will give the correct 
elevation, as proof clearly shows by the dotted lines c to z 
and r to m; these show the continuation that the elbow leads 
to, namely, as in this instance, 1 inch to the foot, or 1 foot 
in 12 feet. The line c to x is 1 foot, and from x to z, 1 inch. 

If an elbow of four pieces is desired, divide the arc or 
curve r to a into six equal parts; if an elbow of three pieces 
or sections is wanted, divide same into four equal parts. 
From point c for a four-piece elbow, draw line c to *, and 
from point n, where inner curve of elbow intersects line c s, 
draw line n to I parallel to line c r, and same intersecting 
line r s at I. This much gives the pitch and rise for miter 
line for a four-piece elbow of the desired elevation. For a 
three-piece elbow the dotted lines from point k on the inner 




890 



FIG. 3. 



curve to points u and o on outer curve, give the miter de- 
sired. 

I have also shown a 
smaller-sized elbow in 
the drawing to show how 
the rule works, and is 
applied on same. It*i , 
of course, not necessary 
to give the same size <.f 
throat, as is given in the 
drawing, nor the same 
outside sweep. This rule 
will suit a::y case or sized 
elbow as m:iy be desire 1. 
and as one becomes f:i- 
miliar with the workiry 
of the rule, some of the 
other lines need not be 
drawn out, but are hero 
given to make the draw- 
ing complete. 

The above is given to 
get the complete data for 
side elevation which are 
necessary to develop the 

patterns for the different 

sections of an elbow. To develop the same I will give a 
quick snap rule, which comes so near right as to be prac- 
tically almost correct. I will, however, first give a good 
snap rule for angles. 

If Fig. 3 is examined, it shows the usual long and tedious 
geometrical method of obtaining miter lines for both a two- 
piece, and also a three-piece angle, both of the angles being 
of the same pitch. The solid lines are for a three-piece angle, 
and the dotted lines are for a two-piece angle. 

Now, to do away with all this drawing, and to get a quick 
and very nearly correct method to obtain the desired result, 
suppose an angle is wanted as is given by the lines a b and 
a to c, Fig. 3, the diameter to be as full drawing requires, 
proceed as follows: First measure off the distance which is 
the size of diameter wanted, from a to b; do the same from 
a to c, and from points thus obtained, which are c and 6, 
draw the line d from c to b. Then from either line, a c or 
line a 6, draw at right angles the line a to a?, as shown, the 
line a x intersecting line d at x. This much gives the re- 
quired elevation for miter line of a two-piece angle as called 




397 

for; line </from c to x is miter line, a to x is height of rise, 
and a to r, base line, which is size of diameter called for. 
The line x to a divided into half gives the point r where the 
miter line intersects., of a three-piece angle ; r to a is height, 
a to c is base line, and c to r is miter line, as will be seen by 
dotted line in drawing. Twice the length of distance of line 
from points a to is the width of outer curve of center sec- 
tion. You must, ot course, allow for laps or burrs for join- 
ing same together when cutting pattern. 

Compare this with the solid line center section of full side 
elevation, and see how much quicker this method is over the 
old way. When once accustomed to use this method, you 
will use no other. This rule is absolutely correct for a two 
piece angle, and varies so little on a three-piece angle f r om. 



'rig. a 




being absolutely correct, as that the variation is practically 
of no moment. 

To develop the stretch-out, Fig. 2, lay out the full length 
of circumference, as is shown in Fig. 2 from a to b, and 
divide this length into six equal parts as in drawing. Make 
the center line, No. 2, same height as required, as in this 
case for the two-piece angle of Fig. 3. Next divide the 
right and left lines nearest to the center line, into four equal 
parts, and mark of one off these parts nearest to the top of 
each line ; and do the same as to s ^acing to the lines nearest 
to the end of stretch-out, as lines No. 4 and r, but with the 
difference that you mark off one space at the bottom of each 
Kne as the drawing fully shows. Continue the center line 



39 s 

indefinitely downward, and with dividers strike the arc i, 2 
and 3, cutting lines at points i, 2 and 3. Draw line b in- 
definitely upward, reverse the dividers, and with line b as 
center In", draw the arc from point 5 to point 4, cutting 
points 5 a.id4; d;> the sa.ne on the other end. Then draw a 
Straight line from paint 3 to 4, and same from i tor. This 
completes the pattern. Allow for locks or laps on both 
ends, and miter line^, of course. 

The met ho 1 given above is an old one, but not so uni- 
versally 1- no\\ii a nong tinners as its merits deserve. This 
method is also applicable to develop the pattern for elbow 
as given in Fig. i. I use it for all kinds of elbows. 

TO DRAW ANY OVAL WITH SQUARE AIS T I> 
CIRCLE. 




The following is a correct rule to draw any size or ova! 
tised in the tin shop, with square and circle : 

Draw the line from I to 2, which is the length of the.ovai 
Draw line from center to 3, which is one-half the width, and 
draw a line from i 103. Set compass from i to center ; 
leave one point on i, and mark 4. Set compass from center 
103. Leave one end (of compass) in center ami mark 5. Set 
compass from 4 to 5. and from 6 draw head lines of circles 7 
and 8, and clut 7 and 8 from points i and 2. Set compass 
from 7 to 7, and mark 9 from 7 7 and 8 8. Complete oval 
from 9. 



399 
RAIN WATER STRAINER. 

I hand you a sketch of a rain water strainer which I have 
put up and which gives good results. It is eighteen 
inches high, twelve inches in diameter at the half-circle, five 
and a half inches length of bottom, and five inches deep. 
Allow for all seams. 

A t A' 2 , D> B 2 y B > represents the outside of finished 




strainer. K "ts a, section of circular top hinged at B* and 
fastened with a turn button. The dotted lines at E show 
the section of circular top, A*, partly open; m is a galvanized 
strainer with three-eighth inch holes. The strainer rests 
upon supports at the ends, and may be removed at will. /. 
is a tin strainer with one-eighth inch holes, and is soldered in 
place. F and G are three-inch inlet and outlet. 2 2 are 
straps on back side, by which the strainer is fastened to ths 
building. 

As will be seen, the top strainer catches the refuse whic5i 
is washed from the roof and gutters, and is easily taken out; 
the finer particles ate < t^ht below ap-l irt 1 . -le removed 
when the top strainer is out. 



400 

OVAL DAMPER. 

Inclosed please find method of obtaining an oval damper,* 
tliat when closed in, the pipe will be at an angle of 45. 

Let A B C D 



lepre 

sent the pipe, and E F 
the line through the pipe at 
an angle of 45, which will 
be the position of the damper 
when closed. Divide the 
semi-circle into any even num- 
ber of equal parts, as, I, 2, 3, 
4, etc. (even numbers, because 
in doing so you obtain the 
center line of the short diam- 
eter of the damper). Carry 
lines up until they cut the 
line E F as dotted lines, then 
draw solid lines across, and 
at right angles to the line 
E F, and number them to 
correspond with spaces in 
semi-circle, as I, 2, 3, 4, etc. 
With the dividers step from 
a to i on dotted line, and 
with one point of the dividers 
at a'; cut the solid line I each 
side of the line E. F. Step 
from b to 2, and with one 




it 



j ytf 



point of the dividers on b', cut the solid line to both sides of 
the line E F, and so on until all the spaces have been trans- 
ferred. Now set the dividers so as to draw an arc through 
the points 5, 6, 7, both sides of the line E F, and then set 
them to draw the two end circles, as n, 12, n, and 1,0, I. 
Draw a' line free hand through the points from i to ,5, and 
from 7 to n, both sides of line E F, and you have the re- 
quired damper. 

The same method is used to obtain the shape of a hole in 
piece of sheet metal that a pipe is to pass through on an 
angle. For instance, let A B C D represent a pipe, and 
E F a roof through which the pipe passes ; we want a piece 
of iron or tin laid on the roof for the pipe to pass through ; 
we want to know how to get the shape of the opening. 
Employ this m"thud and it will give you the required article 



A TAPERING ROUND-CORNERED SQUARE 
RESERVOIR. 

'Not long since, there was an inquiry in your columns for 
a pattern for a tapering, round-cornered square reservoir. 1 
give herewith diagrams for constructing such a pattern : 

Fig. i is the size, top and bottom (A C F H D B G E is 
the top, and I.K NP LJOMis the bottom), and Fig. I 
the upright height. Take the 
perpendicular height ad, Fig 
I, and mark it off from h to k, 
Fig. 3. Take the radius for 
the corners d C, Fig. I, and 
mark it off from h to i, Fig. 
3, also the radius dK; mark 
off from K to 1, drawing ;. line 
from il to cut the line li K, 
which gives the slanting height 
and the radius required for 
striking the corners. Draw the 
lines I 1C and AC, Fig. 4, the 
same length as I K, Fig. 2, am 1 
the same distance apart as 1 to i, 
Fig. 3 ; prolong the lines A I 
and C K, Fig. 4, till Ac and 
C d equals to i m, Fig. 3. 
With radius d C, Fig. 4, using 
d and c as centers, strike the 
curves C F and A F, and, with 
a radius d K, Fig. 4, using the same centers, strike the 
curves K N and I M. Take the length of the large quar- 

Fig. 3- 




ter-circle 1) H, Fig. 2, and dot off the same distance from 
C to F, Fig. 4; make A R e^jual to C F. and draw 



4O2 

lines from E and F to the ceniers c and d; draw EG 
and M O at right angles with E c. Take the dis- 
tance from A to C, and make the same distance from 
E to G and M to O, Fig. 3. DrawGe parallel to EC. 
From G mark off point e, the same length as E to c, then, 
using e as center, strike the curves G B and O J, making the 
curve G B equal to A E ; draw line from B to center c, 
draw B T and J R at right angles to Be, taking the distance 
from B to S, Fig. 2, mark off the same distance from B to 
S and J to R, draw S R parallel with <B e, and proceed in the 
same manner with the .other end; adding on the laps, as 
shown, will make the pattern complete in one piece, being 
joined together at R S. 

PATTERN FOR T JOINTS. 

The following rule is a short and explicit method of ob- 
taining a pattern for T joints where different diameters are 
required. Suppose, for instance, a T is required whose diam- 
eters are 3 and 8 inches respectively. 

Divide the stretch-out, a a (which must be the exact 

length required to form up 
3 inches, allowing for 
locks as shown by dotted 
lines) in center as shown 
in the figure. Then 
divide each half equally 
between 6-7 and 7-8 as 
shown by indefinite lines 
2 and 3. Now spread the 
compass to 8 inches, which 
is the diameter of the 
large pipe, set one point 
at 4, and the other at 
6; strike a circle to 7; 
then set compass on the 
other line at 5 and draw 
circle 7 to 8. Cut out the circles, and you have your pattern. 
The same rule applies to any diameter by spreading compass 
to the larger diameter and striking the circle on the stretch- 
out required for smaller diameter as shown above. 

Ireland has seventy-six collieries nine in Ulster, seven 
in Connaught, thirty-one in Leinster, and twenty-nine in 
Minister. Very few of these are being worked. 



403 
NOVEL DRAWING INSTRUMENT, 



A pair of dividers, or 
compasses, which will de- 
scribe any figure is shown 
herewith. It is of Eng- 
lish origin and very simple. 
The former, or template 
A, is affixed to one le<:, 
and beats against the mid- 
leg B, around which, of 
course, revolves the work- 
ing leg. By this means 
the drawing pen or pencil 
is moved in and out in an 
obvious manner. Speci- 
mens of the work are 
shown in Fig. 2. 




The quality of wood is determined by the number of 
spirals. The best has about thirty " crinkles " in an inch. 




404 

TO DESCRIBE A PATTERN FOR A TAPERING 
SQUARE ARTICLE. 

Erect the uerpendicular line G E ; draw the line A B 

at right angle to 
make E K 



G E ; 

equal to the slant 
height, and draw 
the line C D par- 
allel to A B; make 
AB equal in 
length to one side 
of the base; make 
CD equal in 
length to one side 
of the top or 
smallest end, draw 
the lines AGand 
B G, cutting the 
points A C and 
BD, Gasa center 

with the radii G C and G A. Describe the arcs K M and J I ; 

set off on the arc J I, J A, B H and H I equal in length to A B, 

and draw the lines J G, H G, and I G, also the lines J A, B H, 

HI, and KC, D L, L M. 
Edges to be allowed. 

THE PAINTING OF IRON. 

Cast and wrought iron behave very differently under 
atmospheric influences, and require somewhat different treat- 
ment. The decay of iron becomes very marked in certain 
situations, and weakens the metal in direct proportion to the 
depth to which it has penetrated, and, although where the 
metal is in a quantity this is not appreciable, it really becomes 
so when the metal is under three fourths of an inch in thick- 
ness. The natural surface of cast iron is very much harder 
than the interior, occasioned by its becoming chilled, or by 
its containing a large quantity of silica, and affords an excel- 
lent natural protection, but, should this surface be broken, 
rust attacks the metal and soon destroys it. It is very desira- 
ble that the casting be protected as soon after it leaves the 
mold as possible, and a priming coat of paint should be 
applied for this purpose : the othei coats thought requisite 
can be given at leisure. Jn considering the painting of 
wrought iron, it must be noticed that, when iron is oxidized 
by contact with the atmosphere, two or three distinct layers 



405 

of scale for 1.1 on the surface, which, unlike the skin upon 
cast iron, can be readily detached by bending or hammering 
the metal. It will be seen that the iron has a tendency to 
rust from the moment it leaves the hammer or rolls, and the 
scale above described must come away. One of the plans to 
preserve iron has been to coat it with paint when still hot at 
the mill, and, although this answers fur a while, it is a very trou- 
ble^ome method, which iron masters cannot be persuaded to 
adopt, and the subsequent cutting processes to which it is 
submitted leave many parts of the iron bare. Besides, a good 
deal of the scale remains, and, until this has fallen off or been 
removed, any painting over it will be of little value. The 
only effectual way of protecting wrought iron is to effect a 
thorough and chemical cleansing of the surface of the metal 
upon which the paint is to be applied ; that is, it must be 
immersed for three or four hours in water containing from 
one to two per cent, of sulphuric acid. The metal is after- 
ward rinsed in cold water, and, if necessary, scoured with 

.sand, put again into the pickle, and then well rinsed. If it 
is desired to keep iron a'ready cleansed for a short time before 
painting, it is necessary to preserve it in a bath rendered alka- 
line by caustic lime, potash, soda, or their carbonates. Treat- 
ment with caustic lime water is, however, the cheapest and 
most easy method, and iron which has remained in it some 
hours will not rust by a slight exposure to dampness. Hav- 
ing obtained a clean surface, the question arises, what paint 
should be used upon iron ? Bituminous paints, as well as 

. those containing variable quantities of lard, were formerly 
considered solely available, but their failure was made appar- 
ent when the structure to which they were applied happened 
to be of magnitude, subjected to great inclemency of weather 
or to constant vibration. Recourse has, therefore, been had 
to iron oxide itself, and with satisfactory results. A pound 
of iron oxide paint, when mixed ready for use in the propor- 
tion of two-thirds oxide to one-third linseed oil, with careful 
work, should cover twenty-one square yards of sheet-iron, 
which is more than is obtained with lead compound. 

INVENTOR OF THE SCREW-AUGER. 

The screw-auger was invented by Thomas Garrett about 
IOO years ago. He lived near Oxford, Chester County, Pa^ 
The single screw-auger was invented by a Philadelphian, and 
it is said to be the only one used with any satisfaction in very 
hard woods, where the double screw-augers become clogged 



RUST PROOF WRAPPING PAPER. 

This is made by sifting on the sheet of pulp, in process of 
manufacture, a metallic zinc powder (blue powder), about to 
the extent of the weight of the dried paper, the pulp sheet 
is afterward pressed and dried by running through the 
rolls r.nd over the drying cylinders as' usual. The zinc powder 
Hberes to the paper, and 'is partly incorporated with it, the 
amount varying with the thickness and wetness of the pulp 
sheet. The paper may be sized with glue or starch and then 
dusted with the zinc powder, or the powder mny be stirred 
into the size and then applied to the surface of the p per. 
i.f silver, brass or iron articles are wrapped in paper thus pre- 
pared, the affinity of the zinc for the sulphureted hydrogen 
Always present in the air), chlorine or acid vapors, will pre- 
vent those substances from attacking the articles inclosed in the 
;j;iper. 

IIIP-BATII IN TWO PIECES. 
Fig. i. 

Draw the hip-bath 
full size, as it would 
look when finished, 
as in Fig. i. Extend 
line /', or the front, to 
same height as r, the 
highest part of the 
tub. Draw line d 
parallel with e, or 
bottom of tub, until 
it intersects c and b. 
Strike the half-circle 
ff 9 and divide into 
any number of equal 
parts, as I, 2, 3, 4, 
etc. (the more lines 
the better). For the 
points draw lines as 
shown in profile. 

Set dividers same as 
when the circles in 

Fig. i were described, and strike the circles g g, and with a 
T square draw the perpendicular lines// h h h. Draw the line 
/' parallel with the lines h. Take the height^ same as from d 
to e, in Fig. i, and mark the line /, Fig. : T)raw lines k k 
until they intersect at /. Set dividers at /, and strike the 




407 

circles m m. Draw line ;/, and, taking it as the center Jin*, 
step each way one-fourth of the circumference, in as man? 
parts as in profile, I, 2, 3, 4, etc., and draw lines same as in 
Fig. i. 




Take a pair of dividers, and from the bottom of tub in 
profile step on the lines, as from 9 to 9, 8 to 8, etc., making 
the line in Fig. 2 equal to the lines in profile, stopping where 
the curved line a crosses. A line traced through the dots 
will give the pattern, is the foot, which is drawn the same as 
the other, with the exception of drawing the lines through.i 

A VERY durable black paint for out-of-door work, and for 
many other purposes, is made by grinding powdered charcoal 
in linseed oil, with sufficient litharge or drier. Thin for use 
with boiled linseed oil. 



408 
TRANSMISSION IN ENGLAND. 

According to the London Engineer, a fly-rope apparently 
was first used in England in 1863, by Mr. Ramsbottom, for 
driving cranes at Crewe. These ropes were ^ inch in diam- 
eter when new, of cotton, and weighing \ l / 2 ounces per foot. 
They lasted about eight months, and ran at 3,000 per minute. 
The total lengths of the rope were 800 feet, 320 feet and 560 
feet. The grooves in the pulley were V-shaped, at an angle 
of 30. The cord was supported every 12 feet or 14 feet by 
flat pieces of chilled cast iron. The actual power strain on 
\he rope was about 17 pounds, and the ropes were kept tight 
by a pull of 109 pounds put on by a jockey pulley. Rope- 
geftring is now superseding belting and gearing in cotton 
mills. It has long been used in South Wales for driving 
helve hammers in tin-plate mills. The ropes are usual. y 
about 5^ inches to 6j^ inches in circumference, of hemp. 
The diameter of the pulleys shouVl be at least 30 times that 
of the rope, and the shafts should not be less than 20 feet 
apart. A 6^-inch rope is about equivalent to a leather belt 
4 inches wide, running at the same speed 3,000 feet per 
minute. Such a rope will transmit 25 horse-power. The 
coefficient of resistance to slipping of a rope in a groove is 
about four times that of an equivalent belt. 

HEAT-PROOF PAINTS. 

Steam pipes, steam chests, boiler fronts, smoke connec- 
tions and iron chimneys are often so highly heated that the 
paint upon them burns, changes color, blisters and often 
flakes off. After long protracted use, under varying circum- 
stances, it has been found that a silica-graphite paint is well 
adapted to overcome these evils. Nothing but boiled linseed 
0/7 it required to thin the paint to the desired consistency for 
application, no dryer being necessary. This paint is applied 
in the usual manner with an ordinary brush. The color, of 
course, is black. But another paint, which admits of some 
variety in color, is mixed by making soapstone, in a state of 
fine powder, with a quick drying varnish of great tenacity 
and hardness. This will give the painted object a seemingly 
enamele 1 surface, which is durable, and not affected by heat, 
acids, or the action of the atmosphere. When applied to 
wood it prevents rotting, and it arrests disintegration when 
applied to stone. It is well known that the inside of an iron 
ship is much more seve-e'y affected bv corrosion than the 
outside, and this paint has proven itself to be a most efficient 
protection from inside corrosion. It is light, of fine grain, 



409 

can be tinted with suitable pigments, spread? easily, and 
takes hold of the fiber of the iron or steel quickly and tena- 
ciously. 

A cheap and effective battery can be made by dissolving 
common soap in boiling water and adding to it small amounts 
of bran and caustic potash or soda. This mixture, while 
warm, is poured in a jar containing a large carbon pole and 
an amalgamated zinc rod. When cold the battery "sets" 
after the manner of a jelly, and consequently will not readily 
evaporate or spill over. 

NEW PROCESS FOR WIRE MANUFACTURE. 

A machine for cheapening and improving steel or iron 
wire has been invented, which is calculated to make a change 
in many branches of industry in which iron, steel, copper 
and brass wire are used. The invention, which has just been 
patented, consists of a series of rolls in a continuous train, 
geared with a common driver, each pair of rolls having a 
greater sp^ed than the pair preceding it, with an intervening 
friction clutch adapted to graduate the speed of the rolls to 
the speed of the wire in process of rolling. The entire pro- 
cess of manufacturing the smallest-sized wires from rods of 
one-half inch is done cold. The new process obviates the 
danger of unequal annealing, and of burning in the furnaces, 
and the wire is claimed to be more flexible and homogeneous 
than that produced by the common processes, and capable of 
sustaining greater longitudinal strain. It is, therefore, 
specially adapted for screws, nails, cables, pianofortes, and 
many other uses, and copper wire made by this process is 
claimed to be possessed of greatly increased electrical con- 
ductivity. 

~ T EEPERS USED BY THE WORLD'S RAILROADS. 

According to the Moniteur Industrie^ the six principal 
railways of France use more than 10,000 wooden sleepers per 
day, or 3,650,000 per annum. As a tree of ordinary dimen- 
sions will only yield ten sleepers, it will be necessary to cut 
down 1,000 trees per day. In the United States the con- 
sumption is much greater, amounting to about 15000,000 
sleepers per year, which is equivalent to the destruction of 
170,000 acres of forest, The annual consumption of sleepers 
by the railways of the world is estimated at 40,000,000. 
From these figures the rapid progress of disfores'ation will 
be understood, and it is certain that the natural growth can- 
not keep pace with it. 



4io 

WEIGHTS OF CAST IRON PIPES. 

Weights, per foot, of Cast Iron Pipes in general use, 
including Socket and Spigot ends. 



Diameter. 


Thickness. 


Wefeht 
per foot. 


Diameter. 


Thickness 


x^cijriii 
per loot. 


g inches. 


4-Kfncli. 


ej4 ii.s. 


14 inches 


% inch. 


138 Ihs. 


(g & 


% 


__'^ - 


16 " 


X "'" 


85 - 


!* * 


56 


ii ,.- 


16 


% " 


108 " 


<s 


54+ " 


11 


16 


% " 


129 


;3 * 





18^2 " 


16 


% " 


152 - 


&. & 


56 " 


18 


16 


1 


175 


rj * 


# 


2 


18 


->8 " 


114 - 


<!' 


-f " 


1*6 " 


18 


* * 


187 - 


: 4 


56 


23 


18 


H " 


161 " 


4 * 


% 


31- 


20 * 


* " 


132 " 


' * 


tf 


25 


20 " 


% " 


160 " 


e * 


56 


38 " 


20 * 


% ' 


197 - 


.6 * 


% 


42!6 u 


20 


1 


216 " 





% * 


A 2 


24 ' 


X " 


159 


8 


X 


40 


24 * 


X " 


190 " f 


8 


56 


4356 " 


24 " 


X ' 


224 


.g - 





6C 


24 ' 


I 


257 - 


8 - 


^4 


68 " 


30 


% - 


237 - 


10 


I 7 *"*" " 


50 M 


30 


H " 


277 - 


ID * 


56 


54 


30 


1 ' " 


319 " 


10 i' 


% 


68 


30 - 


154 " 


360 " 


10 * 


3 4 


80 - 


36 * 


X " 


332 


12 - 


56 


67 


36 " 


1 


881 - 


12 


5? 


8-2 


36 " 


IK - 


429 ' 


12 $ 


% 


99 


36 " 


\YA " 


470 - 


12 


% 


117 


48 " 


1 


612 


14 


56 


74 


48 - 


154 H 


684 * 


14 " 


55 


94 


48 


1J4 " 


685 " 


14 


% 


113 


48 " 


156 " 


776 ' 



POINTS FOR BUILDERS, 

BY STEEL SOU ARK. 

Never compete with a " botch " if you know he is favored 
by the person about to build. He will undercut and beat 
you every time. 

Favor the man who employs an architect. '' Under an 
honest architect you will have less friction, make more 
money, be better satisfied with your work, and give greater 
satisfaction to the owner than in working from plans fur- 
nished by a nondescript. 

In tearing down old -work, be as careful as putting up 
new. 

Old material should never be destroyed simply because it 
is old. . 

When putting away old stuff, see that it is protected from 
rain and the atmosphere. 

It costs about fifteen per cent, extra to work up old ma- 
terial, and this fact should be borne in mind, as I have known 
several contractors who paid dearly for their " whistle " in 
estimating on working up second-hand material. 

These remarks apply to woodwork only. In using old 
brick, stone, slate and other miscellaneous materials, it is as 
well to add double price for working up. 

Workmen do not care to handle old material, and justly 
so. It is ruinous to tools, painful to handle, and very de- 
structive to clothing. 

In my experience I always found it pay to advance the 
wages of workmen skilled mechanics while working up 
old material. This encouraged the men and spurred them 
to better efforts. 

Sash frames, with sash weights, locks and trim complete, 
may be taken out of old buildings that are being taken down 
and preserved just as good as new by screwing slats and 
braces on them, which not only keep the frame square, but 
prevent the glass from being broken. 

Doors, frames and trims may also be kept in good order 
until used, by taking the same precautions as in window 
frames. 

Old scantlings and joists should have all nails drawn or 
hammered i.i before piling away. 

Counters, shelving, draws and other store-fittings should be 



412 

kindly dealt with. They will all be called for sooner *r 
later. 

Take care of the locks, hinges, bolts, keys, and other hard- 
ware. Each individual piece represents money in a greater or 
less sum. 

Old flooring can seldom be utilized, though I have seen it 
used for temporary purposes, such as fencing, covering of 
veranda floors, while finishing work on plastering, etc. As 
a rule, however, it does not pay to take it up carefully and 
preserve it. 

Conductor pipes, metallic cornices, and sheet metal work 
generally can seldom be made available a second time, though 
all is worth caring foi, as some parties may use it in repairs. 

Sinks, wash-basins, bath-tubs, traps, heating appliances, 
grates, mantels and hearth-stones should be moved with care. 
They are always worth money and may be used in many 
places as substitutes for more inferior fixings. 

Marble mantels require the most careful handling. 

Perhaps the most difficult fixtures about a house to adapt a 
second time are the stairs. Yet, I have known where a 
shrewd contractor has so managed to put up new building's 
that the old stairs taken from another building just suited. 
This may have been a " favorable accident," but the initiated 
reader will understand him. Seldom such accidents can 
occur. 

Rails, balusters and newels may be utilized much readier 
than stairs, as the rail may be lengthened or shortened to ~;uit 
variable conditions. 

Gas fixtures should be cared for and stowed away in some 
dry place. They can often be made available, and are easily 
renovated if soiled or tarnished. 

It is not wise to employ men to take down buildings who 
who have no other qualities to recommend them than their 
strength. As a rule they are like bears have more strength 
than knowledge, and the lack of the latter is often an ex- 
pensive desideratum. Employ fcr taking down the work 
good, careful mechanics, and do not have the work " rushed 
through." Rushers of this sort are expensive. 

Never send old material to a mill to be sawed or planed. 
No matter how carefully nails, pebbles and sand have been 
hunted for, the saw or planer knives will most assuredly 
find some you overlooked; then there will be trouble at the 
mill. 

Have some mercy for the workman's tools. If it can be 
avoided, do not work up old stuff into fine work. If not 



413 

avoidable, pay the workman something extra because of in* 
jury to tools. 

Don't grumble if you do not get as good results from the 
use of old material as from new. The workman has much 
to contend with' while working up old, nail-speckled, sand- 
covered material. 

RULES FOR ESTIMATING COST OF PLASTER. 
ING AND STUCCO WORK. 

PLASTERING. 

Plastering is always measured by the square yard for aV 
plain work, and by the foot superficial for all cornices of 
plain members, and by foot lineal for enriched or carved 
moldings in cornices. 

By plain work is meant straight surfaces (like ordinary 
walls and ceilings), without regard to the style or quantity of 
finish put upon the job. Any paneled work, whether on 
walls or ceilings, run with a mold, would be rated by the 
foot superficial. 

Different methods of valuing plastering find favor in 
different portions of the country. The following general 
rules are believed to be equitable and just to all parties: 

Rule i. Measure on walls and ceilings the surface 
actually plastered without deducting any grounds or any 
openings of less extent than seven superficial yards. 

Rule 2. Returns of chimney breasts, pilasters and all 
strips of plastering, less than 12 inches in width, measure as 
12 inches wide; and where the plastering is finished down 
upon the wash-board, surbase or wainscoting, add 6 inches to 
height of wall. 

Rule 3. In closets, add one-half to the measurement ; 
01, if shelves are put up before plastering, charge double 
measurement. Raking ceilings and soffits of stairs, add one- 
half to the measurement. Circular or elliptical work, charge 
two prices ; domes or groined ceilings, three prices. 

Rule 4. For each 12 feet interior work is done further 
from the ground than the first 12 feet, add five per cent. 
For outside work, add one per cent, for each foot the work 
is done above the first 12 feet. 

STUCCO WORK. 

Rule i. All moldings, less than one foot girt, to be 
rated as one foot ; over one foot, to be taken superficial. 
When work requires two molds to run same cornice, add 
one-fifth. 



4H 

Rule 2. For each internal angle or miter, add one foot 
to length of cornice ; and each external angle add two feet. 
All small sections of cornice less than 12 inches long measure 
as 12 inches. For raking cornices add one-half. Circular or 
elliptical work, double price ; domes and groins, three prices. 

Rule j. For enrichments of all kinds, charge an agreed 
price. 

Rule 4. For each 12 feet above the first 12 feet from 
the ground, add five per cent. 

CHINESE CASH. 

A large number are engaged in molding, casting and fin- 
ishing the "cash" used as .coin all over China, Mexican 
dollars and Sycee silver being used in large transactions. The 
cash are made from an alloy of copper and zinc, nearly 
the same as the well-known Munn metal, and it takes 
about 1,000 of them to answer as change for a dollar, so 
minute and low do prices run in this country, of which 1 will 
only give one instance. The fare for crossing the ferry on the 
Peiho was only two cash, or one-fifth of a cent. 

DEEP SOUNDINGS NEAR THE FRIENDLY 
ISLANDS. 

Her Majesty's surveying ship Egeria, under the com- 
k...nd of Captain P. Aldrich, R. N., has, during a recent 
sounding cruise and search for reported banks to the south of 
the Friendly Islands, obtained two very deep soundings of 
4,295 fathoms and 4,430 fathoms, equal to five Eng- 
lish miles respectively, the latter in latitude ^4 deg. 
37 min. S., longitude 175 deg. 8 min. W. , ;e other 
about twelve miles to the southward. The/ .* depths 
are more than 1,000 fathoms greater than y before 
obtained in the Southern Hemisphere, ant-' are only 
surpassed, as far as is yet known, in three spots in the 
the world one of 4,655 fathoms off the northeast coast of 
Japan, found by the United States steamship Tuscarora ; 
one of 4,475 fathoms south of the Ladrone Islands by the 
Challenger; and one of 4,561 north of Porto Rico, by the 
United States ship Blake. Captain Aldrich's soundings 
were obtained with a Lucas sounding machine and galvan- 
ized wire. The deeper one occupied three hours, and 
was obtained in a considerably confused sea, a specimei) 
of the bottom being successfully recovered. Temperature 
of the bottom, 33.7 deg. Fahr. 



415 
SIZE AND WEIGHT OF FLAT-TOP CANS. 

The following table gives the size of the flat top cans and 
the amount of material required when galvanized iron is used 
in their construction. The table shows the net weight per 
can with iron from No. 27 gauge to No. 20 gauge. No al- 
lowance is made for seams, hoops, or solder. 



SIZE CANS. 


WEIGHT 1'ER CAN. 








No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


N- 








27 G. 


26 G. 


25 G. 


24 G. 


230. 


22 G. 


" G> * ^ 


O 
6 


g i 

.S*| 


Height 
Inches. 


3 5 


3 o 








* ,1 ~ "" 


3 3 


3 o 


_Q N 

H-3 O 


3 o- 


*, 6" 


3 o 


i 


6*/4 


*K 


i 6 


i 7 














2 


%Vz 


8^ 


2 2 


2 4 














3 


9 


11^ 


2 I 3 


3 o 












5 


i/^ 


13%: 


3 13 


4 2 


4 6 


4 14 


5 7 


5 J 5 


6 9 


7 6 


5 


nK 


i j K 


3 13 


4 2 


4 6 


4 Hi 5 7 


5 15 


6 9 


7 6 


6 


ii^ 


13!^ 


4 3 


4 8 


4 12 


5 6 


5 J 5 


6 9 


7 2 


8 i 


8 


13* 


13^ 


5 4 


5 *o 


6 o 


6 12 


7 8 


8 9 


9 


IO I 


10 


1 3^2 


165^ 


6 o 


6 7 


6 14 


7 12 


8 9 


9 7 


10 5 


ii 9 


15 


l sK 


9 


7 is| 8 8 


9 i 


10 3 


IT 5 


12 7 


13 9 


15 4 


20 


II I A 


ig l /2, 


9 8|io 2 


10 13 


12 3 


13 8 


14 4 


16 3 


18 4 


20 
25 


16 
18 


23 


9 8|io 2 10 13 


12 3 


13 8 


14 4 


16 3 18 4 


30 




26^ 


12 10 


13 8 14 7 


16 4 


18 o 


J 9 X 3 


21 IO 23 II 


35 


181^ y>Y> 


14 o 15 o 1 6 o 


18 o 


20 o 


22 


24 o 27 o 


40 


18^34 " 


15 9 


16 10 


17 ii 


19 is 


22 2 


24 6 


26 9 29 14 


45 


19^135 


16 10 


17 13 


19 o 21 6 


23 12 


26 2 


28 8 32 i 


So 


20^ 35 


17 ii 


l8 15 20 3 22 12 


25 4 


2 7 I 3 


30 5 


34 2 


55 21% 


36 


18 14 


20 6 21 10 24 3 


26 7 


29 12 


32 736 8 


6022 
6522^ 


38 


20 3 
21 3 


21 IO 23 O 

22 9 24 3 


25 15 
27 4 


28 12 

30 5 


31 IO 

33 6 


34 8 
36 5 


38 13 
40 14 


7023 


40 


22 IO 24 4 25 13 


29 i 


32 5 


35 8 


38 12 


43 9 


75 23 1 A 40 


23 ' 3 


24 14 26 9 29 13 33 2 


36 7 


39 i3 


44 J 3 


8024^ 
8525 


40 

40 


24 7 
25 i 


26 3 
26 14 


27 15 31 7 
28 10 32 7 


34 J 5 
35 13 


38 6 
39 6 


4i 15 

43 


47 3 
48 5 


9024^ 


45 


26 13 


28 ii 


30 10 


34 7 


38 4 


42 i 


45 i5 




95 25 


45 


27 7 


29 6 


3 1 5 


35 4 


39 3 


43 i 


47 o 52 14 


100 26 


45 


28 13 


30 14 


32 14 


37 o 


41 2 


45 4 


49 6(55 9 


I2 5 27^ 


50 


33 8 


35 i5 


38 5 


43 2 


47 M 


52 ii 


57 7, 6 4 I0 


150 29 


52^ 


37 i 


39 12 


42 6 


47 ii 


52 15 


58 4 


63 9! 71 9 


J 75 3 
20030%; 


64 2 


41 9 
46 6 


44 8 
49 12 


47 7 
53 3 


53 6 
59 J 4 


59 5 
66 6 


65 3 


71 380 I 
79 10:89 10 



Mexican coal has been successfully used for making coke 
at Pittsburg. 



THE CHICAGO AUDITORIUM. 

At a meeting of the Chicago Auditorium Association the 
president submitted his report, from which we take the fol- 
lowing: 

To the Stockholders of the Chicago Auditorium Associa- 
tion Your great undertaking has progressed to a point when 
a recital of the condition of affairs, together with a brief his- 
tory of the project, will be of especial interest to you. 

Ground was broken and the work of tearing down build- 
ings was begun in January, 1887. The const v uction has bee* 
vigorously prosecuted from that time, the only delay occur- 
ring from difficulty in procuring granite, which necessitated 
the association taking possession of the quarries, the result of 
which was satisfactory. From the date of completion of the 
granite work, comprising the two stories of the sub-structure, 
all contracts have been thus far satisfactorily and promptly 
carried forward, and we feel that we have been exceptionally 
fortunate in the selection of all the contractors, especially so 
of the architects, who have faced most difficult and unprece- 
dented problems. 

This enterprise, like all large projects, has been a matter 
ot growth and development from its inception, both in mag- 
nitude and cost, and, in the judgment of your board, it has 
been in every instance wise. It was originally contemplated 
by the projectors that a great public hall and a hotel should 
be built on a site not including the corner of W abash avenue 
and Congress street and the north lot of the Michigan avenue 
frontage, which were not then obtainable. From that your 
building has grown to cover the entire site now occupied 
710 feet frontage, or an area of one and five-eighths acres. 
Strict fire-proof construction of the most approved kind was 
always contemplated, and it prevails throughout the entire 
structure ; so that under no circumstances can your building 
sustain more than slight superficial injury from fire. The 
tenth story has recently been changed to make it one foot 
higher, and one story has been added to the plans of the 
tower this summer. 

With the grandeur of the rising building developed the 
necessity of absolutely first-class treatment in details and 
interior finish. The hotel rooms will be finished in hard- 
wood throughout ; mosaic floors will be laid in the vestibule 
and lobby in the Auditorium and hotel. The grand stair- 
way will be marble, w r ith bronze sides. An extra elevator 
was recently decided upon, making twelve in all, nine passen- 
ger and three freight. 



4*7 

A grand organ, costing about $50,000, was contracted 
for, and is being built probably at a loss to the contractor, 
the contract for which calls for the most complete and 
grandest instrument ever constructed, and which your board 
believes will do much for musical education in this city, and 
add largely to the earnings of your Auditorium more than 
ordinary interest on its cost. 

It was also determined to adopt the most approved and 
modern stage, with appointments similar to one at Buda- 
Pesth, Hungary, for which purpose Architect Adler was sent 
to Europe, and Mr. Bairstow, chief stage carpenter for 
McVicker's theater for many years, was employed, and 
accompanied him abroad. This will cost much more than 
the ordinary stage, but will be unequaled on either continent 
in its effects and operating economies, and it is regarded a 
judicious step by your board, as it constitutes, in theatre 
parlance, a permanent attraction. 

Then there are the devices of heavy ironwork for shutting 
off the galleries and part of the main balcony, lessening the 
cubic contents of our hall, thereby adapting it for many pur- 
poses for which otherwise it could not well be used. This 
nas added considerably to cost of ironwork. 

A few statistics respecting your structure, about which so 
many questions are asked, may be of interest to you. It com- 
prises five principal features the auditorium, with its grand 
organ and stage; the hotel; the business front on Wabash 
avenue, containing seven stories and nine floors of rooms; the 
fettle' auditorium, or rehearsal hall; and the public observa- 
tory. To which might be added the cafe cm the main floor 
on Congress street. The main building will be ten stories 
high, or 145 feet, the auditorium proper reaching the seventh 
story. The tower will be seventeen stories high, or 240 feet. 
The foundations under your buildings have been carefully and 
scientifically considered. Every square yard of the ground 
was first tested by heavy water-tanks, then horizontal tim- 
bers of varying lengths, one square, were laid permanently 
below the water-line, covering whi h is a heavy bed of con- 
crete, in which from one to four layers of 67-pound steel 
rails are imbedded. These, if placed in line, would reach ten 
miles in length. Where the rails were insufficient in strength, 
steel I-beams were substituted for them. Upon these rails 
and beams the piers were constructed. The tower rests on 
a solid foundation, 100x67 feet, thus distributing the weight 
over a larger surface. The auditorium will contain 5,000 seats, 
including forty-two boxes. This capacity can be largely 
increased for conventions by utilizing the stage space. The 



418 

hotel will occupy the entire Michigan avenue and congress 
street fronts, and forty feet of Wabash avenue front, and 
will contain nearly 400 rooms. The main dining-room will 
be on the tenth floor of the east front, 175 feet long, over- 
looking the lake. There will be twelve elevators in all. 
The cost of the iron in the building is nearly $350,000, no 
portion of which will be visible. The number of brinks in 
the building is 15,000,000. 

The number of electric lights in the auditorium proper 
is 4,000; in the hotel and balance of the building, 4,600; 
making 8,600 in all. The electric current is generated by 
eleven dynamos and nine engines ; there will be eleven 
boilers, having a capacity of 1,800 horse-power; and 
twenty-one pumping engines to supply water fur the 
elevators and other purposes, with a total hourly capacity of 
400,000 gallons. There are two distinct heating and lighting 
plants for the hotel and balance of building. The tower 
weighs 30,000,000 pounds, or 15.000 tons. There are over 
twenty-five miles of gas and water pipes. 

To calculate number of shingles for a roof, ascertain num- 
ber of square feet and multiply by 4; if 2 inches to weather, 
8 for 4^ inches, and 7 1-5 if 5 inches are exposed. The 
length of rafter of one third pitch is equal to three-fifths of 
width of building, adding projection. 

PAINTWORK. 

Tt may be useful to know that a gallon of paint will cover 
from 450 to 630 superficial feet of wood. On a well-painted 
surface of iron the gallon will cover 720 feet. In estimating 
painting to old work, the first thing to do is to find out the 
nature of the surface, whether it is porous, rough o t smooth, 
hard or soft. The surface of stucco, for example, will take a 
great deal more paint than on of wood, much depending on 
the circumstance whether it has been painted, and what state 
the surface is in. We have known prices tendered for outside 
painting that have been seriously wrong, owing to the want 
of knowing the condition of the stucco work. A correct e Mi- 
niate of repainting woodwork cannot be made from the quan- 
tities only; a personal examination ought to be made in every 
tase where there is much work to be done. A great many 
painters trust to the quantity; the consequence is, nothing is 
allowed to remove old paint, or for scouring, and the stopping 
of cracks. 

Then, there is painting and painting. It can be done well 
and artistically, or indifferently, and few trades allow of 
greater scamping. In first-class work, after the first two coats 



419 

have been put on, the paint, when dry, should be rubbed 
down with pumice-stone before the finishing coats are put on. 
Inferior painting is so common that it has fj .emoralizing effect 
on painters of the day. The quality of tue material, especially 
the white lead, has much to do with the permanency. We 
find painting done on old work without any cleaning, stopping 
or even pumicing. A slovenly and inartistic class of Drainers 
are also met with, who repaint and '-e^rain on work that 
ought to bi well rubbed with pumice-sione or sand-paper be- 
fore the first new coat is laid. 

For painting three coats the following materials are given 
for ioo superficial feet of ne\v work: Paint, eight pounds; 
boiled linseed oil, three pints; spirits of turpentine, one ] int; 
the work taking thre men for one clay. According (o Saxton, 
forty-five yards of first coat, including stopping, will require 
five pounds of white lead, five pounds of putty, one quart of 
oil. The same quantity of each succeeding coat will require 
the same allowance of white lead and oil. The best materials 
will last for seven years, but the ordinary painting seldom lasts 
three. 

THE ANNUAL KING IX TREES. 

The annual rings in trees exist as such in all timber grown 
in the temperate zone. Their structure is so different in 
different groups of timber that, from their appearance alone, 
the quality of the timber may be judged to some extent. 
For this purpose the absolute width of the rings, the regu- 
larity in width from year to year and the proportion of spring 
wood to autumn wood must be taken into account. Spring 
wood is characterized by less substantial elements, the ves- 
sels of thin-walled cells being in greater abundance, while 
autumn wood is formed of cells with thicker walls, which 
appear darker in color. In conifers and deciduous trees the 
annual rings are very distinct, while in trees like the birch, 
linden and maple the distinction is not so marked, because 
the vessels are more evenly distributed. Sometimes the 
gradual change in appearance of the annual ring from spring 
to autumn wood, which is due to the difference in its compo- 
nent elements, is interrupted in such a manner that a more or 
less pronounced layer of autumn wood can apparently be 
recognized, which again gradually changes to spring or sum- 
mer wood, and then gradually finishes with the regular autumn 
wood. r \ his irregularity may occur even more than once .,i 
the same ring, and this has led to the notion that the annual 
rings are not a true indication of age; but the double or 



4 2 

counterfeit tings can be distinguished by a practiced eye with 
the aid of a magnifying glass. These irregularities are due 
to some interruptions of the functions of the tree, caused by 
defoliation, extreme climatic condition or sudden changes of 
temperature. The breadth of the ring depends on the length 
of the period of vegetation; also when the soil is deep and rich, 
and light has much influence on the tree, the rings will be 
broader. The amount of light, and the consequent development 
of foliage, is perhaps the most powerful factor in wood forma- 
tions, and it is upon the proper use of this that the forester 
depends for his means of regulating the development and 
quantity of his crop. 

POINTERS FOR ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS AND 
WOOD-WORKERS. 

A box of window-glass contains fifty feet of glass, regard- 
less of size of sheets. 

African teak-wood outlasts any other kind of wood. It 
is the only wood found preserved in Egyptian tombs 4,0x30 
years old. It shrinks only " on end. " 

It is a common practice in France to coat the beams, the 
joists and the under side of the flooring of buildings with a 
thick coating of lime- wash as a safeguard against fire. It is 
a preventive of prime ignition, although it will not check a 
fire when once under headway. 

Any beam, whether of wood or iron, is as much stronger 
when placed on its edge as when on its side, as the width is 
greater than he thickness. Thus a stick or bar of iron one 
inch by three inches when used as abeam is three limes as 
strong when placed on its edge as when on its side. This is 
true only within limits. It would not be true of a piece of 
boiler-plate, on account of the flexibility. 

Mortar made in the following manner will stand if used in 
almost all sorts of weather : One bushel of unslaked lime, 
three bushels of sharp sand ; mix I Ib. of alum with one pint 
of linseed oil, and thoroughly mix this with the mortar when 
making it, and use hot. The alum will counteract the action 
of the frost on the mortar. 

A new system of building houses of steel plates is being 
introduced by M. Danly, manager of the Societe des Forges 
de Chateleneau It has been found that corrugated sheets 
only a millimetre in thickness are sufficiently strong for build- 
ing houses several stories high, and the material used allows 
of architectural ornamentation. The plates used are of the 



4 2I 

finest quality, and as they are galvanized after they have been 
cut to the sizes and shapes required, no portion is left 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere. Houses so con- 
structed are very sanitary, and the necessary ventilating and 
heating arrangements can readily be carried out. 

Moisture-proof glue is made by dissolving 16 ounces of 
glue in 3 pints of skim milk. If a still st ronger glue be want- 
ed, add powdered lime. 

Shellac and borax boiled in water produces a good stain 
for floors. 

Don't inclose the sink no place in a kitchen is so 
much neglected. 

Porch floors should be of narrow stuff and the joints laid 
in white lead. 

Lime-water is fire-proof protection for shingles or any 
light wood-work. 

Common brick absorb a pint of water each, and make a 
very damp house. 

The lowest -priced builder is not always the cheapest, as- 
poor work will testify. 

A closet finished with red cedar shelves and drawers is 
death to moths and insects. 

Do not locate a furnace register next to a mantel that 
is, if you wish to utilize the heat. 

Terra-cotta flue linings are a great improvement over 
the old, roughly plastered chimney. 

For basement fl >oring, oak is preferred to maple because 
it will stand dampness better. 

To properly select the colors applicable to the proper 
place, consult an educated painter 

A ventilating flue from the kitchen into the chimney 
often does away with atmospheric meals. 

Stops to doors and windows should be fastened with 
roundhead screws, so as to be easily moved. 

It is better to oil floors than to paint them a monthly 
rubbing will make them as good as new. 

Do not use one chimney-flue for two stove pipes the 
draft of one will counteract that of the other. 

Do not finish windows to the floor -the circulation 
across the floor is one of the causes of cold houses. 

Ash-pits in cellars under fire-places and mantels save 
taking up ashes, for they may be raked down through a hop- 
per. 

Do not construct solid doors of two kinds of hardwood 
the action of the atmosphere on one or the other will 
cause the door to warp. 



422 

HINTS ON VENTILATION. 

In ventilating say, a bed-room by means of the win- 
dow, what you may principally \\ant is an upward-blowing 
current. Well, there are several methods of securing this 
without danger of a draught. 

1. Holes may be bored in the lower part of the upper 
sash of the window, admitting the outside air. 

2. Right across one foot of the lower .-a h. but attached 
to the immovable frame of the wind >v. , may he hung or tacked 
apiece of strong Willesdeu paper prettily painte I \\ith 
flowers or birds, if you please. The window may then he 
raised to the extent of the breadth of this ] aner, ; ml the air 
rushes upward between the two sashes. 

3. The same effect i; goc from simply having a b:>ard 
about six inches \vide and the exact si/.e of the sash's ! readth. 
Use this to hold the window up. 

4. This same board may have two bent or elbow tubes in 
it, opening upward and into the room, so that the air 
coming through does not blow directly in. The inside open- 
ings may be protected by valves, and thus tlv> amount of in- 
coming current can be regu'ated. We thus get a circulating 
movement of the air, as, the window being raised, there is an 
opening between the sashes. 

^ 5. In summer a frame half as big as the lower <-ash may 
be made of perforated zinc or wire gau/.e and placed in so as 
to keep the window up. There is n > draught ; and, if kept in 
position all night, then, as a rule, the inmate wi'.l enjoy re- 
freshing sleep. 

6. In addition to these plans, the door of every bed- 
room should possess, at the top thereof, a ventilating panel, 
the simplest of all being that formed of wire gauze. 

In conclusion, let me again beg of you t"> value fresh air 
as you value life and health itself; while taking care not to 
sleep directly in an appreciable draught, to abjure curtains 
all round the bed. A curtained bed is only a stable for 
nightmares and an hotel for a hundred wonder-ills and ail- 



INVENTION OF THE SCREW AUGER. 

Tiie screw auger was invented by Tl omas Garrett anout 
100 years ago. He lived near Oxford, Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. The single screw auger was invented by a 
Philadelphia!!, and it is said to be the only one used with any 
Satisfaction in very hard woods where the double screw augers 
become clogged. 



423 
THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The total area of forest lands in the United States and 
Territories, according to the annual report of the Division 
of Forestry of the Department of Agriculture, is 465,795,000 
acres. The State which has the largest share is Texas, 
which is credited with 40,000,000 acres. Minnesota comes 
next with 30,000,000, then Arkansas with 28,000,000; and 
Florida, Oregon, California and Washington Territory are 
put down at 20,000,000 each. Georgia and North Carolina 
nave each 18,000,000; Wisconsin and Alabama, each 
17,000,000; Tennessee, 16,000,000; Michigan, 14,000,000; 
and Maine, 12,000,000 acres. Taking the States in groups, 
the six New England States have, in round numbers, 
19,000,000 acres; four Middle States, 18,000,000; nine 
Western States, i V o,ooo.ooo; four Pacific States, 53,000,000; 
seven Territories, 63.000,000; and fourteen Southern States, 
233,000,000 acres, or almost precisely half of the whole for- 
est area of the country. 

Reviewing the figures given by the department, the 
Tradesman, of Chattanooga, Tenn., makes the following 
instructive comment: " These statistics show that, while the 
process of denudation has been carried on to an unhealthy 
extreme in the Eastern, Middle and a few of the Western 
States, the forest area still remaining in this country is a 
magnificent one. If the estimates of the department are 
approximately correct, the timber lands of the country, 
exclusive of Alaska, cover an area equal to fifteen States the 
size of Pennsylvania. If proper measures are taken to pre- 
vent the rapid and unnecessary destruction of what is left of 
our forest domain, it should be equal to all requirements for 
an indefinite period. It is not yet a case of locking the 
stable after the horse is stolen, and never should be allowed 
to become so. With the adoption the policy of judicious 
trfee planting in the prairie States, and a system of State or 
government reservations in the mountainous districts, which 
are the sources of the chief rivers of the country, the evil 
effects which have followed forest denudation in Europe and 
some portions of Asia would never exist here." 

TO FIND THE WEIGHT OF GRINDSTONES. 

.06363 times square of inches diameter, times thickness 
in inches = weight of grindstone in Ibs. 

3.1415926--- ratio of diameter to circumfeieuce of circle. 



424 

ALTITUDE ABOVE THE SEA-LEVEL OF VARI- 
OUS PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Portland, Me . . 


185 


Knoxville, Xenn .... 




Concord, N H 


375 


Louisville, Ky 


' 


Cleveland, O 


645 




480 


Detroit Mich 




Upper portion of city 


t-88 


Mt. Washington 
Ann Arbor Mich. .. 


.... 6,2Q3 

800 


San Francisco, Cal 
Indianapolis, Ind .... 


130 


Boston, Mass 


82 


Chicago, 111 


rT 


Albany, N. Y 






CQQ 


New York N Y 


60 


St Anthony Falls Minn 


822 


Buffalo N Y 


580 


Dubuque la 




Philadelphia Penn . . . 


60 


St Louis Mo 


/l80 


Pittsburg Penn 


QT tr 


Omaha Neb 




Baltimore, Md 


2 75 


Lawrence Kan. 


SO-! 


Washington,!). C.... 


. . . 92 


Fort Phil Kearney Wy 


6 ooo 


Charleston, S. C 




Yankton, Dak 




Vicksburg, Miss 


35 2 


Fort Garland, Colo 


8 365 


New Orleans, La 
El Paso, Texas 


10 

3,831 


Salt Lake City, Utah 
Sacramento, Cal 


4,322 

22 



TABLE OF PRINCIPAL ALLOYS. 

A combination of zinc and copper makes bell metal. 

A combination of copper and tin makes bronze metal. 

A combination of antimony, tin, copper and bismuth, makes britannia 
metal. 

A combination of copper and tin makes cannon metal. 

A combination of copper and zinc makes Dutch gold. 

A combination of copper, nickel and zinc, with sometimes a little iron 
and tin, makes German silver. 

A combination of -gold and copper makes standard gold. 

A combination of gold, copper and silver, makes old standard gold. 

A combination of tin and copper makes gun m >tal. 

A combination of copper and zinc makes mosaic gold. 

A combination of tin and lead makes pewter. 

A combination of lead and a little arsenic, makes sheet metal. 

A combination of silver and copper makes standard silver. 

A combination of tin and lead makes solder. 

A combination of lead and antimony makes type metal. 

A combination ot copper and arsenic makes white copper. 

HOW TO POLISH ZINC. 

AVe have been successful in polishing zinc with the follow- 
ing solution : To 2 quarts of rainwater add 3 oz. powdered 
rotten stone, 2 oz. pumice stone, and 4 oz. oxalic acid. Mix 
thoroughly, and let it stand a day or two before using. Stir 
or shake it up when using, and, after using, polish the zinc 
with a dry woolen cloth or chamois skin. The more thor- 
oughly the zinc is rubbed the longer it will stay bright. 



425 
HOW TO MAKE A GOOD FLOOR. 

Nothing attracts the attention of a person wishing to rent 
or purchase a dwelling, store or office, so quickly as q, hand- 
some, well-laid floor, and a few suggestions on the subject, 
though not new, may not be out of place. 

The best floor for the least money can be made of yellow- 
pine, if the mateiial is carefully selected and properly laid. 

First, select edge-grain yellow pine, not too "fat," clear 
of pitch, knots, sap and splits. See that it is thoroughly 
seasoned, and that the tongues and grooves exactly match, so- 
that, when laid, the upper surfaces of each board are on a 
level. 1'his is an important feature often overlooked, and 
planing-mill operatives frequently get careless in adjusting 
the tonguing and grooving bits. If the edge of a flooring 
board, especially the grooved edge, is higher than the edge 
of the next board, no amount of mechanical ingenuity can 
make a neat floor of them. The upper part of the groove 
will continue to curl upward as long as the floor lasts. 

Supposing, of course, the sleepers, or joists, are properly 
placed the right distance apart, and their upper edges pre- 
cisely on a level, and securely braced, the most important 
part of the job is to " lay " the flooring correctly % This 
part of- the work is never, or very rarely ever, done nowa- 
days. The system in vogue with carpenters of this day, of 
laying one board at a time, and " blind nailing," is the most 
glaring fraud practiced in any trade. They drive the tongue 
of the board into the groove of the preceding one, by 
pounding on the grooved edge with a naked hammer, mak- 
ing indentations that let in the cold air or noxious gases, if 
it is a bottom floor, and then nail it in place by driving a 
six-penny nail at an angle of about 50 in the groove. An 
awkward blow or two chips off the upper part of the groove, 
and the last blow, designed to sink the nail-head out of the 
way of the next tongue, splits the lower part of the groove 
to splinters, leaving an unsightly opening. Such nailing 
does not fasten the flooring to the sleepers, and the slanting 
nails very often wedge the board up so that it does not bear 
on the sleeper. We would rather have our flooring in the 
tree standing in the woods than put down that way. 

The proper plan is to begin on one side of the room, lay 
one course of boards with ihe tongue next to, and neatly 
fitted to, the wall (cr studding, if a frame house), and be 
sure the boards are laid perfectly straight from end to end 
of the room and square with the wall. Then nail this course 
firmly to the sleepers, through and through, one nail near 



426 

each edge of the board on every sleeper, and you are ready- 
to begin to lay a floor. Next, fit the ends and lay down 
four or six courses of boards (owing to their width). If the 
boards differ widely in color, as is often the case in pine, do 
not lay two of a widely different color side by side, but 
arrange them so that the deep colors will tone off into the 
lighter ones gradually. Push the tongues into the grooves 
as close as possible, without pounding with a hammer, or, if 
pounding is necessary, take a narrow, short piece of flooring, 
put the tongue in the groove of the outer board, and pound 
gently on the piece, never on the flooring board. Next, 
adjust your clamps on every third sleeper and at every end 
joint, and drive the floor (irmly together by means of 
wedges. IDrive the wedges gently at the start, and each one 
equally till the joints ail fill up snugly, and then stop, for, if 
driven too tight, the fl >or will spring up. Never wedge 
directly against the edge of the flooring board, but have a 
short strip with a tongue on it between the wedge and the . 
board, so as to leave no bruises. Then fasten the floor to 
the sleepers by driving a flat- headed steel wire nail of suit- 
able size, one inch from either edge of every board, straight 
do\Mi into each sleeper. At the end-joints smaller nails may 
be used, two nails in board near the edges, and as far from 
the ends as the thickness of the sleeper will permit. Pro- 
ceed in this manner until the floor is completed, and you 
will have a floor that will remain ti^ht and look well until 
worn out. 

Such minute directions, for so common and simple a job, 
sound silly, but are justifiable from the fact that there are so 
many alleged carpenters who either do not know how or are 
too lazy to lay a floor properly. 

GLUE FOR DAMP PLACES. 

For a strong glue, which will hold in a damp place, the 
following recipe works well : Take of the best and strongest 
glue enough to make a pint when melted. Soak this until 
soft. Pour off the Mater, as in ordinary glue-making, and 
add a little \\ater if the glue is likely to be too thick. When 
melted, add three table-spoonfuls of boiled Unseed oil. Stir 
frequently, and keep up the heat till the oil disappears, 
which may take the whole day, and perhaps more. If 
necessary, add water to make up for that lost by evaporation. 
When no more oil is seen, a tablespoonful of whiting is added 
and thoroughly incorporated with the glue. 



427 
MORTAR MAKING. ^ 

Much depends on having mortar made on correct, if not 
scientific, principles. The durability, if not the actual safety, 
of a building is more or less affected by the kind of mortar 
that is put into it. We have seen brick buildings, and not 
very old ones either, from which the dry and hardened mor- 
tar could easily be picked in cakes from between the bricks. 
The advantage of using such mortar is, that, when the 
building tumbles down, ^ there will be no trouble in picking 
from it the old bricks, preparatory to rebuilding. A brick 
wall, if put up with the right kind of mortar, will be solid 
and almost homogeneous, as likely to break through the 
middle of the bricks as at the joints. Such a building will 
never tumble down, except under great strain, and will with- 
stand a pretty severe earthquake shock. 

An old builder, of nearly forty years' experience in mak- 
ing mortar, writing upon the subject to a contemporary, 
very justly says: "The mere matter of slacking lime does 
not make mortar out of it. Lime and water alone will not 
make any better mortar than sand and water." t He sug- 
gests the use of plenty of water in slacking the lime, so 
that, when it is run out of the box into the bed, it will not 
bake or burn, as it is liable to do, if not well watered. The 
mortar bed should be large and tight, so there will be no 
leakage of the lime water. The proportion should be 
about fifty yards of good sand to twenty-five barrels of lime, 
for the first mixing, which should be thoroughly done. The 
hair should be put into the lime before mixing in the sand. 
After the mortar has been mixed in the above proportions 
for ten clays or more, if the amount of materials given have 
been used, twenty-five to fifty loads of sand may be added 
and worked in. It is said that the water that rises on a 
bushel of slaked lime, and where plenty of water has been 
used, if removed and put on a sharp sand, will make better 
stone than lime and sand mixed, showing that the water 
should be retained in the sand and lime while it is fresh, and 
that the mortar should be tempered in its own liquor. Of 
course, where smaller quantities are used, the proportion 
should be retained, both at the first mixing and in the sand 
added subsequently, 

A pound of ten-pnny cut nails will do as much work as 
two pounds of wire nails. Taking the average of all cut nails, 
they are worth nearly double as much as wire nails, from 
tests made at the Watertown Government Arsenal. 



428 

COST OF EXCAVATING AND HANDLING ROCK. 

The average weight of a cubic yard of sandstone or con- 
glomerate, in place, is given as 1.8 tons, and of compact 
granite, gneiss, limestone or marble, 2 tons, or an average of 
1.9 tons, or 4,256 pounds. A cubic yard, when broken up 
ready for removal, increases about four-fifths in bulk, and 
f~i of a cubic yard, 177 pounds, is a wheelbarrow load. 
Experience shows that, with wages at $i per day of 10 
hours, 45 cents per cubic yard is a sufficient allowance for 
loosening hard rock. Soft shales and allied rocks may be 
loosened by pick and plow at a cost of 20 cents to 30 cents 
per cubic yard. The quarrying of ordinary hard rock re- 
quires from % pound to ^ pound and sometimes *4 pound 
of powder per cubic yard. Drilling with a churn driller 
costs from 12 to iScenis per foot of hole bored. Upon 
these data, Mr. Rigly estimates the total cost, per cubic 
yard of rock in place, for loosening and removing by wheel- 
barrow (labor assumed at $i per day of 10 hours), as fol- 
lows: When distance removed is 25 feet, total cost=$o. 537; 
when 50 feet, $0.549; when 100 feet, $0.573; when 2OO<eet, 
$0.622; when 500 feet, $0.768; when 1,000 feet, $1.011; and 
when i, 800 feet, $1.401. This is exclusive of Contractor's 
profit. ^ 

When labor is $1.25 per day, add 25 per cent, to the cost 
prices given; when $1.50 per day, add 50 per cent, and so 
on. In hauling by cart, the cost of loading, which will be 
about 8 cents per cubic yard of rock in place, and the addi- 
tional expense of maintaining the road must be added. 
Allowing, then, 851 pounds as a cart-load, the total cost per 
cubic yard is estimated, when removed 25 feet, at $0.596; 
when 50 feet, $0.599; when 100 feet, $0.605; when 200 feet, 
$0.617; when 500 feet, $0.655; when 1,000 feet, $0.717; and 
when j, 800 feet, $0.94. 

IRON BRICK. 

It is reported that the German Government testing labor- 
atory for building materials has reported favorably on a new 
paving-block called iron brick. This brick is made by mix- 
ing equal parts of finely-ground clay, and adding 5 per cent, 
of iron ore. This mixture is moistened with a solution of 25 
per cent, sulphate of iron, to which fine iron ore is added 
until it shows a consistency of 38 degrees Baume. It is then 
formed in a press, dried, dipped once more in a nearly con- 
centrated solution of sulphate of iron and finely ground iron 
ore, and is baked in an oven for 48 hours in an oxidizing 
flame, and 24 hours in a reducing flame- 



429 
DRY ROT IN TIMBER. 

No wood which is liable to damp, or has at any time 
absorbed moisture, and is in contact with stagnant air, so 
that the moisture cannot evaporate, can be considered safe 
from the attack of dry rot. 

Any impervious substance applied to wood, which is not 
thoroughly dry, tends to engender decay ; floors covered 
with kamptulicon and laid over brick arching before the 
latter was dry ; cement dado to wood partition, the water 
expelled from dado in setting, and absorbed by the wood, 
had no means of evaporation. 

Woodwork coated with paint or tar before thoroughly 
dry and well seasoned, is liable to decay, as the moisture is 
imprisoned. 

Skirtings and wall paneling very subject to dry rot, and 
especially window backs, for the space between woodwork 
and the wall is occupied by stagnant air ; the former absorbs 
moisture from the wall (especially if it has been fixed before 
the wall was dry after building), and the paint or varnish 
prevents the moisture from evaporating into the room. 
Skirting, etc., thus form excellent channels for the spread of 
the fungus. ^ 

Plaster seems to be sufficiently porous to allow the 
evaporation of water through it ; hence, probably, the space 
between ceiling and floor is not so frequently attacked, if 
also the floor boards do not fit very accurately and no oil 
cloth covers the floor. 

Plowed and tongue floors are disadvantageous in cer- 
tain circumstances, as when placed over a space occupied 
by damp air, as they allow no air to pass between the boards, 
and so dry them. 

Beams may appear sound externally and be rotten 
within, for the outside, being in contact with the air, 
becomes dryer than the interior. It is well, therefore, to 
saw and reverse all large scantling. 

The ends of all timber, and especially of large beams, 
should be free (for it is through the ends that moisture 
chiefly evaporates). They should on no account be imbed- 
ded in mortar. 

Inferior and ill-seasoned timber is evidently to be 
avoided. * 

Whatever insures dampness and lack of evaporation is 
conducive to dry-rot, that is to say, dampness arising from 
the soil ; dampness arising from walls, especially if the 
damp-proof course has been omitted ; dampness arising 



430 

from use of salt sand ; dampness arising from drying of mor- 
tar and cement. 

Stagnation of air resulting from air grids get ting blocked 
with dirt or being purposely blocked through ignorance. 
Stagnation may exist under a floor although there are grids 
in the opposite walls, for it is difficult to induce the air to 
move in a horizontal- direction without some special means 
of suction. Corners of stagnant air are to be guarded 
against. 

Darkness assists the development of fungus ; whatever 
increases the temperature of the wood and stagnant air 
(within limits) also assists. 

PAINTING FLOORS. 

Colors containing white lead are injurious to wood floors, 
rendering them softer, and more liable to be worn away 
Paints containing mineral colors only, without white lead, 
such as yellow ochre, sienna or Venetian or Indian red, have 
no such tendency to act upon the floor, and may be used with 
safety. This quite agrees with the practice common in this 
country, of painting floors with yellow ochre or raw 
umber or sienna. Although these colors have little body, 
compared with the white-lead paint, and need several coals, 
they form an excellent and very durable covering for the 
floor. Where a floor is to be varnished, it is found that var- 
nish made by drying lead salts is nearly as injurious as lead 
paint. Instead of this, the borate of manganese should be 
used to dispose the varnish to dry, and a recipe for a good 
floor varnish is given. According to this, two pounds of pure 
white borate of manganese, pounded very fine, are to be 
added, little by little, to a saucepan containing ten pounds of 
linseed oil, which is to be well stirred, and gradually raised to 
a temperature of three hundred and sixty degrees Fahren- 
heit. Meanwhile, heat one hundred pounds linseed oil in a 
boiler until bubbles form ; then add to it slowly the first 
liquid, increase the fire, and allow the whole to cook for 
twenty minutes, and finally remove from the fire, and filter 
while warm through cotton cloth The varnish is then 
ready, and can be used immediately. Two coats should be 
used, and a more brilliant surface may be obtained by a final 
coat of shellac. 



The railroads consume half of the coal used in this country. 



431 
COLD WATER SUPPLY PIPES. 

The following matter, in catechetical form, illustrates 
the teachings of the New York Trades Schools in this con- 
nection : 

I. What size should the pipe from the street main to 
the house be ? 

A. The supply pipes of New York average about i % to 
i\4 inches in diameter. 

2. What material is used for this pipe in New York ? 
K Mostly lead pipes. 

3. r^hat other materials, besides lead, are used for sup- 
ply pipes ? 

A. Galvanized iron, ^rass, and tin-lined lead pipes. 

4. How is iron used? 

A. Plain, galvanized, and linecc ;nth tin or glass. 

5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of lead 
pipes ? 

A. Advantages are its ductility, strength, am* easiness 
of working, also its durability. Disadvantages are a^/.^er 
of poisoning the water, and of being eaten by rats. 

6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of plain 
iron pipe ? 

A. Advantages are cheapness, easiness of putting to- 
gether, and freedom from poisoning. Disadvantages are 
rusting, and filling up of pipes. 

7.- What are the advantages and disadvantages of tin- 
lined pipes ? 

A. Advantage is in its freedom from poisoning water. 
Disadvantage in not being durable for hot -water pipes. 

8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of glass- 
lined pipe ? 

A. Glass-lined pipe makes an excellent water pipe, but 
is liable to break in working and putting up. 

9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of gal- 
vanized iron pipe ? 

A. Galvanized iron pipe is cheap and free from rust, 
but some water decomposes zinc, and its salts are poison- 
ous. 

10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 
brass pipe? 

A. When brass pipe is lined with tin it is very light 
and strong; but, when the tin wears off, there is danger of 
poisoning the water. 

ii. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 
block-tin pipe? 



432 

A. They are not durable for hot water, and are very 
expensive. 

12. What are the advantages and disadvantages of tin- 
lined lead pipe ? 

A. They are not durable. 

13. In using tin-lined lead pipe, what must be guarded 
against? 

A. The lining must not be disturbed or the tin melted 
out. " 

14. How should the supply pipe be connected with 
street mains? 

A. By a brass tap and coupling. 

15. How should a lead pipe be joined to an iron pipe? 

A. By a brass spud or soldering nipple. 

16. Should the supply pipe be* so arranged that it can 
be emptied? and why? 

A. Yes. To prevent freezing, and the waterjfrom stag- 
nating in the pipe. 

17. What precaution can be taken against freezing if 
the main is within three feet of surface? 

A. By bending the pipe a few feet lower at the main, 
and continuing the pipe at the lower level. 

18. In crossing an area with a supply pipe, what precau- 
tion should be taken? 

A. Cover the pipe with felt, or put it in a box filled with 
saw-dust, to prevent freezing? 

19. What is gained by putting a supply pipe from street 
main to house in a larger iron pipe? 

A. The air in a larger iron pipe protects the supply, 
and steam can be injected to thaw pipe if it freezes. 

20. How can water supply be increased after service 
pipe enters house? 

A. The flow of water can be greatly assisted by using a 
larger pipe after entering the house. 

21. Is there any way to arrange a pipe so that drawing 
water from a lower floor will not stop or retard the flow 
from upper floors ? 

A. The best way would be to proportion branches on 
different floors according to pressure ; the smaller the press- 
ure the larger the outlet. 

22. Suppose a three-story house had a % tap from main 
to house, and connected from this tap to top of boiler with 
a. 1/4 inch pipe ; what size should the branch pipes to base- 
ment fixtures be ? 

A. One-half to five-eighths should be large enough. 

23. The parlor floor contains a pantry sink, a wash- 



433 

basin and a water-closet ; how large should the supply pipe 
from basement to parlor floor be ? 

A. About I inch in diameter. 

24. How large the branch pipes to fixtures ? 

A. l /z to y% in diameter, 

25. The second floor contains a bath, two Avater-closcts 
and five wash-basins ; how large should the pipe from par- 
lor to second floor be ? 

A. About I inch in diameter. 

26. How large should the pipe from basement t<. tank 
be? 

A. About i% hich in diameter. 

27. In a building of six or more stories in height \vifcN 
cold water supply drawn from tank on upper r ,oors, dj.as 
any difficulty occur ? 

A. Yes. On the lower floors the pressure i : too gresj. 

28. How can it be remedied ? 

A. By diminishing branch pipes to give a y-roportional 
supply. 

29. Can supply pipe be so arranged tha> water can be 
drawn from the main or from tank? 

A. Yes. By using a special stop-co'\ for the pur- 
pose. 

30. What precautions should be tak</ . to prevent pipes 
freezing ? 

A. By placing as far from frost as possible, and by 
proper boxing and felting. 

31. Why are pipes liable to burst when they freeze ? 

A. The expansion expands the pipes, and, consequently, 
they burst. 

32. What is the expanding pressure of freezing water ? 

A. Thirty thousand pounds to the square inch. 

33. What means are taken to thaw out a service-pipe ? 

A. The application of heat externally or steam and hot 
water internally is about the best means. 

34. Is the external application of heat objectionable 
with iron pipes ? 

A. 'Yes ; as the sudden contraction is as dangerous as 
the expansion. 

35. In carrying supply pipes across a floor, what pre- 
caution can be taken to protect ceiling below from a leak ? 

A. By putting pipes in a box lined with lead, and hav- 
ing a waste, or tell-tale, pipe at lowest point. 

36. Does fresh mortar injure lead pipes ? 

A. As the lime in fresh mortar is corrosive and forms a 
soluble compound, it is an injury to lead pipes. 



434 
PRESSURES ON TANKS. 

Q. In a full cubical tank, what is the pressure on any 
Vertical side ? 

A. One-half the weight of the contents. 

Q.' In a full conical vessel standing on its base, what is 
the pressure on the tmse ? 

A. Three times the we?gLt rf the contents. 

Q. In a hollow sphere, full of liquitr, \ Vrt ^: * ixe press- 
ure on the surface of the lower half ? 

A. Three times the weight of contents. 

TINNING BY SIMPLE IMMERSION. 

Argentine is a name given to tin precipitated by gal- 
vanic action from its solution. This material is usually ob- 
tained by immersing plates of zinc in a solution of tin, con- 
taining 6 grammes (about 90 grains) of the metal to the litre 
(0.88). In this way tin scrap can be utilized. To apply the 
argentine according to M. P. Marino's process, a bath is 
prepared from argentine and acid tart rate of potash, ren- 
dered soluble by boric acid. Pyrophosphate of soda, chlo- 
ride of ammonium, or caustic soda may be substituted for the 
acid tartrate. The bath being prepared, the objects to be 
coated are plunged therein, first having been suitably pickled 
and scoured, and they may be subjected to the action of an 
electric current. But a simple immersion is enough. The 
bath for this must be brought to ebullition, and the objects 
of copper or brass, or coated therewith, may be immersed 
in it. 

HOW TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF STEAM-PIPE 
REQUIRED TO HEAT A BUILDING WITH 
STEAM. 

Rule for rinding the superficial feet of steam-pipe required 
to heat any building with steam : One superficial foot of 
steam-pipe to six superficial feet of glass in the windows, or 
one superficial foot of steam-pipe for every hundred square 
feet of wall, roof or ceiling, or one square foot of steam-pipe 
to eighty cubic feet of space. One cubic foot of boiler is 
required for every fifteen hundrtd cubic feet of space to be 
warmed. One horse-power boiler is sufficient for forty 
thousand cubic feet of space Five cubic feet of steam, at 
seventy-five pounds pressure to the sanare inch, wiohs one 
pound avoinl'"^" 



435 

SEASONING TIMBER. 

Timber, when freshly cut, contains -from thirty-seven to 
forty-eight per cent, of water, the kind, the age, and the 
season of vegetation go /e"iing the percentage. Older i/ood 
is generally heavier thai young wood, and the weight of 
wood cut in the active season is greater than that of wood 
cut in the dormant season. Water in wood is not chemically 
combined with the fib* -, and, when exposed to the atmos- 
phere, the moisture evaj orates. The wood becomes lighter 
until a certain point is reached in the drying-out process, 
after which it gains or loses in the weight according to the 
variations in the moisture and temperature of the atmos- 
phere. Following is a table showing the percentage in 
weight of water in round woods from young trees at different 
lengths of time after cutting : 
Kind of Wood. 6 mos. ^ 12 mos. 18 nios. 2411105. 

Beech 30.44 23.46 18.60 1 9-9S 

Oak 32.71 26.74 2o- 2 5 20.28 

Hornbeam 27.19 23.08 20.00 J 8-59 

Birch 39.72 29.01 22.73 19.52 

Poplar 40.45 26.22 17.77 I 79 2 

Fir 33.78 16.87 15.21 18.00 

Pine 41.70 18.67 15.^3 17.42 

According to these figures, taken from actual trials, there 
is nothing gained by keeping wood longer than eighteen 
months, so far as drying or seasoning is concerned. In the 
woods mentioned, there appears to be an actual loss in 
some, and only a slow gain in others after that length of 
time. The pine, fir, and beech gained moisture, and the 
others in the list lost only very slightly after the eighteen 
months had passed. 

PROPOSED GREAT ENGINEERING FEAT. 
A gigantic scheme has been proposed, by which the can- 
ons of the Rocky Mountains are to be dammed up from the 
Canadian boundary to Mexico, in order to form vast reser- 
voirs of water to be used in the irrigation of arid lands, and so 
prevent floods in the lower Mississippi. Major Powell, direc- 
tor of the national survey, estimates that at least 150,000 
square miles of land might thus be reclaimed a territory 
exceeding in extent one-half of the land now cultivated in the 
United States. The plan is to build dams across all the can- 
ons in the mountains large enough and strong enough to hold 
back the floods from heavy rains and melting snows, and then 
let the water down as it may be needed upon the land to be 
reclaimed. 



436 
oN THE USE OF GLUE. 

In order to use gl.w* successfully, says a writer of experi- 
ence, a great deal of ^vnerience is required, and it is useless 
for the amateur to try K ' j he will only spoil the work. So, 
unless the workman is\\^H experienced in the treatment 
and the application of the ftlue, he had better leave it alone 
entirely. To render' the op Cation successful, two consider- 
ations must be taken into account: First, to do good glu- 
ing requires that the timber be well seasoned and thoroughly 
ar /, taking care that the joints to be glued are well fitted. 
'jo^t^-.! 1 . hi preparing the parts to be glued, each piece should 
be scratched with a sharp file or piece of a fine saw, to 
make the glue hold better. The shop should be kept at a 
proper temperature, and the material heated so that the 
glue may flow quite freely. Having the glue properly pre- 
pared, spread it evenly upon the parts so as to fill up the 
pores and grain of the wood, then put the pieces together 
as rapidly as possible, using clamps and thumb-screws to 
draw the joints tightly together ; all superfluous glue should 
be washed off, taking great care not to use too much water, 
or allowing any to remain on the pieces put together. The 
greatest cause of bad gluing is in using inferior glue and 
in laying it on unevenly. Before using a new brand of glue 
it is safer to test it by gluing a piece of whitewood and 
ash together, clamping it with a thumb-screw, and, when 
dry, insert a chisel where it is put together, and, if the joint 
separates where it is glued, it is not fit to use, and should be 
rejected at once. The wood should split or give way rather 
than the substance promoting adhesion. This is a practi- 
cal and severe test, but it will pay to apply it, in the sta- 
bility of the work. 

GLUE PAINT FOR KITCHEN FLOOR. 

For a kitchen floor, especially one that is rough and 
uneven, the following glue paint is recommended : To three 
pounds of spruce yellow add one pound, or two pounds if 
desired, of dry white lead, and mix well together. Dissolve 
two ounces of glue in one quart of water, stirring often until 
smooth and nearly boiling. Thicken the glue water after the 
manner of mush, nntil it will spread smoothly upon the floor. 
Use a common paint brush and apply hot. This will fill all 
crevices of a rough floor. It will dry soon, and when dry 
apply boiled linseed oil with a clean brush. In a few hours 
it will be found dry enough to use by laying papers or mats to 
step on for a few days. WJ' *n it needs cleaning, use hot suds. 



EFFECT OF THE ATMOSPHERE ON BRICKS. 

Atmospheric i lilaence upon bricks, tiles and other build- 
ing materials obtained by the burning of plastic clays, 
depends very much on the chemical composition of the 
clays and on the degree of burning. Thus, any distinct por- 
tions of limestone present in them would be converted 
into quicklime in the kiln, and, when the bricks were thor- 
oughly wetted, would expand in such a manner as to disin- 
tegrate the mass. If the clay used is too poor that is to 
say, if it contains an excess of sand the bricks will not 
become sufficiently fused, ar.d. upon exposure to the weather, 
their constituent parts will separate. It is t.> be ob-erved 
that in bricks, as in stones, decomposition does not take 
place \vith the greatest rapidity where constant moisture 
exists, but rather where, from the absence of capillarity, 
variable according to the moisture furnished by the atmos- 
phere, either directly or indirectly, a series of alternatic^a 
of dryness and humidity prevail. 

Th foundation walls of buildings do noi in fact suffer so 
much in the parts immediately upon the ground as they do 
in those at a height of from one to three feet, according to the 
permeability of the materials employed. When bricks 
made of clay containing free silica are laid in mortar, and 
moisture can pass freely from either one or the other, it 
may be observed that the edges in contact become harder 
than the body of the bricks. No doubt this arises from 
the formation of a silicate of lime and alumina, the lime 
being furnished by the passage of the water through the bed 
of the mortar. 

THE GREAT EIFFEL TOWER. 
Oneof the principal features of interest at the Paris Ex- 
position is the Eiffel tower. It is constructed of iron, and rises 
^~ ft height of 984 feet. As the greatest height yet reached 
in any structure is that of the Washington monument, 550 
feet, some idea can be formed of the great distance upward 
that this tower will go. This tower weighs 7,000 tons, and 
cost 4,500,000 francs. One object of its construction is to 
light the Exposition grounds. The tower will be supplied 
with elevators, which will land passengers 971 feet from the 
earth. There is talk of supplying it with electric lights of 
19,000,000 candle power. Four such towers, with a capacity 
of 50,000,000 each, it is thought, would light the whole city 
of Paris. Perhaps this tower will decide the question 
whether or not it is possible to light an entire city from a 
few points, if not from one. 



43* 
ROT IN TIMBER. 

The principal cause of the lack of proper durability of 
timber in buildings is the porosity of the lumber used and 
the consequent liability to absorb moisture. Coarse-grained 
woods of quick growth are more liable to this defect than 
those of tough fiber and slow growth. When timber be- 
comes repeatedly wet and dry, it becomes brittle and weak- 
ened, or " its nature is gone," as the workmen say. Rot is 
of two kinds, wet and dry, and moisture . is the essential 
element in both cases, the only difference being that in the 
first the moisture is Quickly evaporated by exposure to the 
air, and in the latter, when there is no exposure, it produces 
a species of fungus and minute worms which eat in between 
the fibers, and gradually produce disintegration. Sap wood 
is more perishable than heart wood, for the former contains 
more of the saccharine, principle, and renders the wood liable 
to a fermentive action. 

The prevalent practice of confining unseasoned timber by 
building it close into walls, thus preventing the ready evap- 
oration of whatever moisture happens to get to it, is a bad 
one. The ends of the wood, especially, should be sur- 
rounded by an open-air space, however.small, as it is the ends 
where the dampness is most liable to penetrate into the 
structure of the wood. It is a well-known fact that a log of 
green timber, when kept immersed, will become water-logged 
and sink, and, of course, become unfit for use afterward. 
The same process, only slower, applies when it is exposed 
to damp with no facilities for rapid evaporation. Quick- 
lime, when assisted by moisture, is a powerful aid in hasten- 
ing decomposition, in consequence of its affinity for carbon. 
Miid lime has not this effect, but mortar, as used in build- 
ings, requires a considerable length of time to become inert 
in its action as a corroding agent ; therefore bedding timber 
in damp mortar is very injurious, and often the cause of un- 
accountable decay. Wood, in a dry state, does not seem to 
be injured by contact with dry lime, it being rather a preser- 
vative. An example of this is shown in lathing covered with 
plaster, which often retains its original strength when sur- 
rounding timbers are completely rotted away. 

Anything that will hinder the absorbing process will ex- 
tend the life of a wood, such as a coating of tar, paint, or a 
charring of the surface. The latter method will prove the 
most effective, if sufficiently deep, as the charred coating is 
practically indestructible, closes the pores of the wood, and 
will prevent the bursting into flame in case of a fire. If all 



439 



joists, girders and inside beams of every kind were treated 
to a superficial charring process, it would tend, in conjuno 
tion with fire-proof paint applied to outside finishing work, 
to make a building as nearly fire-proof as wood in any con- 
dition will allow. 



NUMBER OF BRICKS REQUIRED TO 
CONSTRUCT A BUILDING. 



Superficial 
feet of 
Wall. 


Number of Bricks to Thickness of 


4 Inch 


8 Inch 


12 Inch 


i 6 Inch 


2O Inch 


24 Inch 


i 

2 

3 


7 
15 

23 
30 

38 
45 



68 
75 
I S 
225 
300 
375 
45 
525 
600 

675 
750 
1,500 
2,250 
3,000 


15 

30 

45 

5? 

75 
90 

I0 5 

120 
135 

1 5 
300 

45 
600 

75 

QOO 
I,O5O 

1,200 
1,350 
1,500 
3,OOO 
4,500 
6,OOO 


22 

45 
68 
90 

"3 

i35 
158 
i So 
203 
225 
45o 
<-75 
900 
1,125 
i ? 35o 

1.575 

i, 800 

2,025 
2,250 
4,500 
6,75o 
9,000 


29 37 
60 75 
90 113 

120 150 

150 1 88 
1 80! 225 

2IO 263 

240 300 

270 338 

300 375 
600 750 
900 1,125 

1,2OO ; I,5OO 
1,5OO 1,875 
I, 00 2,250 
2, IOO 2,625 
2,4OO 3,OOO 
2,/Oo! 3.375 

3,000 3,750 
6,000 7,500 
9,000 11,250 
12,000! 15,000 


45 
90 

& 

22$ 
270 

315 
3 60 

405 
450 
900 
1.350 
1, 800 
2,250 
2,700 
3>I50 
3,600 
4,050 
4,500 
9,OOO 
13>500 
l8,OOO 


A 


t 


I::;:::: 


7 


8 


9 


10 . . 


20 
30 


40 


50 


60. .. 


70 .. . . 


80 ... 


QO . 


IOO 


2OO 


3OO 


4OO 





Sycamore is being introduced quite extensively for interior 

finish. When properly selected it makes a very handsome 
finish. Care should be taken in securing it, rs it is nearly as 
bad to warp as elm. It should be well backed with P' r 
spruce or hemlock. 



440 
FIRE-PROOFING WOODWORK. 

A door of the right construction to resist fire should be 
made of good pine, and should be of two or more thicknesses 
of matched boards nailed across each other, either at right 
angles or at forty-five degrees. If the doorway be more 
than seven feet by four feet, it would be better to use three 
thicknesses of same stuff; in other words, the door should 
be of a thickness proportioned to its area. Such a door 
should always be made to shut into a rabbet, or flush with 
the wall when practicable ; or, if it is a slide door, then it 
should be made to shut into or behind a jamb, which would 
press it up against the wall. Both sides of the door and its 
jambs, if of wood, should then be sheathed with tin, the 
plates being locked at joints, and securely nailed under the 
locking with nails at least one inch long. No air spaces 
should be left in a door by paneling or otherwise, as the door 
will resist best that has the most solid material i:i it. In 
most places it is much better to fit the door upon inclined 
metal sliders than upon hinges. 

*5 This kind of door miy b 2 fitted with automatic appliances, 
so that it will close of itself when subjected to the heat of a 
fire ; but these appliances do not interfere with the ordinary 
methods of opening and shutting the door. They only 
constitute a safegard against negligence. The construction 
of shutters varies from that of doors only in the use of 
thinner wood. 

Under this heading may be classed all the doors of iron, 
whether sheet, plate, cast or rolled, single, double or hollow, 
plain or corrugated, none of which are capable of resisting 
fire for any length of time ; also wooden doors covered with 
tin on one side only, or covered with zinc, which melts at 
700 degrees Fahrenheit, 

The wooden door covered with tin only serves its pur- 
pose when the wood is wholly encased in tin, put on in such 
a way that no air, or the minimum of air, can reach the 
wood when it is exposed to the heat of a fire. Under these 
conditions, the surface of the wood is converted into char- 
coal ; charcoal being a non-conductor of heat, itself tends to 
retard the further combustion of the wood. But, if air 
penetrates the tin casing in any measure, the charcoal first 
made, and then the wood itself, are both consumed, and the 
door is destroyed. In like manner, if a door is tinned only 
only on one side, as soon as the heat suffices to convert the 
surface of the wood under the tin and next to the fire into 
charcoal, the oxygen reaches it from the outside, and the 
door is ef little more value than a thin door of iron, or plain 

" 



441 

DIMENSIONS OF THE MOST IMPORTANT OF 
THE GRE-AT CATHEDRALS. 

Length, Breadth, Height, 

feet. feet. feet. 

St. Peter's 613 450 438 

St. Paul's 500 248 404 

Duomo 555 240 375 

Notre Dame 416 153 298 

Cologne 444 283 

Toledo 395 178 ... 

Rheinu.; 480 163 117 

Rouen 469 146 465 

Chartres 430 150 373 

Antwerp 384 171 402 

Strasbourg 525 195 465 

Milan 477 186 360 

Canterbury 530 154 235 

York 524 261 

Winchester 554 208 

Durham 411 170 214 

Ely-. 617 .78 

Salisbury 473 229 279 

SUGGESTIONS FOR COLORS. 

In forms, tints, and colors the ocean depths supply valu- 
able decorative suggestions. On silverware the iridescent 
hues of tropical shells are skillfully reproduced, and on 
ceramic ware their fascinating combinations of tints and the 
gradations of these shells have been too much hidden away in 
cabinets, instead of being studied by designers for their ele- 
gant curvatures and attractive colors. The delicate -and 
varied hues of the sea anemone, and the curves, volutes and 
flowing lines of the univalves and bivalves are worthy of 
patient stud/ with reference to graceful and fanciful orna- 
mentation. 

REMOVAL OF OLD VARNISH. 
A Mr. Myer has just patented, in Germany, a composi- 
tion for removing old varnish from objects. It is obtained 
by mixing five parts of 36 per cent, silicate of potash, one of 
40 per cent, soda lye, and one of sal ammoniac (hydrochlor- 
ate of ammonia). 



44 2 
DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF INCHES, FEET AND YARDS. 



Frac 




Dec. 


Dec. 


In 




Feet. 


Yds. 


of an 




of an 


of a 




= 


0833 = 


.0277 


Inch. 




Inch. 


Foot. 


2 


= 


.1666 = 


555 


1-16 


= 


.0625 = 


.00521 


3 


= 


25 = 


.0833 


1 A 


= 


.125 = 


.01041 


4 


= 


33^3 == 


.mi 


3-i6 


= 


1875 = 


.01562 


5 


= 


.4166 = 


.1389 


X 


= 


.25 = 


.02083 


6 


= 


5 = 


.1666 


5-i6 


= 


3125 = 


.02604 


7 


S3* 


5833 


.1944 


y* 


= 


375 = 


03125 


8 


= 


.666 = 


.2222 


7-16 


= 


4375 = 


03645 


9 


= 


75 == 


25 





= 


5 


.04166 


10 


= 


8333 = 


.2778 


9-16 


= 


5625 = 


04688 


ii 


= 


.9166 == 


3055 


# 


= 


.625 = 


.05208 


12 


= 


i. = 


3333 


11-16 


= 


.6875 = 


.05729 










* 


= 


75 = 


.06250 










13-16 


= 


.8125 = 


.06771 










g 


= 


8/5 = 


.07291 











DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF OUNCES AND POUNDS. 



Oz. 


Lb>. 


Oz. 


Lbs. [ 


Oz. 


Lbs. 


l /4 = 


.015625 


4 = 


2 5 


8 l /2 


= -5313 


y* = 


03125 


4K = 


.2813 


9 


= -S625 


H = 


.046875 


5 - 


3!25 


IO 


==625 




.0625 


5K = 


3438 


II 


= .6875 


i^ = 


09375 


6 = 


375 


12 


= -75 


2 = 


.125 


6% == 


.4063 


13 


= -8125 


2*/ 2 = 


.15625 


7 = 


4375 


H 


= .875 


3 = 


.1875 


7K = 


.4688 


15 


= -9375 


3^ = 


.21875 


8 = 


5 ! 


16 





1ECTS. 

A person following the occupation of forming plans, draw- 
ings and specifications for building purposes, representing 
himself as an architect, is presumed in law not only as being 
such, but to be learned in the profession. 

If there is any obscurity in the drawings and specifications, 
the contractor should apply to the architect for directions, or 
be liable for the consequences. 

There is no fixed rule as to compensation of architects in 
the United States law. 

The architect's contract does not survive to his represent- 
ative. So, if there is a contract to complete certain work 



443 

for a certain sum, the representative of a deceus ..'; 
cannot recover for the part performance. 

In Competitions it should always be made clearly under- 
stood that the drawings, etc., are subject to approval, for 
otherwise the party receiving them will be liable fir their 
value, whether used or not. 

An architect has not the right to substitute another per- 
son in h's stead. 

If the architect frau lulently or capriciously ie"uses t-> give 
proper certificates when required, the buiVIer may maintain 
an action for specific performance or against the architect for 
damages. 

PRESERVATION OK WOOD l;V L1MK. 

I have for many years bee i in the habit of preparing 
home-grown timber of the inferior sort of fir Scotch spruce 
and silver by s f eeping it in a tank (that is, a ho'ed'igin 
clay or peat, which was fairly water tight) MI a satura'ed s >Iu- 
tion of lime. Its effect on the sap- WOOL: is to s-> ) a.'-den it 
and fill it with pores that it perfectly resists the attacl.s of the 
little wood-boring beetle, and makes it, in fact, e-]ua'!y as dura- 
ble as the made wood. I had a mill which was lofted with 
Scotch fir prepared in this way in 1850, and it is in per r ect 
preservation. The timber is packed as closely as it will lie in the 
tank, water is let in, and unslacked lime is thrown on the top 
and well stirred about. There is no danger that the solution 
Will not find its way to everything in the tank. I leave the 
wood in the solution for two or three months, by the < n I of 
which time an inch board will be fully permeated by it. Joists 
and beams would, of course, take a longer time for saturation ; 
but, in practice, we find that the protection afforded by two 
or three months' steeping is sufficient, if the scantlings are cut 
to the sizes at which they are to be used. 

A VERY DURABLE WOOD. 

The interesting fact is stated that so indestructible by 
wear or decay is the African teak wood that vessels built of it 
have lasted one hundred years, to be then only broken up 
because of their poor sailing qualities from faulty models. 
The wood, in fact, is one of the most remarkable known, or 
account of its very great weight, hardness and durability, its 
weight varying from forty-two to fifty-two pounds per cubic 
foot. It works easily, but, on account of the larue quantity 
of silex contained in it, the tools employed are quickly worn 
away. It also contains oil, which prevents spikes and other 
iron work, with which it comes in contact, from rusting. 



444 
HOW TO BUILD AN ICE HOUSE. 

I. The ice house floor should be above the level of the 
ground, or, at least, should be above some neighboring area 
to give an outfall for a drain, put in such a way as to keep 
the floor clear of standing water. 

2. The walls should b,? hollow. A four inch lining-wall, 
tied to the outer wall with hoop iron, and with a three-inch 
air space, would answer ; but it would be better, if the air 
space is thoroughly drained, to fill it with mineral wool, or 
some similar substance, to prevent the movement of the air 
entangled in the fibers, and thus check the transference by 
convection of heat from the outside of the lining wall. 

3. A roof of thick p'ank will keep out heat far better 
than one of thin boards with an air space under it. 

4. Shingles will be much better for roofing than slate. 

5- It is best to ventilate the upper portion of the build- 
ing. If no ventilation is provided, the confined air under 
the roof becomes intensely heated in summer ; and outlets 
should be provided, at the highest part, with inlets at con- 
venient points, to keep the temperature of the air ove*' the 
ice at least down to that of the exterior atmosphere. 

TESTING EXTERIOR STAINS. 

Since the use of stains for exterior work became so gen- 
eral, several stains, some good and some bad, have appeared 
on the market, so that a few points on estimating their com- 
parative values may not be amiss. 

The nose, and, to a less degree, the eye, are admirable 
allies for this work, but, unassisted, are not infallible. The 
following is about the simplest method of testing : 

1. Search for kerosene by warming, and then noting the 
smell. Als >, note the thinness 1 and lack of covering power 
which kerosene causes. Kerosene is simply a cheapener. 

2. See how fine it brushes out on a smooth shingle. 
There should not be the slightest grit or any perceptible 
grains of pigment, the presence of which will prove that the 
coloring was mixed dry with the vehicle, and w^as never 
ground fine. 

3- Pour out some of the stain in a tumbler. If it begins 
to settle at once, except in the case of a chrome yellow or 
/green, it is made r.s above stated, by mixing a dry paint with 
the vehicle, and therefore should be avoided. 

A well-ground oil stain tested in this way held up a whole 
day, and a creosote stain a day and a half. 

Of course, when debating between two stains, it is best 



445 

to try them side by side. In such case the comparative color- 
strength may be determined by diluting equal quantities of 
both stains at about the same shade, with equal quantities of 
turpentine, and then applying the diluted colors to wood, and 
noting the depth of the color. One part of stain to ten parts 
of turpentine is a good strength. 

HOW TO PREPARE CALCIMINE 

Soak one pound of white glue over night; then dissolve 
it in boiling water, and add twenty pounds of Paris white, 
diluting with water until the mixture is of the consistency 
of rich milk. To this anv tint can be given that is de- 
sired. 

Lilac Add to the calcimine two parts of Prussian blue 
and one of vermilion, stirring thoroughly, and taking care to 
avoid too high a color. 

Gray Raw umber, with a trilling amount of lamp- 
black. 

Rose Three parts of vermilion and one of red lead, 
added in very small quantities until a delicate shade is pro- 
duced. 

Lavender Mix a light blue, and tint it slightly with 
vermilion. 

Sfra r v Chrome yellow, with a touch of Spanish brown. 

Buff Two parts spruce, or Indian yellow, raid one part 
burnt sienna. 

HOW BASSWOOD MOLDINGS ARE MADE. 

Bass wood may be enormously compressed, after which it 
may be steamed and expanded to its original volume. Advan- 
tage has been taken of this piinciple in the manufacture of 
certain kinds of moldings. The portions of the wood to be 
left in relief are first compressed or pushed down by suitable 
dies below the general level of the board, then the board is 
planed down to a level surface, and afterward steamed. The 
compressed portions of the board are expanded by the steam, 
""o that they stand out in relief. 

BUILDING BLOCKS MADE OF CORNCOIJS. 

Building blocks made of corncobs form the object of a 
new Italian patent. The cobs are pressed by machinery into 
forms similar to bricks, and held together by wire. They are 
made water-tight by soaking with tar. These molds are very 
hard and strong. Their weight is less than one-third of that 
of hollow brick, and they can never get damp. 



44 6 
RED V. 001) FINISH. 

The following formula a*d directions Lave been highly 
recommended. 

Take one quart spirits turpv. \tine. 

Add one pound corn starch. 

Add % " burnt sienna. 

Add one tablespoonful raw linseAl oil. 

Add " *' brown Jaj.\ n. 

Mix thoroughly, apply with a bnu\\ let it stand say fif- 
teen minutes; rub off all you can with -fine shavings or a soft 
rag, then let it stand at least twenty-fonr hours, that it may 
sink into and harden the fibers of the wood; afterward apply 
two coats of white shellac, rub down w^l with fine flint 
paper, then put on from two to five coats bt*t polishing var- 
nish; afier it is well dried, rub with water ami pumice-stone 
ground very fine, stand a day to dry; after being washed 
clean with chamois, rub with water and rotten-stone; dry, 
wash as before clean, and rub with olive oil unti! dry. 

Some use cork for sand-papering and polishing, but a 
smooth block of hard wood, like maple, is better. When 
treated in this way, redwood will be found the peer of any 
wood for real beauty and life as a house trim or finish. 

A NEW WALL PLASTER. 

A new material for use instead of common plaster is- ow 
prepared, which offers many advantages, as it can be apj vd 
more quickly, and dries in less than twenty-four hours. It 
is impervious to dampness, and there is no possibility of the 
window and door casings contracting or swelling and causing 
cracks, as very little water is required in the mixing. It is 
known as" Adamant " wall-plaster, and deserves its name, as, 
when once dry, it is very hard to- break. From a sanitary 
point of view, it is also valuable, as it is non-absorbent. 

A RELIABLE CEMENT. 

A reliable cement, one that will resist the action of 
water and acids, especially acetic acid, is : Finely powdered 
litharge, fine, dry white sand and plaster of Paris each 
three quarts by measure finely pulverized resin one part. 
Mix ar,d make into a paste with boiled linseed oil, to which 
a little dryer has been added, and let it stand for four or five 
hours before using. After fifteen hows' standing, it loses 
Strength. The cement is said to ha\v bcvn successfully used 
in Zoological Gardens, London. 



447 
PAVEMENTS. 

Bricks, impregnated at a warm temperature with as- 
phaltiun, have been successfully used in Berlin, for street 
pavement. After driving out the water with heat, bricks 
will take up from fifteen to thirty per centum of bitumen, 
and the porous, brittle material becomes durable and elastic 
under pressure, the bricks are then put endwise on a beton 
bed, and set with hot tar. It is said that the rough usage 
which the pavement made of these bricks will stand is aston- 
ishing. A fe\v yenrs ago, in California, a pavement was laid 
of bricks, those tint were soft-burned being selected, which 
were sat Ufa ted with boiling coal tar. They were placed end- 
wise on a bed of concrete, and the interstices filled with the 
hot tar. sind being scattered to the depth of about one-half 
(^2) inch upon the pavement, and afterward swept off. And 
now we learn from an exchange that bricks impregnated 
with creosote or bitumen have been adopted for paving pur- 
poses in Nashville, Term., and with very satisfactory results. 
The wear is very uniform, as the softer and more porous 
bricks absorb more bitumen, which has the effect of harden- 
ing them, at tlri same time making them absolutely imper- 
vious, and thus protecting them from the disintegrating effect 
of frost. It is stated that pavement of this type, exposed 
for three and a half (3^) years to the wear of fairly heavy 
traffic, was. at the end of that period, found to be in excel- 
lent condition. The process of bitumenizing, however, 
rather more than doubles the cost of the brick. 

A POLISH FOR WOOD. 

The wooden parts of tools, such as the stocks of planes 
and handles of chisels, are often made to have a nice appear- 
ance by Freivjh pol ; shing ; but th's adds nothing to their 
durability. A much better plan is to let them soak in lin- 
seed oil for a week, and rub with a new cloth for a few min- 
utes every day for a week or two. This produces a beauti- 
ful surface, and has a solidifying effect on the wood. 

TO CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF SHINGLES 
FOR A ROOF. 

To calculate number of shingles for a roof, ascertain num- 
ber of square feet, and multiply by four, if two inches to 
weather, 8 for 4^ inches; and 7 1-5 if 5 inches are exposed. 
The length of a rafter of one third pitch is equal to three- 
fifths of width of building, adding projection. 



VALUABLE FIGURES. 

The following figures are wortfi remembering, as they 
will save a good deal of calculation and give approximately 
accurate results with a minimum of labor : 

A cord of stone, three bushels of lime and a cubic yard 
of sand, will lay one hundred cubic feet of wall. 

Five courses of brick will lay a foot in height on a 
chimney. 

Nine bricks in a course will make a flue eight inches wide 
and twenty inches long, and eight bricks in a course will 
make a flue eight inches wide and sixteen inches long. 

Eight bushels of good lime, sixteen bushels of sand 
and one bushel of hair, will make enough mortar to plaster 
one hundred square yards. 

One-fifth more siding and flooring is needed than the 
number of square feet of surface to be covered, because of the 
lap in the siding and matching of the floor. 

One thousand laths will cover seventy yards of surface, 
and- eleven pounds of lath nails will nail them on. 

One thousand shingles laid four inches to the weather, 
will cover one hundred square feet of surface, and five pounds 
of shingle nails will fasten them on. 

FROSTED GLASS. 

Verre Givre, or hoar frost glass, is an article now made 
in Paris, so called from the pattern upon it, which resembles 
the feathery forms traced by frost on the inside of the win- 
dows in cold weather. The process of making the glass is 
simple. 

The surface is first ground, either by the sand blast or 
the ordinary method, and is then covered with a sort of 
varnish. On being dried, either in the sun or by artificial 
heat, the vainish contracts strongly, taking with it the parti- 
cles of glass to which it adheres ; and, as the contraction 
takes place along definite lines, the pattern produced by the 
removal of the particles of glass resembles very closely the 
branching crystals of frostwork. 

A single coat gives a small, delicate effect, while a thick 
film, formed by putting on two, three or more coats, con- 
tracts so strongly as to produce a large and bold design. By 
using colored glass, a pattern in half-tint may be made on the 
color eel ground, and, after decorating white glass, the back 
may be silvered or gilded. 



449 
PERFECT MITERING. 

BY OWEN B. MAGINNIS. 

The many awkward ways in which so many woodworking 
mechanics endeavor to mark and cut in soft and hard wood 
moldings, and the botching results of their efforts, has in- 
duced the writer to give the following simple and successful 
methods which are perfect in their accuracy. 

The different conditions which exist through the careless- 
ness of those who precede him, when an operator commences 
to set in his molding, often cause him much trouble and loss 
of patience, as for instance, a molding being run standing on 
the little rebated lip or a raised molding being out of square, 
or an obtuse angle, instead of a little tinder^ or an acute 
angle. This will of course necessitate, either the re-rebating 
of the molding by hand, or taking the arris of the corner of 
the panel sinkage as shown at A. Fig. i. Then the molding 




FIG. i. 

is often stuck too thin for sinkage, as will be clearly seen on 
the left hand side of the panel at B, and again the surface of 
the door, on account of the inequalities of the thickness of 
the pieces, especially on the back side, often varies as much 
as i J g of an inch. This difficulty is easily overcome by the 
following sure process. 

Take a small strip, and, placing the end of it down in the 
corner, mark the arrises with a sharp pocket knife. Measure 
these depths; in the case shown here they will be, for exam- 
ple, respectively, ^-inch, ^-inch, -jJg-inch, full, ^-inch full, 
and ^-inch, scant. Having done this, make 4 strips, or saddles, 



450 

equal in width to the different depths of thesinkage, as j^-inch 
wide, ^fg wide, and so on, each being about %-inch thick and 
long enough to go into the miter box between the saw cuts. 







FIG. 2. 

Plac? it in the box as represented at Fig. 2, with the lip of 
the molding resting on the saddle as it will rest on the door- 
frame, at the miter and saw the left-hand end (say on the ^ 
scant saddle): To get the neat and exact length without 
gauging on the door. From the point where the saw crosses 
the saddle at Fig. 3, square across the bottom of the box 
with the Den-knife. These lines are the neat and exact 
lengths for either end, so if the thin edge B, Figs, i and 3, 
of the molding, be marked at the opposite arris, holding the 
already mitered end close into its corners and then this 
mark be placed at the asterisk or intersection, and the 
molding sawn on the saddle necessary for the opposite cor- 
ner (say l / 2 full saddle), and so on all around the panel, it 
will, if cut out of one piece, perfectly utersect in its profile, 
*he lip will come to a close joint on the frame, and the thin 
sdge close to the panel. The dotted line in Fig. 3 shows 
now the molding should be neld down in the box. The best 
way is tolry a pair of pattern pieces as shown at Fig. I (on 
the nedBRry saddle), trying the patterns in each corner. 









r 




? miMft 




' 1 


2, T -+ n 




1 


x y - 1 



Fig. 3- 

By this means it will be easy to find the exact saddle which 
will bring a good miter. Be sure they will come right 
tbefore commencing to cut the molding all round. If it be 
too thick for the sinkage, of course it must be planed down 
on the back until it is a shaving thin, so that it will not strike 
the fillet, but press closely on the panel. 

Great care should be exercised in cutting die miter box, as 



451 

perfect mitering is almost reliant on a good box, cut exactly 
on the angle of forty-five degrees. To set the level, lay ot 
a square on a drawing-board about four inches wide. Join 
the opposite angles like at Fig. 4 (be certain it is exact to a 
hair, or the bevel will not reverse itself). Place the bevel on*> 
to the lines joining the angles as it lies on the board and 
mark the miter box by it. This is the only perfect way to 
miter and cut in raised moldings, and will always, without 
error, assure accuracy and good mitering. 

Fig. 4. 




Mitering flush molding or molding which does not rise 
above the surface of the frame is comparatively simple, and 
is usually done with a jack, except in the case of large mold- 
ing. All that is necessary is to first miter the left-hand end 
and mark the right hand. 

The handiest way is to commence at the right-hand 
corner next to you, and work to the farthest corner, and soon 
all round, returning to the one started from. Should the 
lengths, when placed in the panel before drawing down, be 
too long, take a rebate plane, shaving off until they be a snug^ 
tight fit. 

THE VENTILATION OF BUILDINGS. 

Perhaps no single feature of modern architectural construc- 
tion is likely to secure such immediate regard in the near 
future, and is already so conspicuously engaging the attention 
of the foremost men in the profession, as that of proper ven- 
tilation. Nor can it be denied that no feature is more im- 
portant for health considerations in private homes, office 



452 

buildings and public institutions, than the securing of a 
steady supply of pure air and the coincident and correspond- 
ing removal of the vitiatec 1 air, so that the atmosphere in the 
rooms is, at all times, fresh and pure. The two points cov- 
ered in the last sentence constitute what is known as, and is 
technically termed. ."ventilation." 

The expedients for obtaining a supply of fresh air to the 
room, so that there is a constant dilution and consequent 
bettering of the atmosphere, are comparatively simple. 
They merely imply that the air warmed by the hot-air fur- 
nace or steam coils in the cellar be taken from a place where 
It is pure (not, for instance, above a cesspool), that the ducts 
in cellar, through which the air travels, be air-tight (prefer- 
_ly ;i .Abstracted of No. 22 or No. 24 galvanized iron, 
rather than of wood), and that some automatic means be 
adopted to regulate the temperature of the air supplied to 
the rooms, without shutting off such air supply. Or, when 
steam radiators are in rooms, that they be placed below win- 
dows, and air pass by means of proper orifices from outside 
through the radiators. 

Furthermore, in large structures, a fan driven by electric 
or steam power is often instituted for forcing in a larger 
amount of fresh air than could be secured by the natural 
suction of the warmed air. 

But the mere supply of warmed fresh air to the rooms is 
not enough. For note, if the air in the room has no escape, 
it does not take long, whatever the fresh air supply, before 
tbe vitiated air contaminates and makes foul the air as it 
enters the apartment. To open the windows is the remedy 
which the uninitiated at once suggest, and, in fact, in most 
houses this is the only palliative at hand. 

It is, however, one of the first principles of ventilation, 
that the windows must not enter as an expedient. In a 
properly ventilated building the windows should never be 
open when people are in the rooms, at least in the winter 
months. For, opening the windows secures the admission of 
cold air in bulk, but does not remove the foul air, and more 
especially causes pneumonia-giving draughts, and chills the 
room, and in this way more damage is done than by even the 
presence itself of vitiated air in the rooms. 

A warm or hot room does not necessarily signify an im- 
pure atmosphere; while we may have a room cold and the 
atmosphere still terribly ynpure. The unthinking never 
take this into account, and are apt to confuse the term warm 
with impure, and the term cold with pure atmosphere, as far 
as the rooms they are in are concerned. 



453 

The proper way to remove the vitiated air is by means et 
vent-ducts, or vertical flues leading from the rooms to the 
roof of the building. These flwes should have an aggregate 
cross-sectional area at least equal to, and preferably about 
ten per cent, greater than, the cross-sectional area of the 
fresh air inlets; and should be situated on the opposite 
(preferably diagonally opposite) side of the room. 

These vent -ducts should have openings controlled by 
registers, near the floor and near the ceilings of the rooms, 
but the two registers should not be opened at the same time. 
The cross-sectional area of the registers should be twenty-five 
per cent, more than that of the vent-ducts. 

The bottom register is the one ordinarily to be used; for 
the heavy, vitiated air sinks to the floor, while the fresher, un- 
polluted air rises. When the people in the room are smoking 
profusely, it is better to close the bottom and open the top 
registers of the vent-ducts, for the smoke rises to the top, 
and is then more speedily removed. 

These vent-ducts cause a gentle draught in the same way 
that a chimney of a steam boiler or hot-air furnace does. 
The temperature in the room being higher than that of the 
external air, the temperature in the vent-ducts is also higher, 
and consequently a draught or removal of the vitiated air is 
secured, the amount depending on the area and height of the 
duct, and the difference of temperature between the ex- 
ternal air and the air in the room. This system is known as 
that of natural ventilation. 

To make this removal of vitiated air still more rapid than 
is secured by the natural draught just mentioned and ex- 
plained, one of several expedients may be adopted. An 
exhaust-fan, driven by steam or electric power, may be placed 
near the top of vent-duct, and the air exhausted from duct by 
means of this fan, thus increasing the fresh air supply through 
fresh air inlet. This is frequently adopted in public build- 
ings, where the rooms are, at times, full of people. Or the 
temperature of the air in the vent-ducts, and consequently 
the drabght and the removal of vitiated air, may be in- 
creased by any of the following means: 

1. Gas jets may be burned in the vent-flues near the bot- 
tom. 

2. Steam risers, through which steam of high or low 
pressure circulates, may run through the vent -ducts. 

3. Such steam risers may have a large coil near top or 
right above vent-flues proper. 

For private homes and dwellings; natural ventilation 
suffices. For public buildings and large halls, either the fan 



454 

or the stt?am system should be preferably adopted. The gag 
jets give out a comparatively little additional heat, but are 
mexpensive in first cost, and in running expense. 

In a paper " On the Relative Economy of Ventilation by 
Heated Chimneys and Ventilation by Fans," read by Prof. 
Wm. P. Trowbridge, of the School of Mines, Columbia Col- 
lege, before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
Prof. Trowbridge decides that in all cases of moderate ven- 
tilation of rooms or buildings, where, as a condition of health 
or comfort, the air must be heated before it enters the rooms, 
and spontaneous ventilation is produced by the passage of 
this heated air upward through vertical flues, such ventila- 
tion, if sufficient, is faultless as far as cost is concerned. He 
consideres this a condition of things which may be realized 
in most dwelling houses, and in many halls, school-rooms and 
public buildings, inlet and outlet flues of ample cross-section 
being provided, and the heated air being properly distrib- 
uted. 

If, however, starting from this condition of things, a more 
active ventilation is demanded, the question of relative econ- 
omy of fan and heated chimney is not so simple a problem. 
Prof. Trowbridge points out that ventilation by chimneys is 
disadvantageous under one point of view in any case, viz : the 
difficulty of accelerating the ventilation at will when larger 
quantities of air are needed in emergencies; while the fan 
or blower possesses the advantage in this respect, that by in- 
creasing the number of revolutions of the fan the head or 
pressure is increased. This latter fact makes the fan prefer- 
able for the ventilation of hospitals or public buildings of 
considerable magnitude, whenever, as is customary, the activ- 
ity of the ventilation must be varied occasionally. 

Where the power required is only a small fraction of a 
horse-power, as in ventilating single large rooms or small 
buildings, Prof. Trowbridge concludes it to be evident that as 
regards cost of fuel and the care and attention required, ven- 
tilation by heated chimneys is preferable, except, of course, 
for cases where a fan is driven by machinery employed for 
ther purposes than ventilation, the cost of attendance charge- 
able to ventilation being then trifling and the fan evidently 
being more appropriate. 

The construction of the building, of course, enters as an 
important factor, and often precludes the adoption of the ex- 
haust-fan system. In large structures it is always important 
to take into account, and decide upon, the system of ventila- 
tion before the plans of the building proper are finished or 
finally adopted. 



45i> 
BURYING A SCREW HEAD OUT OF SIGHT. 

To get the heads of nails and screws out of sight, where 
glue can be used without any objection, just raise up a chip 
with a thin paring chisel, as shown in the drawing, and then 
set the nail in solid. This." leaf" can be covered with a coat- 
ing of glue and laid back again in place, where it must fit on 
all sides to perfection. A dead weight will hold everything 
in place till the glue dries, and a few moments with the 
scraper makes the job complete. It will add to the nicety of 
the work to draw lengthwise with the grain two deep cuts 
with a thin case-knife just the width of the chisel, and this 
keeps the sides of the chips from splitting. The chisel should 
be set at a steep angle at first till the proper depth is reached, 
and then made to turn out a cut of 
even thickness until there is room to 
drive a nail. If too sharp a curve is 
given, the leaf is likely to break apart 
in being straightened out again. In 
blind nailing a narrow chip is taken 
' with a tool made especially for this 
purpose, that lifts the cut just high 
enough to let in the nail on the slant, 
a set slightly concaved, being used to 
keep it from ever slipping off the 
head, and the upraised cut driven 
down again with the hammer. 

HIP AND VALLEY ROOF FRAMING. 

A simple way of laying out a hip or valley roof and 
finding the length of jack rafters, cuts and bevels, is shown 
in the accompanying sketch. The method followed is com- 
paratively simple and easily understood. 

Lay down the plan of the building A^ B, C, D, find the 
center line of the ridge E F, and show the plan of hips A F 
and B F, also the jacks G H and IK. 

To find the length of the common or straight side rafters, 
lay off on the ridge line E F the height of the pitch E M. 
From the point A 7 ", which is the outside edge of the wall 
plate, join N M. This will give N M as the extreme 
length, on the upper edge, of the common rafter which is to 
stand over the seat E N. 

, In order to find the length of the hip rafurs whichi will 
stand over the seats C E or B F, draw the line O E 
square with the line E C, and make O =M E the height 
of the pitch. Join the point C with the point O t thus 




456 

obtained, which will give the length to the hip rafter on its 
upper edge. 

The length of the jack rafters is generally obtained by 
direct measurement, but the following method will be found 
correct. Produce the line N E> and make N P equal to 
the length of the common rafter, so that N P=M N^ join 
P C, which, will equal C O; produce the seat of the jack 

JD 




rafters k i and g h, until they intersect P C in / and m 9 
and then / / and g m will be the correct lengths for the 
jack rafters. 

In raising a roof of this description, it is usual to cut the 
ridge E F and the common rafters which abut against it at 
each end as at R F. In placing them in position they are 
fastened plumb over their seats by braces, and the side 
rafters are placed each against its mate, as / against /, 2 
against 2, j against j, and so on. 

When all the side rafters are in position, the hips are 
inserted, and their accompanying jacks. 

PAINTING AND VARNISHING FLOORS. 

A French writer observes that painting floors with any 
color containing white lead is injurious, as it renders the 
Vrood soft and less capable of wear. Other paints without 
white lead, such as ochre, raw umber or sienna, are not in- 
jurious and can be used with advantage. Varnish made of 
drying lead salts is also said to be destructive, and it is 
reccpmmended that the borate of manganese should be used 
to dispose the varnish to dry. A recipe for a good floor var- 



457 

nish is given as follows: Take two pounds of pure whit* 
borate of manganese, finely powdered, and add it little by 
little to a saucepan containing ten pounds of linseed oil, which 
is to be well stirred and raised to a temperature of 360 Fahr, 
Heat 100 pounds of linseed oil in a boiler till ebullition take 
place; then add to it the first liquid, increase the heat and 
allow it to boil for twenty minutes. Then remove from tbft 
fire and filter the solution through cotton cloth. The var- 
nish is then ready for use, two coats^ of which may be used, 
with a final coat of shellac, if a brilliant polish is required. 

A COLOSSAL STICK OF TIMBER. 

A colosal stick of lumber from Puget Sound has been con* 
tributed to the Mechanics Exhibition at San Francisco. Its 
length is 151 feet, and it is twenty by twenty inches through. 
It is believed to be the longest piece of timber ever turned out 
of any saw mill. 

A few years ago mechanics cared very little about winter 
work of any kind. They rather looked forward with pleas* 
ure to the prospects of a long rest. Things have been chang- 
ing recently, and the tendency now is to secure all the winter 
work possible: One reason is, there are more building and 
Joan associations, more insurance societies, more lodges and 
more organizations of one kind and another, all of which 
must be kept up. Besides, there is an increasing amount of 
work that has heretofore been done in summer. The cost of 
labor in a good many vocations is less in winter than it is in 
summer, owing to the small amount to be done and the greater 
number seeking it. 

PLASTER FOR MOLDINGS. 

Where walls and ceilings are to be molded whilst yet in a 
plastic state, some decorators are using a fibrous plaster, with 
(he object of securing greater firmness and tenacity. The 
idea itself is not new, animal hair having formerly been inter- 
mixed with lime, but this is a new application. In England 
and France a fine wire netting is at times inserted between 
two courses of plaster, to afford greater firmness in holding 
picture frames. The tenacity of some of the old moldings 
in old New York houses, whilom aristocratic, is very 
remarkable, retaining as they do their original sharpness of 
outline. 



458 
THE SWEATING OF CHIMNEYS. 

The sweating of chimneys is now believed to be due to 
condensation of the moisture in the air that is confined in a 
poorly ventilated chimney flue. The trouble, as our corre- 
spondent indicates, is chiefly to be found occurring in small 
chimneys, and in such chimneys whose flues start from the 
second or third story of a building. The sweating is the 
most copious when a fire is started in a place that has been 
for some time in disuse, or, in other words, when the flue is 
cold. The humidity of the air is a large factor in the 
phenomena of sweating. If the air be charged with moisture, 
the flue cold, and a fire newly kindled, the conditions are 
favorable for sweating. It is only under these favorable 
conditions that a well- ventilated chimney will begin to sweat, 
but the sweating will not continue. If sweating should 
continue in a chimney after a fire is fairly under way, it can 
be safely concluded that the chimney needs an opening near 
the ground to provide a better circulation of air within the 
flue. It may be, as our correspondent suggests, that rain 
may beat in and cause the same effect as sweating, especially 
where the rain has continued for several days together, and 
in that case a cowl, such as has been lately described in 
"Building, in House and Stable Fittings," would cure the 
disease by excluding the rain; but such occurrences are 
exceedingly rare, and we have seen chimneys guilty of sweat- 
ing that were provided with the most approved form of cowl, 
:.^1 the remedy applied has been to insert an air-brick at the 
nase of the chimney to secure better ventilation, so as to 
lessen condensation, and the device has proved successful. 
Cowls prove useful only so far as they promote ventilation 
by increasing the circulation within the chimney flue. A 
cowl may be so improperly applied to a flue as to promote, 
instead of abolishing:, sweating. The main point is to pro- 
vide an ingress of air sufficient to tax the extractive capacity 
of the cowl that is used. 

ELECTKIC LIGHTS IN GEEMANY. 

According to Dr. Schilling, the number of electric light . 
installations in the 13 principal towns of Germany has in- 
creased during the last two years from 131 to 604; the num- 
ber of arc lamps has increased from 591 to 3,280, and the 
number of incandescents from 10,403 to 50,469. The num- 
ber of gas lamps in these 13 towns is 1,221,882, and there- 
fore, lamp for lamp, electricity furnishes about four per cent 
of the total illumination 



459 

SMOKY CHIMNEYS AND HOW TO CURE THEM. 
A smoky chimney is a complaint we are often called upom 
to deal with, and the best way of building chimneys whick 
should not smoke into the rooms, and of remedying existing 
chimneys which are liable to do so, is a matter of great im- 
portance to estate clerks of works. There are many small 
matters in building new chimneys which, together, may be a 
means of preventing them from smoking at the wrong end ; 
but my intention at present is to deal crJy with the shaft or 
stack, or portion outside the roof, and my object is not to 
give ornamental elevations of chimney heads, which are un- 
necessary for the purpose of this article, but to explain a way 
of forming them which I have many timesfound to give relief 
to inveterate smokers. A common shaft, such a one as 
would be adapted for existing old cottages, is 2^ bricks r 
I ft. 10% in. in width, and in my opinion none should be lesi 
than this, with a 9-inch earthenware flue-pipe built in solid; 
this I usually commence on the damp course, which should 
be just above the flashings of roof. As the area of the round 
pipe is smaller than the 14-inch by g-'mch brick flue 
on which it is placed, a quicker current of air or draught is 
thereby generated, and in windy weather a check is given to 
sudden down-draughts. Another advantage in a flue-lined 
stack is that there is no danger of the brickwork cracking 
when the soot in the flue is on fire, and which, owing to the 
scarcity of chimney-sweeps, is often the case in countryplaces. 
Stoneware drain pipes, however, are quite unfit, as they are 
Kable to split with the heat ; but the tubes made of fire-clay 
or terra-cotta, only should be used. Another help is to keep 
the stack dry ; a damp flue is generally a smoky one, and if a 
fire is lighted in the fire-place, say, of a disused bed-room, it 
is a common occurrence to see the smoke puff down violently 
and the chimney is said to have a down-draught, and by many 
people is assumed to be badly constructed, whereas, perhaps, 
it may be built in the best possible manner except that it will 
not keep out rain and damp. ' The rain may come through the 
sides of the stack, or it may comedownward through the head % , 
at any rate the chimney for some distance from the top is, in 
wet weather, cold and soppy. I roof the chimney top with 
plain tiles, with the object of protecting the head and 
permitting the rain to drop off at the eaves instead 
of running down the stack and making the flue cold, 
and 'the stack outwardly black and soot stained I 
bed the tiles in cement, using copper nails driven into the 
latter through the pin holes or a plain, cemented we 



460 

ing looks fairly well. But by forming the covering with tiles 
a good drip is obtained, which is not so readily done with 
cement. Another point is not to make the slope or 
pitch of a suitable angle, and this, in my opinion, 
should be about 45 degrees, as I find that inclination most 
effectual; when the wind strikes the slope it takes an upward 
direction, and, as a matter of course, carries the smoke with 
it. 

Some time since a gentleman living by the seaside was 
much troubled with smoky chimneys, and asked me what 
was the best thing to do ; I told him near about what I have 
just now written, and a short time afterward I received a letter 
(which I must confess somewhat scared me) saying he had 
decided to pull down his chimneys and rebuild them on my 



principle, and desired me to order for him two truck loads of 
George Jennings' flue pipes at once. This I did, and waited 
anxiously for the result; at last I was gratified by hearing 
" Chimneys are a great success," but it was summer time, 'and 
I was not so sure how they would act in cold, boisterous 
weather by the seaside, where every patented smoke-curer 
had apparently been tried by some one or other ; but eventu- 
ally I was glad to learn that they continued to draw well. 
*fy I have proved this system of chimney stack building to be 
good in a large number of cases ; for instance, my office 
chimney is directly under the branches of a large tree, and 
the fire is on the hearth, yet I am never troubled with smoke. 
For economizing heat in single houses or detached cot- 
tages, we all know it is the best plan to get the chimney on 
the inside, and not forming a portion of the outer walls, as in 
the latter case they are much more likely to smoke, and we 
also know that register grates, or grates with doors a few 
inches above the fire, generally make the fire draw ; they not 
only draw the smoke, but a greater portion of the heat as 
well, and necessitate getting very close to the fire to obtain a 
portion of the heat going up the chimney. To my mind, 
there is nothing to equal a fire on the hearth, and wood, if 
Vou can get it, in preference to coals. 

There is much might be said about set-offs in flues, and I 
know they are objected to as a rule, but I believe a chimney 
with- one or two set-offs is all the better for it. I also 
believe chimney heads built in cement mortar true economy; 
the latter makes good work and looks well, long after chim- 
ney heads built with lime mortar, which soon show startling 
mortar joints and crumbly bricks. How often do we find 
old chimney heads want repointing, for the wcathe r loosens 
the mortar and the birds carry it away. 



461 

The summary of my experience is briefly this: 

1. Put a damn course to new chimneys, or insert one in 
old chimneys. 

2. Line the chimneys with fine pipes above the damp 
course. 

3. Roof the chimney tops 'carefully. 

4. Don't forget a good projecting eaves-drip to the chim- 
ney-head. 

4. Build the heads with cement mortar. 

FACTS ABOUT FURNACES. 

In February, 1881, the committee of hygiene of the Medi- 
cal Society of Kings County rendered a report, which is 
published in full in the proceedings of that society, upon 
catarrh, and whether ^that disease was aggravated by resi- 
dence in cities. The opinions of a large number of phy- 
sicians of long experience were obtained, and their testimony 
showed "that, though climatic and city influences have much 
to do with the creation of catarrh, yet defective heating, 
lighting, airing, sunning and drainage of houses, with im- 
proper views as to air, clothing, bathing and exercise, are 
the main causes," Individual physicians laid special stress 
upon individual influences, as "dry and irritating air from 
villainous furnaces, increased furnace heat and artificial 
methods of living." 

Furnace air per se is not so unwholesome, but it is the 
absence of ventilation which makes it so. If a furnace is of 
sufficient size to warm a building without opening every 
draft and heating the fire-pot red-hot, and if the fresh air 
supply is taken from a proper source and not from a damp 
area or unclean cellar; and, furthermore, if there are suffi- 
cient openings at the top of the house to allow the impure 
air which rises to that point to escape and thus cause a con- 
stant circulation of sufficiently warmed but not overheated 
air through the house, under these conditions a furnace is 
not objectionable. 

Furnaces are often badly located. It is easier to force 
warm air through a furnace flue fifty feet away from the 
prevalent wind than ten feet in the opposite direction. 
Mence the furnace should be placed nearest the northern 
side of the building, or two should be provided. Hot-air 
flues should not be carried for any distance through cold cel- 
lars, halls or basements, as they will become chilled, and 
will not draw without being cased With some non-conducting 
material, as mineral wool. 



462 

Don't set a furnace in^a pit, especially in a wet soil where 
water will collect after every rain storm, but stand it on 
brick arches, so as to raise it above the ground ; also cement 
the pit. It is unfortunately very common to find such 
depressions filled with water ; this causes rusting of the fur- 
nace itself and damp in the cellar. In very many houses 
occupied by persons of means, the furnaces are no longer 
used, but have been replaced by open fires. This is costly 
comfort, but it is a commendable plan, as k furnishes ample 
ventilation to the living rooms. It is desirable that one room 
should at least be thus supplied with a careful and sanitary fire. 

Where fresh-air inlets are carried from the house drain to 
the front of a house at the yard level, they should not be 
located near to the cold-air supply, as there is a chance that 
during heavy states of the atmosphere a down-draft may be 
created, and the foul air sucked into the air box and thence 
upward into the house. Registers should never be placed at 
die floor level, as they will collect dust and sweepings, which 
are liable to take fire. 

Furnaces with heavy eastings heat slowly and are less easily 
cracked or warped, and they cool more slowly, so that the 
heat evolved is more uniform. It is well to retain the air 
close to the fire-pot, and thus keep it longer in contact with 
the fire-heating surface. 

Water pans are often badly arranged so that they admit 
dust, and as they are seldom cleaned that may become offen- 
sive. They should always be supplied by a ball-cock so as to 
be automatic, rather than by a stop-cock which has to be 
opened by a servant, who may be neglectful. 

Attempts have been made to filter the air before entering 
the furnace, but they usually fail. A screen of galvanized iron 
wire of 1-16 mesh will exclude most floating material from 
the air. The air supply is sometimes taken from the attic, 
but it is apt to be dusty and impure. Others take it from 
vestibules of halls or piazzas, which are not bad places. 

STEAM vs. HOT-WATER HEATING. 

Hot water as a heating agent is one of the oldest in use, 
*nd has a number of advantages in its favor. For mild 
climates it answers very well. For northern latitudes, how- 
ever, and in countries such as Canada and most of our north- 
ern States, having long, severe winters, hot-water heating is 
not in general use on account of the following objections: 



High First Cost Hot water, as generally used, only- 
gives off two-thirds the amount if IK at per square foot of 
radiating surface which steam will give under similar cir- 
cumstances. To get the same results as from steam it 
therefore requires about fifu per cent more of radiators, 
and a corresponding increase of piping 

Added to the expense of this extra material is that of 
labor, which increases in the same proportion, thus 
making the entire first cost of hot water about one- 
third higher than steam 

Leakage As all the pipes are continually full of water, 
any leakage will rapidly flood the house, causing trouble 
and damage. With steam , the flow-pipes contain no water 
whatever, and the return drip-pipes but very little, so 
that in event of a leakage the w-ate would be discovered 
and stopped long before it could do any damage. 

No Way to Shut Off We have never yet seen a hot 
water radiator which can be turned off and yet allow the 
water within it to flow back to the boiler, the construc- 
tion of the radiator being such that all the water must 
circulate up and down between divisions connected 
alternately at the top arid bottom. 

When the radiator is turned off, these divisions still re- 
main full of water which has no chance to run off. It is 
therefore necessary to keep all the radiators in the house 
running all the time, or else take the chan?es of their 
freezing and giving trouble if they are shut off. Now 
there are certain rooms in almost every house, such as 
guest-rooms, which are only occupied occasionally, and 
it would be a useless expense and inconvenience to keep 
them constantly warmed. The advantage of steam over 
hot water in this respect is evident. With steam you can 
shut off any radiator you please, and keep every room in 
your house at the exact temperature disired, without in- 
convenience or waste of heat. 

Freezing and Bursting It is a curious fact that hot 
water will cool down and freeze much quicker than ordin- 
ary water under the same circumstances. The first effect 
in boiling water is to drive off all its air, hence, becoming 
more solid and condensed, it is very susceptible to cold 
and will freeze very easily. If the fire in the boiler from 
any reason goes out, the water of course soon stops circu- 
lating, and in cold weather the pipes will rapidly freeze 
and burst. Many instances are on record where immense 
damage has been done from this cause. The use of steam, 
on the other hand, entirely precludes this cause. 



464 

Difficulty of Regulation,. In zero weather it is difficult to 
keep warm by hot water, unless there is a great amount of 
heating surface, and then in mild weather you aiv liable at 
any time to have too much heat. This is especially notice- 
able in any sudden change of temperature. 

Hot water, being slow in acquiring heat and slow in part- 
ing with it, is consequently difficult to regulate with any 
degree of satisfaction. 

This feature is seen in greenhouse heating particularly. 
When the sun is shining, on account of the great amount of 
natural heating glass surface, the temperature soon runs up 
above the normal, causing a necessity for opening the ven- 
tilators and so wasting the heat. And should the tempera- 
ture once get down, it takes a long time to get it up again. 

The advantage of steam in this case is apparent, as it is 
capable of being handled nnd regulated rapidly, and there- 
fore is superior to any other method wherever an even and 
uniform temperature is desired either for a greenhouse or a 
dwelling. 

Comparative Economy. Careful experiments have recently 
been made by parties owning many greenhouses some of 
which are warmed by steam and others by the most approved 
of hot-water heaters for the purpose of accurately deter- 
mining the relative cost of fuel in each case. They had 
nothing to gain by such experiments except the truth, as, 
with all florists, coal is a very heavy item and one of the 
principal expenses attending the running of a greenhouse. 

Without entering into details, it has been demonstrated 
that greenhouses may be heated by steam on two-thirds the 
quantity of coal required for a hot-water apparatus. This 
fact has become so well established, that to-day steam is 
very rapidly taking the place of every other method for 
warming greenhouses. 

The objections to hot water for this class of buildings is, , 
moreover, much less than for residences, on nearly all the 
preceding five points. For instance, a leakage of a pipe can 
do no harm, as in a house, and there is, of course, no occa- 
sion to shut off any portion of the system, as is sometimes 
desired in a house. \- 

^Although the expense of a change from hot water to steam 
is heavy, yet the advantages secured are so great and ap- 
parent th?-t it will not be long before hot water as a heating 
agent will be practically abandoned in every kind of building. 



INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ISINGLASS. 

Isinglass consists of the dried swimming bladder of fishes. 
The bladders vary in shape, according to their origin, and 
they are prepared for the market in various ways. Some 
are simply dried while slightly distended, forming pipe 
isinglass. When there are natural openings in these tubes 
they are called pursers. When the swimming bladders are 
slit open, flattened, and dried, they are known as leaf isin- 
glass. Other things being equal, the value of a sample is 
determined by the amount of impurities present. These im- 
purities are ordinary dirt, mucus naturally present inside the 
bladder technically called grease, and blood stains. If the 
bladderSp were hung up to dry with the orifice downward, the 
mucus could be drained off; but usually the fishermen fear 
the reduction in weight, and take care to retain all they can. 
It is necessary to insist on having the bladders slit up and 
rinsed clean as soon as they are removed from the fish. This 
would so much increase the value of the product that the 
extra labor would be very profitable. Blood stains cannot 
be removed without injuring the quality. If any process 
could be devised effectual for this purpose, a valuable dis- 
covery would be made. 

The uses of isinglass are not very varied. The largest 
quantity is used by brewers and wine merchants for clarifying. 
This property is extraordinary, for gelatin, which seems chem- 
ically the same thing as isinglass, does not possess it. 

For clarifying purposes the isinglass is " cut " or dissolved 
in acid, sulphurous acid being used by brewers, as it tends to 
preserve the beer. When reduced to the right consistence, a 
little is placed in each cask before sending it out for consump- 
tion. *$ 

There seems to be only six isinglass cutters in England, 
all being in London. The sorted isinglass is very hard and 
difficult to manipulate. It is soaked till it becomes a little 
pliable, and is then trimmed. Sometimes it is just pressed by 
hand on a board Math a rounded surface ; at others it is run once 
between strong rollers to flatten it a little. The next process 
is that of rolling. Very hard steel rollers, powerful and 
accurately adjusted, are usedf They are capable of exerting 
a pressure of 100 tons. Two areemployed, the first to bring the 
isinglass to a uniform thickness, and the smaller ones, kept cool 
by a current of water running through them to reduce it to 



466 

little more than the thickness of writing paper. From the finer 
rollers it comes in a beautifully transparent ribbon, many 
yards to the pound, " shot " like watered silk in parallel lines 
about an inch broad. It is now hung up to dry in a separate 
room, the drying being an operation of considerable nicety. 
When sufficiently. dried, it is stored till wanted for cutting, or 
it is sold as ribbon isinglass to all who prefer this form. 

MODERN USES OF TIN. 

The uses of tin have greatly increased during the last few 
centuries of our era. Salmon, in his splendid work on casting 
tin (1788), describes the methods of work, and mentions the 
objects manufactured from this metal. We see from the 
plates of his atlas that table services (spoons and forks) 
pitchers, jugs, candelabra, lamps, surgical instruments, chem- 
ical apparatus, boilers for dyeing scarlet, etc., were being put 
upon the market in the most varied forms of that epoch. 

Griffith, between 1840 and 1850, perfected the manufacture 
of tin utensils in a single piece. This industry became espe- 
cially developed in France from 1850 to 1860. 

In 1860 America began manufacturing impermeable boxes, 
without soldering, from single pieces of metal. &> 

% To-day tin is being used in the manufacture of bronzes for 
guns, money and medals, and in the alloys used for making 
measures of capacity for liquids. Its unalterability in the air, 
and the harmlessness of its salts when they exist in small 
quantity, cause it to be employed in our day in the manufac- 
ture of culinary vessels and utensils. Advantage is taken of 
its malleability to form from it those tbm sheets that are 
used as wrappers for chocolate, tea, etc. 

In the various bronzes that it forms with copper, we have 
evidence of the influence that relative proportions of the two 
metals have upon the properties of the alloy. Thus gun bronze, 
which contains ten parts of tin to ninety of copper, is remark- 
able for tenacity. The bronze of tom-toms and bells, which 
differs from the last named only in its larger proportion of 
tin (twenty to eighty of copper) is, on the contrary, very brit- 
tle, although it fortunately possesses greater sonorousness 
than gun metal does. On still further increasing the propor- 
tion of tin to thirty-throe parts per sixty-seven of copper, we 
obtain a white alloy capable of taking a polish that causes it 
to be used for the manufacture of telescope mirrors. Upon 
uniting with tin, copper loses its ductility. The alloys of 
these two metals increase in density through being hardened, 
as th^y do also by being hammered. 



467 

A mixture of twenty parts of tin with eighty of copper 
gives an alloy which is brittle at a bright red heat and when 
cold, but wnich is malleable at a dark red heat. 

When alloyed with lead, the tin forms plumbers' solder. 
Associated with mercury, it gives the silvering of looking- 
glasses. Besides this, it enters into a host of fusible alloys or 
compositions, known under the general name of white metal. 
One of these alloys, composed of tin, antimony and copper, 
is very much used as a bushing for engine bearings. For this 
purpose the following are very good proportions: Tin, 100; 
antimony, 10 ; copper, 10. It is also alloyed with antimony 
alone, or with bismuth. It serves for tinning copper and iron 
kitchen utensils. To this effect the wrought-iron utensils 
are cleaned with sand and then wiped, and afterward im- 
mersed in a bath of molten tin, and finally rubbed with tow 
saturated with sal-ammoniac. Food cooked in tin vessels has 
a slight fishy taste, because it dissolves a little of the tin, just 
as food prepared in iron contracts a slight taste of ink. 

Tin is used in enormous quantities also in the manufacture 
of tinplate. In order to prepare this, the sheet iron designed 
for the manufacture of it is cleansed by plunging into diluted 
mlphuric acid, which dissolves the pellicles of oxide. Then 
it is rubbed with sand and immersed in melted tallow, and 
afterward in a bath of tin covered with tallow. When taken 
out it is tinned, there having formed upon the surface of the 
sheet iron a true alloy of iron and tin covered with pure tin. 
Tin plate is as unalterable a*s tin itself, because the iron does 
not come into contact with the air at any point; but if, upon 
cutting it, we expose the iron, oxidation proceeds more rapidly 
than it would if the iron had not been tinned. 

Upon washing the surface of the tinplate with a mixture 
of hydrochloric and nitric acids, we remove the superficial 
layer,"and render visible the crystallized surface of the tin and 
iron alloy. We thus obtain what is called moire metallic or 
crystallized tinplate. 

It now remains for us to say a few words about the new 
and important use of tin for the preparation of phosphor 
bronze. 

In the melting of bronze the absorption of oxygen is 
very detrimental, the formation of an oxide of tin rendering 
the metal brittle. In former times an endeavor was made to 
prevent this oxidation by stirring the mass with wood, or by 
adding a little zinc to it ; but for the last fifteen years 
greater success has been obtained by the addition of a little 
phosphorus This substance extraordinarily increases the 
compactness, toughness and elasticity of the product, and 



4 68 

gives it, in addition, a beautiful golden color. Guns, 
statues, ornaments and bearings are now cast from phosphor 
bronze with the greatest success. 

Kunzel, of Dresden, has taken out a patent for an alloy 
composed one-half to three parts, by weight, of phosphorus, 
from four to fifteen of lead, from four to fifteen of tin, and 
for the rest, copper up to 100. 

Schiller & Sewald, of Graupen, prepare two kinds of 
phosphor brojze; one with 2>^ and the other 5 per cent, of 
phospnorus. The demand for this article is daily becoming 
more extensive. 

The most important uses of tin are, in Asia, for tinning 
copper, and in Europe and America, for the manufacture of 
objects from tinplate. The manufacture of bronze and 
white metal likewise consumes a large quantity. 

USES OF MICA. 

The peculiar physical characteristics of mica, its resistance 
to heat, transparency, capacity of flexure and high electric 
resistance, adapt it to applications for which there does not 
appear tc be any perfect substitute. Its use in windows, 
in tKe peep-holes on the furnaces used in metallurgical pro- 
cesses, as well as the ordinary use in stoves for domestic pur- 
poses, are examples of its adaptability to specific purposes 
which it does not seem to share with any other material. Its 
fitness for use in physical apparatus is represented by its 
application for the vanes on the Coulomb meter, recently in- 
vented by Prof. George Forbes, F. R. S. For electrical 
purposes mica has proved useful, acting as an insulator be- 
tween the segments of commutators of dynamos and safety 
fuses in lighting circuits, also as the base part of switches 
handling heavy currents, to obviate the dangers of ignition 
by the arc formed when the switch is changed. For this 
latter purpose it shares the field with sheets of slate. Both 
of these uses were first suggested a number of years ago by an 
insurance expert in America in the course of regulations gov- 
erning the safe installation of electric-light plants. As a 
lubricator, mica answers a veiy peculiar purpose for classes 
of heavy bearing, where the powdered mica serves a useful 
office in keeping the surface separate, thereby permitting the 
free ingress of oil. It is used in roof-covering mixtures in a 
powdered condition in combination with coal tar, ground 
steatite and other materials, its foliated structure tending to 
bond the material together. Not affected by ordinary chem- 
icals which are corrosive to many other substances, it has 



469 

been applied in the valves to sensitive automatic sprinklers, 
where a sheet of mica placed over a leather disk has proved 
to be non-corrosive, and without possibility of adhering to 
the seat, while the leather packing rendered the whole suffi- 
ciently elastic to provide a tight joint. 

IMPROVED PROCESS OF TINNING. 

An improved process of coating metals with tin, by Borthel 
and Holler, of Hamburg, is said (by a metropolitan contem- 
porary) to possess the advantage of preventing, or at least 
delaying, oxidation. The process can be employed with 
special advantage for tinning cast-iron cooking utensils, 
household and other implements of cast iron, as the employ- 
ment of poisonous enamel is avoided and a much higher 
degree of polish attained. The process can also be employed 
for protecting architectural or other iron decorations from 
rusting by the coating of tin or other metal, without detri- 
ment to the sharpness of the form, as is the case with the 
customary oil or bronze paints. In order to produce a per- 
fectly even coating of tin on cast iron, the same is first provided 
with a thin coating of chemically pure iron, regardless of the 
form of casting. This coating is produced in galvanic man- 
ner in a bath composed as follows : Six hundred grammes 
of sulphate of iron, FeSO4, are dissolved in five liters of water, 
to which add a solution of about 2,400 grammes of carbonate 
of soda, Na2CO3, in five liters of water. The precipitate of 
ferro-carbonate (FeCo3) resulting is dissolved in small quan- 
tities in so much concentrated sulphuric acid until the fluid 
has a green color. The bath is then rendered aqueous by 
adding about twenty liters of water. Blue litmus paper 
dipped in the bath must assume a deep claret color, and red 
litmus paper remains unchanged. 

> The objects to be provided with a coating of chemically 
pure iron are placed in the bath opposite to the abode of cast 
or wrought iron or iron ore, and both parts connected to the 
Corresponding poles of a dynamo machine, electric battery, or 
other appropriate source of electricity. In a very short time 
the objects placed in the bath are covered with a coating of 
iron, the thickness of which depended on the duration of the 
action of the bath or the strength of electric mrrent. $ The 
Coated objects are then well rinsed in clear wat /r, dried, then 
painted with, or immersed in, a solution c-f ammonia in 
chloride of zinc alone, and then immersed v* a vessel contain- 
ing molten tin The tin adheres with g>Vat tenacity to the 
prepared surface, and the surplus of tin '/an be readily removed 



470 

by a brush, or any other manner. If the object to be tinned 
is of such size, or so complicated in form, that it cannot be 
readily immersed in molten tin, it can be placed in a galvanic 
tin bath, which can be readily made in any desired size, and 
be provided with a layer of tin of desired thickness, which, 
after having been painted either with a solution of chloride of 
zinc or ammonia in chloride of zinc, can be heated to such a 
degree that the tin is equally melted on the object. 

In like manner objects cast or made of lead or other 
readily melting metal, which would lose their form by m